Plant and Soil

, Volume 234, Issue 2, pp 143–151 | Cite as

Bauxite residue sand has the capacity to rapidly decrease availability of added manganese

  • M. J. Gherardi
  • Z. Rengel


Bauxite residue sand, even though a poor substrate for plant growth because of very high pH, salinity and sodicity, is required to be revegetated. Manganese deficiency is observed in residue-grown plants because broadcast applications of manganese fertiliser to the surface of residue deposits have a low residual value. In a laboratory experiment, manganese (as MnSO4) was added to fresh and 4-year-old residue sand and a sequential fractionation procedure performed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 24 h and 6, 14, 21, 43, 73, 103 and 130 d. Extraction with DTPA estimated plant-available Mn, while sequential fractionation with various extractants yielded the following fractions: readily soluble [Ca(NO3)2]; weakly adsorbed [CaDTPA-B4O7]; carbonate-bound [HNO3]; and oxide-bound [NH2OHċHCl]. Residual Mn was calculated as a difference between the sum of all these forms and total Mn in residue sand. Transformation of manganese from the initially dominant readily soluble form to the less-available forms was very rapid (< 24 h). A change to fertilisation strategies is required if better efficiency of manganese application and uptake is to be achieved for plants growing on bauxite residue.

bauxite residue manganese availability pH sequential fractionation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barber S A 1995 Soil Nutrient Bioavailability: A Mechanistic Approach. 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 414 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Barrow N J 1982 Possibility of using caustic residues from bauxite for improving the chemical and physical properties of sandy soil. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 33, 275–285.Google Scholar
  3. Bartlett R J 1988 Manganese redox reactions and organic interactions in soils. In Manganese in Soils and Plants. Eds. R D Graham, R J Hannam and N C Uren. pp 59–74. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  4. Chao T T 1972 Selective dissolution of manganese oxides from soils and sediments with acidified hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 764–768.Google Scholar
  5. Fuller R D, Nelson E D P and Richardson C J 1982 Reclamation of red mud (bauxite residues) using alkaline tolerant grasses with organic amendments. J. Environ. Qual. 11, 533–539.Google Scholar
  6. Fuller R D and Richardson C J 1986 Aluminate toxicity as a factor controlling plant growth in bauxite residue. Env. Tox. Chem. 5, 905–916.Google Scholar
  7. GENSTAT-Committee 1989 GENSTAT 5 Reference Manual. Oxford University Press, New York. 749 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Goldberg S P and Smith K A 1984 Soil manganese: E values, distribution of manganese-54 among soil fractions, and effects of drying. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 559–564.Google Scholar
  9. Gotoh S and Patrick W H 1972 Transformation of manganese in a waterlogged soil as affected by redox potential and pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36, 738–742.Google Scholar
  10. Han F X and Banin A 1995 Selective sequential dissolution techniques for trace metals in arid-zone soils: The carbonate dissolution step. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 26, 553–576.Google Scholar
  11. Lall N, Nikolova R V and Bosa A 1998 Changes in isozyme patterns of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in the leaves of Impatiens flanaganiae in response to Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu deficiencies. Phyton (Buenos Aires) 63, 147–153.Google Scholar
  12. Leeper G W 1934 Relationship of soils to manganese deficiency of plants. Nature 134, 972–973.Google Scholar
  13. Leeper GW 1947 The forms and reactions of manganese in the soil. Soil Sci. 63, 79–94.Google Scholar
  14. Leeper G W 1952 Factors affecting availability of inorganic nutrients in soils with special reference to micro-nutrient metals. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 3, 1–16.Google Scholar
  15. Lindsay W L and Norvell W A 1978 Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 421–428.Google Scholar
  16. Loganathan P, Burau R G and Fuerstenau D W 1977 Influence of pH on the sorption of Co2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+ by a hydrous manganese oxide. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41, 57–62.Google Scholar
  17. Lynch J M and Whipps J M 1990 Substrate flow in the rhizosphere. Plant Soil 129, 1–10.Google Scholar
  18. McBride M B 1982 Electron spin resonance investigation of Mn2+ complexation in natural and synthetic organics. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46, 1137–1143.Google Scholar
  19. McKenzie R M 1980 The adsorption of lead and other heavy metals on oxides of manganese and iron. Aust. J. Soil Res. 18, 61–73.Google Scholar
  20. McKenzie R M 1981 The surface charge on manganese dioxides. Aust. J. Soil Res. 19, 41–50.Google Scholar
  21. Meecham J R and Bell L C 1977a Revegetation of alumina refinery wastes: I. Properties and amelioration of the materials. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb. 17, 679–688.Google Scholar
  22. Neilsen D, Neilsen G H, Sinclair A H and Linehan D J 1992 Soil phosphorus status, pH and the manganese nutrition of wheat. Plant Soil 145, 45–50.Google Scholar
  23. Nitschke W and Rutherford A W 1991 Photosynthetic reaction centres: Variations on a common theme? Trends Biochem. Sci. 16, 241–245.Google Scholar
  24. Norvell W A 1984 Comparison of chelating agents as extractants for metals in diverse soil materials. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1285–1292.Google Scholar
  25. Norvell W A 1988 Inorganic reactions of manganese in soils. In Manganese in Soils and Plants. Eds. R D Graham, R J Hannam and N C Uren. pp 37–58. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  26. Reisenauer H M 1988 Determination of plant-available manganese. In Manganese in Soils and Plants. Eds. R D Graham, R J Hannam and N C Uren. pp 87–98. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  27. Rutherford A W 1989 Photosystem II, the water splitting enzyme. Trends Biochem. Sci. 14, 227–232.Google Scholar
  28. Severson R C and Gough L P 1984 Rehabilitation materials from surface-coal mines in western USA: 3. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants. Reclam. Reveget. Res. 3, 185–198.Google Scholar
  29. Sims J L, Puangpatra P, Ellis J H and Phillips R E 1979 Distribution of available manganese in Kentucky soils. Soil Sci. 127, 270–274.Google Scholar
  30. Tong Y, Rengel Z and Graham R D 1995 Effects of temperature on extractable manganese and distribution of manganese among soil fractions. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 26, 1963–1977.Google Scholar
  31. Uren N C 1981 Chemical reduction of an insoluble higher oxide of manganese by plant roots. J. Plant Nutr. 4, 65–71.Google Scholar
  32. Walter K H 1988 Manganese fertilizers. In Manganese in Soils and Plants. Eds. R D Graham, R J Hannam and N C Uren. pp 225–241. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  33. Warden B T and Reisenauer H M 1991 Fractionation of soil manganese forms important to plant availability. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55, 345–349.Google Scholar
  34. Wong J W C and Ho G E 1991 Effects of gypsum and sewage sludge amendment on physical properties of fine bauxite refining residue. Soil Sci. 152, 326–332.Google Scholar
  35. Wong J W C and Ho G E 1993 Use of Waste gypsum in the revegetation of red mud deposits: A greenhouse study. Waste Man. Res. 11, 249–256.Google Scholar
  36. Wong J W C and Ho G E 1994 Sewage sludge as an organic ameliorant for revegetation of fine bauxite refining residue. Resour. Conserv. Recyc. 11, 297–309.Google Scholar
  37. Yachandra V K, Sauer K and Klein M P 1996 Manganese cluster in photosynthesis: Where plants oxidise water to dioxygen. Chem. Rev. 96, 2927–2950.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Gherardi
    • 1
  • Z. Rengel
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil Science and Plant NutritionThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations