Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 6, Issue 12, pp 1671–1696 | Cite as

The rebuilding of an isolated rain forestassemblage: how disharmonicis the flora of Krakatau?

  • ROBERT J. WHITTAKER
  • STEPHEN H. JONES
  • TUKIRIN PARTOMIHARDJO
Article

Abstract

The compositional balance of the flora of the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia, is examined in order to identify taxonomic and/or ecological groups which are under-represented in this recovering island ecosystem in relation to regional analogues and potential source areas in the Sunda Strait (Ujung Kulon and Sebesi Island). Interpretations are conditioned by the limited availability of comparative data, the uncertainty surrounding dispersal classifications, the problem of determining habitat suitability for missing elements, and thus the unsuitability of a formal statistical approach. Analysis by dispersal syndrome supports predictions that species with large, winged, wind-scattered propagules, or those with no particular dispersal potential, are under-sampled. However, some species with winged propagules have colonized, in most cases probably by thalassochory (sea-dispersal). Although zoochorous (animal-dispersed) trees and shrubs are well represented on Krakatau, those large-seeded species which are primarily dependent on dispersal by animals other than birds are under-represented. Large-seeded zoochores are probably highly dependent on two species of Ducula (large fruit-pigeons) for transport to Krakatau and their colonization has been relatively slow. Comparison with Christmas and Jarak Islands yields differing degrees of overlap for thalassochorous, zoochorous, and anemochorous (wind-dispersed) spermatophytes and for pteridophytes, interpretable in terms of dispersability and size of the respective species pools. Particular families and genera can be identified which are seemingly under-sampled on Krakatau, as can some which are over-represented in relation to the principal comparative site, the Ujung Kulon peninsular, West Java. The latter are mostly very small-seeded wind-dispersed epiphytic herbs (especially orchids). Ferns are also very well represented in relation to the West Javan source pool. It is concluded that the flora of Krakatau remains disharmonic, in a predictable fashion, although it is certainly becoming less so. The data provide empirical evidence for the abilities of particular functional guilds of rain forest plants to disperse across significant barriers: the implications of these findings are discussed in relation to current concerns with forest fragmentation in the tropics.

