Integrated Pest Management Reviews

, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 77–85 | Cite as

A fresh view on the control of the annual plant Senecio vulgaris



The life historyof the annual weed Senecio vulgaris is described, as are theeffects of pathogens and insects on the plant. Using this basicknowledge, the use of the rust fungus Puccinia lagenophorae andthe moth Tyria jacobaeae for control of S. vulgaris following thesystem management approach is discussed. The successfulapplication of the system management approach of biological weedcontrol requires a thorough knowledge of the interactions ofplant--natural enemies--environment--man. The available knowledgeabout this kind of interaction is discussed with respect to thebiological control of S. vulgaris

Biological weedcontrol system management approach Senecio vulgaris lifehistory Puccinia lagenophorae Tyria jacobaeae 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aarssen, L.W. and Burton,.M. (1990) Maternal effects at four levels in Senecio vulgaris(Asteraceae) grown on a soil nutrient gradient. American Journal of Botany 77,1231–40.Google Scholar
  2. Ben-Kalio, V.D. and Clarke, D.D. (1979) Studies on tolerance in wild plants: effects of Erysiphe fischerion the growth and development of Senecio vulgaris. Physiological Plant Pathology 14,203–11.Google Scholar
  3. Bergelson, J., Newman, J.A. and Floresroux, E.M. (1993) Rates of weed spread in spatially heterogeneous environments. Ecology 74,999–1011.Google Scholar
  4. Bevan, J.R., Crute, I.R. and Clarke, D.D. (1993) Diversity and variation in expression of resistance to Erysiphe fischeriin Senecio vulgaris. Plant Pathology 42,647–53.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, R.E. (1990) Biological control of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) in Western Oregon, U.S.A., 1975–87. In E.S. Delfosse (ed.) Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, pp. 299–305. Rome: Instituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Ministero dell’ Agricoltura e delle Foreste (MAF).Google Scholar
  6. Cameron, E. (1935) A study of the natural control of ragwort (Senecio jacobaeaL.). Journal of Ecology 23,265–322.Google Scholar
  7. Charudattan, R. (1986) Integrated control of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) with a pathogen, insects, and herbicides. Weed Science 34,(Suppl. 1), 26–30.Google Scholar
  8. Crawley, M.J. and Gillman, M.P. (1989) Population dynamics of cinnabar moth and ragwort in grassland. Journal of Animal Ecology 58,1035–50.Google Scholar
  9. Dempster, J.P. (1971) The population ecology of the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeaeL. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Oecologia 7,26–67.Google Scholar
  10. Dempster, J.P. (1982) The ecology of the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeaeL. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Advances in Ecological Research 12,1–36.Google Scholar
  11. Field, R.P. (1990) Progress towards biological control of ragwort in Australia. In E.S. Delfosse (ed.) Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, pp. 315–22. Rome: Instituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Ministero dell’ Agricultura e delle Foreste (MAF).Google Scholar
  12. Gaümann, E. (1959) Beiträge zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz. XII. Die Rostpilze Mitteleuropas. Büchler, Bern.Google Scholar
  13. Gill, N.T. (1938) The viability of weed seeds at various stages of maturity. Annals of Applied Biology 25,447–56.Google Scholar
  14. Hallett, S.G. and Ayres, P.G. (1992) Invasion of rust (Puccinia lagenophorae) aecia on groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) by secondary pathogens: death of the host. Mycological Research 96,142–4.Google Scholar
  15. Hallett, S.G., Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1990) Botrytis cinereakills groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) infected by rust (Puccinia lagenophorae). New Phytologist 114,105–9.Google Scholar
  16. Harman, H.M., Dymock, J.J. and Syrett, P. (1990) Temperature and development of cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae(Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), in New Zealand. In E.S. Delfosse (ed.) Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. pp. 339–46. Rome: Instituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Ministero dell’ Agricoltura e delle Foreste (MAF).Google Scholar
  17. Harper, J.L. and Ogden, J. (1970) The reproductive strategy of higher plants. I. The concept of strategy with special reference to Senecio vulgarisL. Journal of Ecology 58,681–98.Google Scholar
  18. Harris, S.A. and Ingram, R. (1992) Molecular systematics of the genus SenecioL. II: The origin of S. vulgarisL. Heredity 69, 112–21.Google Scholar
  19. Harrison, S., Thomas, C.D. and Lewinsohn, T.M. (1995) Testing a metapopulation model of coexistence in the insect community on ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). American Naturalist 145,546–62.Google Scholar
  20. Hatcher, P.E. (1995) Three-way interactions between plant pathogenic fungi, herbivorous insects and their host plants. Biological Reviews 70,639–94.Google Scholar
  21. Hatcher, P.E. (1996) The effect of insect–fungus interactions on the autumn growth and over-wintering of Rumex crispusand R. obtusifoliusseedlings. Journal of Ecology 84,101–9.Google Scholar
  22. Hatcher, P.E. and Ayres, P.G. (1997) Indirect interactions between insect herbivores and pathogenic fungi on leaves. In A.C. Gange and V.K. Brown (eds) Multitrophic Interactions in Terrestrial Systems, pp. 133–49. Oxford: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  23. Hatcher, P.E., Paul, N.D., Ayres, P.G. and Whittaker, J.B. (1994a) The effect of a foliar disease (rust) on the development of Gastrophysa viridula(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Ecology and Entomology 19,349–60.Google Scholar
  24. Hatcher, P.E., Paul, N.D., Ayres, P.G. and Whittaker, J.B. (1994b) The effect of an insect herbivore and a rust fungus individually, and combined in sequence, on the growth of two Rumex species. New Phytologist 128,71–8.Google Scholar
  25. Hatcher, P.E., Ayres, P.G. and Paul, N.D. (1995) The effect of natural and simulated insect herbivory, and leaf age, on the process of infection of Rumex crispusL. and R. obtusifoliusL. by Uromyces rumicis(Schum.) Wint. New Phytologist 130,239–49.Google Scholar
  26. Heath, J. and Emmet, A.M. (eds) (1979) The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 9: Sphingidae-Noctuidae, Noctuinae and Hadeninae. London: Curwen Books.Google Scholar
  27. Hilton, J.R. (1983) The influence of light on the germination of Senecio vulgarisL. New Phytologist 94,29–37.Google Scholar
  28. James, R.R., McEvoy, P.B. and Cox, C.S. (1992) Combining the cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) and the ragwort flea beetle (Longitarsus jacobaeae) for control of ragwort (Senecio jacobaea): an experimental analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 29,589–96.Google Scholar
  29. Koch, K. (1992) Die Käfer Mitteleuropas, ÖkologieVol. 3. Krefeld: Goecke & Evers.Google Scholar
  30. McEvoy, P.B., Cox, C.S., James, R.R. and Rudd, N.T. (1990) Ecological mechanisms underlying successful biological weed control: field experiments with ragwort Senecio jacobaea. In E.S. Delfosse (ed.) Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, pp. 55–66. Rome: Instituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, Ministero dell’ Agricoltura e delle Foreste (MAF).Google Scholar
  31. McEvoy, P.B., Cox, C. and Coombs, E. (1991) Successful biological control of ragwort, Senecio jacobaea, by introduced insects in Oregon. Ecological Applications 1,430–42.Google Scholar
  32. McEvoy, P.B., Rudd, N.T., Cox, C.S. and Huso, M. (1993) Disturbance, competition, and herbivory effects on ragwort Senecio jacobaeapopulations. Ecological Monographs 63, 55–75.Google Scholar
  33. Matta, A. and Kerling, L.C.P. (1964) Verticillium albo-atrumas a parasite of Senecio vulgaris. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 70,27–32.Google Scholar
  34. Müller-Schärer, H. and Frantzen, J. (1996) An emerging system management approach for biological weed control in crops: Senecio vulgarisas a research model. Weed Research 36,483–91.Google Scholar
  35. Müller-Schärer, H. and Scheepens, P.C. (1997) Biological control of weeds in crops: a coordinated European research programme (COST-816). Integrated Pest Management Reviews 2.Google Scholar
  36. Müller-Schärer, H. and Wyss, G.S. (1994) Das Gemeine Kreuzkraut (Senecio vulgarisL.): Problemunkraut und Möglichkeiten der biologischen Bekämpfung. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 14,201–9.Google Scholar
  37. Myers, J.H. and Campbell, B.J. (1976) Indirect measures of larval dispersal in the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae(Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Canadian Entomologist 108,967–72.Google Scholar
  38. Newton, H.C.F. (1933) On the biology of some species of Longitarsus(Col., Chrysomelidae) living on ragwort. Bulletin of Entomological Research 24,511–20.Google Scholar
  39. Obeso, J.R. and Grubb, P.J. (1994) Interactive effects of extent and timing of defoliation, and nutrient supply on reproduction in a chemically protected annual Senecio vulgaris. Oikos 71,506–14.Google Scholar
  40. Paul, N.D. (1989) The effects of Puccinia lagenophoraeon Senecio vulgarisin competition with Euphorbia peplus. Journal of Ecology 77,552–64.Google Scholar
  41. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1984) Effects of rust and post-infection drought on photosynthesis, growth and water relations in groundsel. Plant Pathology 33,561–9.Google Scholar
  42. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1986a) The impact of a pathogen (Puccinia lagenophorae) on populations of groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) overwintering in the field. II. Reproduction. Journal of Ecology 74,1085–94.Google Scholar
  43. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1986b) The effects of infection by rust (Puccinia lagenophoraeCooke) on the growth of groundsel (Senecio vulgarisL.) cultivated under a range of nutrient concentrations. Annals of Botany 58,321–31.Google Scholar
  44. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1986c) Interference between healthy and rusted groundsel (Senecio vulgarisL.) within mixed populations of different densities and proportions. New Phytologist 104, 257–69.Google Scholar
