Chromosome Research

, Volume 5, Issue 7, pp 451–456 | Cite as

Karyotype analysis of Helianthus annuus using Giemsa banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization

  • Otto Schrader
  • Richard Ahne
  • Jorg Fuchs
  • Ingo Schubert
Article

Abstract

The karyotype of H. annuus was analysed by computer-aided image processing with respect to the chromosome length, arm ratio, occurrence and chromosomal position of intercalary heterochromatin and the location of 18S/25S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes. The karyotype was subdivided into a group of four acrocentric chromosome pairs, of which two were distinguishable by HKG (HCl, KOH, Giemsa) banding and a group of 13 meta- to submetacentric pairs. The latter could be subdivided into seven pairs with one and six pairs with two HKG bands. Three pairs of submetacentric satellite chromosomes revealed 18S/25S rDNA loci after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and silver staining . A fourth, smaller and possibly inactive, locus occurred in the terminal position on a metacentric pair. One submetacentric satellite chromosome pair revealed a 5S rRNA gene locus in the pericentromeric position; a second locus marked a submetacentric pair with one HKG band. The C-banding technique marks exclusively centromeric heterochromatin. Measurements of chromosomes in combination with Giemsa banding and FISH enabled the discrimination of most chromosome pairs of the sunflower.

computer-aided karyotyping FISH Giemsa banding Helianthus nucleolar organizing region rDNA 5S rRNA genes silver staining 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahne R, Huhn P, Laumer N, Zerneke F (1989) Interaktive rechnergestü tzte Chromosomen-analyse. Ein Grundsoftware-paket. Arch Züchtungsforsch 19: 133–140.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Allaf S, Godward MBE (1979) Karyotype analysis of four varieties of Helianthus annuus L. Cytologia 44: 319–323.Google Scholar
  3. Berry ST, Leon AJ, Hanfrey CC et al. (1995) Molecular marker analysis of Helianthus annuus L. 2. Construction of an RFLP linkage map for cultivated sunflower. Theor Appl Genet 91: 195–199Google Scholar
  4. Bohorova N, Georgieva-Todorova Y (1987) Hybridization between Helianthus annuus L. (2n = 34) and H. Hirsutus raf. (2n = 68). Genet Breeding 20: 205–210.Google Scholar
  5. Chandler JM (1991) Chromosome evolution in sunflower. In: Gupta PK, Tsuchiya T, eds. Chromosome Engineering in Plants: Genetics, Breeding, Evolution. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 229–249.Google Scholar
  6. Cuellar T, Belhassen E, Fernandez-Calvin B, Orellana J, Bella JL (1996) Chromosomal differentiation in Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus: heterochromatin characterization and rDNA location. Heredity 76: 586–591.Google Scholar
  7. Decarvalho CR, Saraiva LS (1993) A new heterochromatin banding pattern revealed by modified HKG-banding technique in maize chromosomes. Heredity 70: 515–519.Google Scholar
  8. Fuchs J, Schubert I (1995) Localization of seed protein genes on metaphase chromosomes of Vicia faba via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chrom Res 3: 94–100.Google Scholar
  9. Fukui K, Kakeda K (1994) A critical assessment of karyotype analysis by imaging methods. Jpn J Genet 69: 537–544.Google Scholar
  10. Gentzbittel L, Vear F, Zhang Y-X, Berville A (1995) Development of a consensus linkage RFLP map of cultivated sun-flower (Helianthus annuus L.). Theor Appl Genet 90: 1079–1086.Google Scholar
  11. Gill BS, Friebe B, Endo TR (1991) Standard karyotype and nomenclature system for description of chromosome bands and structural aberrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Genome 34: 830–8394.Google Scholar
  12. Gottlob-McHugh SG, Levesque M, MacKenzie K, Olson M, Yarosh O, Johnson DA (1990) Organization of the 5S rRNA genes in the soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill and conservation of the 5S rDNA repeat structure in higher plants. Genome 33: 486–494.Google Scholar
  13. Heiser CB, Smith DM (1955) New chromosome numbers in Helianthus and related genera. Proc Indiana Acad Sci 64: 250–253Google Scholar
  14. Houben A, Schlegel R, Ahne R, Huhn P (1990) C-banding und computergesttzte Chromosomenanalyse bei Weizen (Triticum aestivum L. cv. `Chinese spring'). Arch Zchtungsforsch 20: 133–142Google Scholar
  15. Kakeda K, Fukui K (1994) Dynamic changes in the morphology of barley chromosomes during the mitotic metaphase stage. Jpn J Genet 69: 545–554.Google Scholar
  16. Kakeda K, Fukui K, Yamagata H (1991) Heterochromatic differentiation in barley chromosomes revealed by C-and N-banding. Theor Appl Genet 81: 144–150Google Scholar
  17. Kulshreshtha VB, Gupta PK (1981) Cytogenetic studies in the genus Helianthus L. II. Karyological studies in twelve species. Cytologia 46: 279–289.Google Scholar
  18. Lacadena JR, Cermeno MC, Orellana J, Santos JL (1984) Evidence for wheat-rye nucleolar competition (amphiplasty) in triticale by silver-staining procedure. Theor Appl Genet 67: 207–213.Google Scholar
  19. Levan A, Fredga K, Sandberg AS (1964) Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas 52: 201–220.Google Scholar
  20. Macas J, Dolezel J, Lucretti S et al. (1993) Localization of seed protein genes on flow-sorted field bean chromosomes. Chromosome Research 1: 107–115.Google Scholar
  21. Pan WH, Houben A, Schlegel R (1993) Highly effective cell synchronization in plant roots by hydroxyurea and amipro-phos-methyl or colchicine. Genome 36: 387–390.Google Scholar
  22. Raicu P, Vranceanu V, Mihailescu A, Popescu C, Kirillova Motz M (1976) Research of the chromosome complement in Helianthus L. genus. Caryologia 29: 307–316.Google Scholar
  23. Rieger R, Nicoloff H, Anastassova-Kristeva M (1979) `Nucleolar dominance' in interspecific hybrids and translocation lines-a review. Biol Zbl 98: 385–398Google Scholar
  24. Shang XM, Jackson RC, Nguyen HT (1988) Heterochromatin diversity and chromosome morphology in wheats analyzed by the HKG-banding technique. Genome 30: 956–965.Google Scholar
  25. Yakura K, Tanifuji S (1983) Molecular cloning and restriction analysis of Eco RI-fragments of Vicia faba rDNA. Plant Cell Physiol 24: 1327–1330.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otto Schrader
    • 1
  • Richard Ahne
    • 1
  • Jorg Fuchs
    • 2
  • Ingo Schubert
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut fur Zuchtungsmethodik bei Gemuse der Bundesanstalt fur Zuchtungsforschung an KulturpflanzenQuedlinburgGermany
  2. 2.Institut fur Pflanzengenetik und KulturpflanzenforschungGaterslebenGermany

Personalised recommendations