floristic composition dispersal Krakatau island biogeography plant geography rain forest 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews, C.W. (ed.) (1990) A monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): physical features and geology, with descriptions of the fauna and flora. London: British Museum (Natural History).Google Scholar
  2. Ashton, P.A. (1982) Dipterocarpaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I — Spermatophyta 9(2), 237–553.Google Scholar
  3. Backer, C.A. and Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. (1963–1968) Flora of Java. Three volumes. Groningen, the Netherlands: N.V.P. Noordhoff.Google Scholar
  4. Balgooy, M.M.J. van (1971) Plant-geography of the Pacific. Blumea 19,Suppl. 6, 1–222.Google Scholar
  5. Bawa, K.S. (1982) Outcrossing and incidence of dioecism in island floras. Amer. Nat. 119, 866–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Begon, M., Harper, J.L., and Townsend, C.R. (1986) Ecology. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  7. Bramwell, D. (ed.) (1979) Plants and Islands. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Beusekom-Osinga, R.J. van (1977) Crypteroniaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I — Spermatophyta 8, 237–553.Google Scholar
  9. Bush, M.B. (1994) Amazonian speciation: a necessarily complex model. J. Biogeogr. 21, 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bush, M.B. and Colinvaux, P.A. (1990) A pollen record of a complete glacial cycle from lowland Panama. J. Veg. Sci. 1, 105–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bush, M.B. and Rivera, R. (in press) Pollen dispersal and representation in a neotropical forest. Global Ecol. and Biogeog. Lett. Google Scholar
  12. Bush, M.B. and Whittaker, R.J. (1991) Krakatau: colonization patterns and hierarchies. J. Biogeogr. 18, 341–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bush, M.B. and Whittaker, R.J. (1993) Non-equilibration in island theory of Krakatau. J. Biogeogr. 20, 453–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bush, M.B., Whittaker, R.J. and Partomihardjo, T. (1995) Colonization and succession on Krakatau: an analysis of the guild of vining plants. Biotropica 27, 355–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Compton, S.G., Ross, S.J. and Thornton, I.W.B. (1994) Pollinator limitation of fig tree reproduction on the island of Anak Krakatau (Indonesia). Biotropica 26, 180–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corner, E.J.H. (1988) Wayside trees of Malaya. 3rd edn, 2 vols, pp. 861. Kuala Lumpur: The Malayan Nature Society.Google Scholar
  17. Cox, P.A., Elmqvist, T., Pierson, E.D. and Rainey, W.E. (1992) Flying foxes as pollinators and seed dispersers in Pacific Island ecosystems. In Pacific Island Flying Foxes: Proceedings of an International Conservation Conference (D.E. Wilson and G.L. Graham, eds) pp. 18–23. Biological Report 90(23), July 1992. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington.Google Scholar
  18. Diamond, J.M. (1975) Assembly of species communities. In Ecology and evolution of communities (M.L. Cody and J.M. Diamond, eds) pp. 342–444. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Docters van Leeuwen, W.M. (1923) On the present state of the vegetation of the Krakatau Group and of the Island of Sebesy. In Proceedings of the Second Pan Pacific Science Congress pp. 313–18. Melbourne, Australia: Australian National Research Council.Google Scholar
  20. Docters van Leeuwen, W.M. (1936) Krakatau 1883–1933. Annales du Jardin botanique de Buitenzorg 46–47, 1–506.Google Scholar
  21. Ernst, A. (1908) The new flora of the volcanic island of Krakatau (Translated into English by A.C. Seward). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Fiedler, P.L. and Jain, S.K. (1992) Conservation Biology: the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation and management. London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  23. Gentry, A.H. (1991) The distribution and evolution of climbing plants. In The Biology of Vines (F.E. Putz and H.A. Mooney, eds) pp. 3–52. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hommel, P.W.F.M. (1987) Landscape-ecology of Ujung Kulon (West Java, Indonesia). Privately published doctoral thesis, Wageningen.Google Scholar
  25. Hommel, P.W.F.M. (1990) Ujung Kulon: landscape survey and land evaluation as a habitat for the Javan rhinoceros. ITC Journal 1990–1, 1–15.Google Scholar
  26. Howe, E.F. (1984) Implications of seed dispersal by animals for tropical reserve management. Biol. Conserv. 30, 261–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacobs, M. (1981) The tropical rain forest: a first encounter. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  28. Kartawinata, K. and Apandi, A. (1977) Checklist of plant species on the Peucang Island (Ujung Kulon Nature Reserve, West Java). Berita Biologi 2, 13–18.Google Scholar
  29. Kellman, M. (1996) Redefining roles: plant community reorganization and species preservation in fragmented systems. Global Ecol. Biogeog. Lett. 5, 111–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Leighton, M. and Leighton, D.R. (1983) Vertebrate responses to fruiting seasonality within a Bornean rain forest. In Tropical rain forest: Ecology and management (S.L. Sutton, T.C. Whitmore and A.C. Chadwick, eds) pp. 181–196. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  31. Mitchell, B.A. (1974) The forest flora of Christmas Island. Commonw. For. Rev. 53, 19–29.Google Scholar
  32. Partomihardjo, T., Mirmanto, E. and Whittaker, R.J. (1992a) Anak Krakatau's vegetation and flora circa 1991, with Observations on a decade of development and change. GeoJournal 28, 233–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Partomihardjo, T., Mirmanto, E., Riswan, S. and Whittaker, R.J. (1992b) Ecology and distribution of Nibung (Oncosperma tigillarium) within the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Principes 36, 7–17.Google Scholar
  34. Pijl, L. van der (1957) The dispersal of plants by bats (Chiropterochory). Acta Bot. Neerl. 6, 291–315.Google Scholar
  35. Pijl, L. van der (1982) Principles of dispersal in higher plants. 3rd edition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  36. Ridley, H.N. (1930) The dispersal of plants throughout the world. Ashford, England: Reeve.Google Scholar
  37. Snow, D.W. (1981) Tropical frugivorous birds and their food plants: a world survey. Biotropica 13, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Steenis, C.G.G.J. van (1965) Concise Plant Geography. In Flora of Java, volume 2, General part (C.A. Backer and R.C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr, eds) pp. 1–72. Groningen: N.V.P. Noordhoff.Google Scholar
  39. Tackaberry, R. and Kellman, M. (1996) Patterns of tree species richness along peninsular extensions of tropical forests. Global Ecol. Biogeog. Lett. 5, 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tagawa, H., Suzuki, E. and Partomihardjo, T. (1986) A list of plant species collected from the Krakatau islands and adjacent areas, Indonesia. Mem. Kagoshima Univ. Res. Center S. Pac. 7, 1–21.Google Scholar
  41. Thornton, I.W.B. (1996) Krakatau: the destruction and reassembly of an island ecosystem. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard.Google Scholar
  42. Thornton, I.W.B., New, T.R., Zann, R.A. and Rawlinson, P.A. (1990) Colonization of the Krakatau islands by animals: a perspective from the 1980s. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 328, 131–65.Google Scholar
  43. Thornton, I.W.B., Partomihardjo, T. and Yukuwa, J. (1994) Observation on the effects, up to July 1993, of the current eruptive episode of Anak Krakatau. Global Ecol. Biogeog. Lett. 4, 88–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Turner, I.M. (1996) Species loss in fragments of tropical rain forest: a review of the evidence. J. Appl. Ecol. 33, 200–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Weiher, E. and Keddy, P.A. (1995) Assembly rules, null models, and trait dispersion: new questions from old patterns. Oikos 74, 159–64.Google Scholar
  46. Whitmore, T.C. (1984) Tropical rain forests of the Far East. 2nd edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  47. Whittaker, R.J. and Bush, M.B. (1993) Dispersal and establishment of tropical forest assemblages, Krakatau, Indonesia. In Primary Succession on Land. (J. Miles and D.W.H. Walton, eds) pp. 147–60, Special Publ. series of the B.E.S. No. 12. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  48. Whittaker, R.J. and Jones, S.H. (1994a) The role of frugivorous bats and birds in the rebuilding of a tropical forest ecosystem, Krakatau, Indonesia. J. Biogeogr. 21, 689–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Whittaker, R.J. and Jones, S.H. (1994b) Structure in re-building insular ecosystems: an empirically derived model. Oikos 69, 524–30.Google Scholar
  50. Whittaker, R.J., Bush, M.B. and Richards, K. (1989) Plant recolonization and vegetation succession on the Krakatau islands, Indonesia. Ecol. Monogr. 59, 59–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Whittaker, R.J., Bush, M.B., Partomihardjo, T., Asquith, N.M. and Richards, K. (1992a) Ecological aspects of plant colonization of the Krakatau Islands. Geojournal 28, 201–11.Google Scholar
  52. Whittaker, R.J., Walden, J. and Hill, E.J. (1992b) Post-1883 ash fall on Panjang and Sertung and its ecological impact. Geojournal 28, 153–71.Google Scholar
  53. Wyatt-Smith, J. (1953) The vegetation of Jarak Island, Straits of Malacca. J. Ecol. 41, 207–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • ROBERT J. WHITTAKER
    • 1
  • STEPHEN H. JONES
    • 1
  • TUKIRIN PARTOMIHARDJO
    • 2
  1. 1.School of GeographyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.Herbarium BogorienseBogorIndonesia

Personalised recommendations