  45. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1986d) The impact of a pathogen (Puccinia lagenophorae) on populations of groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) overwintering in the field. I. Mortality, vegetative growth and the development of size hierarchies. Journal of Ecology 74,1069–84.Google Scholar
  46. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1986e) Seasonal effects on rust disease (Puccinia lagenophorae) of Senecio vulgaris. Symbiosis 2, 165–74.Google Scholar
  47. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1987a) Effects of rust infection of Senecio vulgarison competition with lettuce. Weed Research 27,431–41.Google Scholar
  48. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1987b) Water stress modifies intraspecific interference between rust (Puccinia lagenophorae Cooke)-infected and healthy groundsel (Senecio vulgarisL.). New Phytologist 106,555–66.Google Scholar
  49. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1987c) Survival, growth and reproduction of groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) infected by rust (Puccinia lagenophorae) in the field during summer. Journal of Ecology 75,61–71.Google Scholar
  50. Paul, N.D. and Ayres, P.G. (1990) Effects of interactions between nutrient supply and rust infection of Senecio vulgarisL. on competition with Capsella bursa-pastoris(L.) Medic. New Phytologist 114,667–74.Google Scholar
  51. Paul, N.D., Aruna Laxmi, K. and Ayres, P.G. (1990) Responses of rust (Puccinia lagenophoraeCooke) to nutrient supply in groundsel (Senecio vulgarisL.) and effects of infection on host nutrient relations. New Phytologist 115,99–106.Google Scholar
  52. Popay, A.I. and Roberts, E.H. (1970a) Ecology of Capsella bursapastoris (L.) Medik. and Senecio vulgarisL. in relation to germination behaviour. Journal of Ecology 58,123–39.Google Scholar
  53. Popay, A.I. and Roberts, E.H. (1970b) Factors involved in the dormancy and germination of Capsella bursa-pastoris(L.) Medik. and Senecio vulgarisL. Journal of Ecology 58, 103–22.Google Scholar
  54. Qasem, J.R. and Hill, T.A. (1994) Inter-and intraspecific competition of fat-hen (Chenopodium albumL.) and groundsel (Senecio vulgarisL.). Weed Research 34,109–18.Google Scholar
  55. Ren, Z. and Abbott, R.J. (1991) Seed dormancy in Mediterranean Senecio vulgarisL. New Phytologist 117,673–8.Google Scholar
  56. Roberts, H.A. (1964) Emergence and longevity in cultivated soil of seeds of some annual weeds. Weed Research 4,296–307.Google Scholar
  57. Roberts, H.A. and Feast, P.M. (1972) Fate of seeds of some annual weeds in different depths of cultivated and undisturbed soil. Weed Research 12,316–24.Google Scholar
  58. Rudd, N.T. and McEvoy, P.B. (1996) Local dispersal by the cinnabar moth Tyria jacobaeae. Ecological Applications 6,285–97.Google Scholar
  59. Ryan, G.F. (1970) Resistance of common groundsel to simazine and atrazine. Weed Science 18,614–16.Google Scholar
  60. Schroeder, D., Mueller-Schärer, H. and Stinson, C.S.A. (1993) A European weed survey in 10 major crop systems to identify targets for biological control. Weed Research 33,449–58.Google Scholar
  61. Sheldon, J.C. and Burrows, F.M. (1973) The dispersal effectiveness of the achene pappus units of selected Compositae in steady winds with convection. New Phytologist 72,665–75.Google Scholar
  62. Syrett, P. (1983) Biological control of ragwort in New Zealand: a review. Australian Weeds 2,96–101.Google Scholar
  63. Trow, A.H. (1912) On the inheritance of certain characters in the common groundsel–Senecio vulgaris, Linn.–and its segregates. Journal of Genetics 2,239–76.Google Scholar
  64. van der Meijden, E. (1979) Herbivore exploitation of a fugative plant species: local survival and extinction of the cinnabar moth and ragwort in a heterogeneous environment. Oecologia 42, 307–23.Google Scholar
  65. van der Meijden, E., van Wijk, C.A.M. and Kooi, R.E. (1991) Population dynamics of the cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae): oscillations due to food limitation and local extinction risks. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 41,158–73.Google Scholar
  66. van Zoelen, A.M. and Kusters, G.J. (1986) Termination of diapause in the cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) by chilling. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 41,185–92.Google Scholar
  67. Viennot-Bourgin, G. (1964) La rouille australienne du Séneçon. Revuede Mycologie 29,241–58.Google Scholar
  68. Wilson, I.M., Walshaw, D.F. and Walker, J. (1965) The new groundsel rust in Britain and its relationship to certain Australasian rusts. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 48,501–11.Google Scholar
  69. Wilson, M. and Henderson, D.M. (1966) British Rust Fungi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Windig, J.J. (1991) Life cycle and abundance of Longitarsus jacobaeae(Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), bio control agent of Senecio jacobaea. Entomophaga 36,605–18.Google Scholar
  71. Windig, J.J. (1993) Intensity of Longitarsus jacobaeaeherbivory and mortality of Senecio jacobaea. Journal of Applied Ecology 30, 179–86.Google Scholar
  72. Zadoks, J.C. and Schein, R.D. (1979) Epidemiology and Plant Disease Management. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute de Biologie VegetaleUniversite de FribourgFribourgSwitzerland
  2. 2.Division of Biological Sciences, IEBSLancaster UniversityLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations