Variation in biochemical and pharmacological properties of Indian cobra (Naja naja naja) venom due to geographical distribution
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Indian cobra (Naja naja naja) venom obtained from three different geographical regions was studied in terms of electrophoretic pattern, biochemical and pharmacological activities. SDS-PAGE banding pattern revealed significant variation in the protein constituents of the three regional venoms. The eastern venom showed highest indirect hemolysis and hyaluronidase activity. In contrast, western and southern venoms were rich in proteolytic activity. All the three regional venoms were devoid of p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester hydrolysing activity. The eastern venom was found to be most lethal among the three regional venoms. The lethal potency varied as eastern > western > southern regional venoms. In addition, all the three regional venoms showed marked variations in their ability to induce symptoms/signs of neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, edema and effect on plasma coagulation process. Polyclonal antiserum prepared against the venom of eastern region cross-reacted with both southern and western regional venoms, but varied in the extent of cross-reactivity by ouchterlony immunodiffusion and ELISA.
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