Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 255–262

Mental adjustment to first recurrence and correlated factors in patients with breast cancer

  • Yoshie Okano
  • Hitoshi Okamura
  • Toru Watanabe
  • Masaru Narabayashi
  • Noriyuki Katsumata
  • Masashi Ando
  • Isamu Adachi
  • Keiko Kazuma
  • Tatsuo Akechi
  • Yosuke Uchitomi
Article

Abstract

Previous reports have demonstrated that breast cancer patients felt that news of their recurrence was more upsetting than their initial diagnosis. However, no studies have examined the factors that are correlated with mental adjustment in breast cancer patients who experienced recurrence. The authors investigated factors that are correlated with mental adjustment styles of fighting spirit or helplessness/hopelessness in women with breast cancer with a first recurrence. Fifty-five participants were interviewed and completed the Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale. Factors that correlated significantly with fighting spirit were performance status and history of major depression, while factors that correlated significantly with helplessness/hopelessness were age, pain, and history of major depression. These findings suggest that it is necessary to provide intervention for first recurrent breast cancer patients who have such biomedical factors, as young age, poor performance status, pain, and history of major depression to help them better cope with cancer.

breast cancer first recurrence history of major depression mental adjustment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Greer S, Moorey S, Watson M: Patient's adjustment to cancer: the mental adjustment to cancer (MAC) scale vs clinical ratings. J Psychosom Res 33: 373-377, 1989Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Watson M, Greer S, Rowden L, Gorman C, Robertson B, Bliss JM, Tunmore R: Relationship between emotional control, adjustment to cancer and depression anxiety in breast cancer patients. Psychol Med 21: 51-57, 1991Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lampic C, Wennberg A, Schill JR, Glimelius B, Brodin O, Sjoden PS: Coping, psychosocial well-being and anxiety in cancer patients at follow-up visits. Acta Oncol 33: 887-894, 1994Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Watson M, Haviland JS, Greer S, Davidson J, Bliss JM: Influence of psychological response on survival in breast cancer: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 354: 1331-1336, 1999Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morris T, Pettingale K, Haybittle J: Psychological response to cancer diagnosis and disease outcome in patients with breast cancer and lymphoma. Psycho Oncol 1: 105-114, 1992Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vinokur AD, Threatt BA, Caplan RD, Zimmerman BL: Physical and psychosocial functioning and adjustment to breast cancer: long-term follow-up of a screening population. Cancer 63: 394-405, 1989Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maunsell E, Brisson J, Deschenes L: Psychological distress after initial treatment of breast cancer. Cancer 70: 120-125, 1992Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Akechi T, Okamura H, Yamawaki S, Uchitomi Y: Predictors of patients’ mental adjustment to cancer: patient characteristics and social support. Br J Cancer 77: 2381-2385, 1998Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rapoport Y, Kreitler S, Chaitchik S, Algor R, Weissler K: Psychosocial problems in head-and-neck cancer patients and their change with time since diagnosis. Ann Oncol 4: 69-73, 1993Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Northouse LL, Dorris G, Charron-Moore C: Factors affecting couples’ adjustment to recurrent breast cancer. Soc Sci Med 41: 69-76, 1995Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hürny C, Bernhard J, Coates AS, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Peterson H, Galber RD, Forbes JF, Rudenstam CM, Simoncini E, Crivellari D, Goldhirsch A, Senn HJ: Impact of adjustment therapy on quality of life in women with node-positive operable breast cancer. Lancet 347: 1279-1284, 1996Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cella DF, Mahon SM, Donovan MI: Cancer recurrence as a traumatic event. Behav Med 16: 15-22, 1990Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bull AA, Meyerowitz BE, Hart S, Mosconi P, Apolone G, Liberati A: Quality of life in women with recurrent breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 54: 47-57, 1999Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Weisman AD, Worden JW: The existential plight in cancer: significance of the first 100 days. Int J Psychiatry Med 7: 1-15, 1976-77Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watson M, Greer S, Young J, Inayat Q, Burgess C, Robertson B: Development of a questionnaire measure of adjustment to cancer: the MAC scale. Psychol Med 18: 203-209, 1988Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akechi T, Fukue-Saeki M, Kugaya A, Okamura H, Nishiwaki Y, Yamawaki S, Uchitomi Y: Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale. Psycho Oncol 9: 395-401, 2000Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Watson M, Greer S, Bliss JM: Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale User's Manual. Cancer Research Medical Research Group, Royal Marsden Hospital: Sutton, Surrey, 1989Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maunsell E, Brisson J, Deschenes L: Social support and survival among women with breast cancer. Cancer 76: 631-637, 1995Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd Revised edn. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, 1987Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okamura H, Watanabe T, Narabayashi M, Katsumata N, Ando M, Adachi I, Akechi T, Uchitomi Y: Psychological distress following first recurrence of disease in patients with breast cancer: prevalence and risk factors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 61: 131-137, 2000Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Derogatis LR, Morrow GR, Fetting J, Penman D, Piasetsky S, Schmale AM, Henrichs M, Carnicke CLM: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients. JAMA 249: 751-757, 1983Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Okamura H, Akechi T, Kugaya A, Mikami I, Okuyama T, Nakano T, Kagaya A, Yamawaki S, Uchitomi Y: Depression in patients with advanced cancer. In: Eguchi K, Klastersky J, Fled R (eds) Current Perspectives and Future Directions in Palliative Medicine. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, 1998, pp 67-76Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Plumb M, Holland J: Comparative studies of psychological function in patients with advanced cancer. II. Interviewer-rated current and past psychological symptoms. Psychosom Med 43: 243-254, 1981Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Massie MJ, Holland JC: Depression and the cancer patients. J Clin Psychiatry 51(Suppl.): 12-17, 1990Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schwartz CE, Daltroy LH, Brandt U, Friedman R, Stolbach L: A psychometric analysis of tha Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. Psychol Med 22: 203-210, 1992Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ferrero J, Barreto MP, Toledo M: Mental adjustment to cancer and quality of life in breast cancer patients: an exploratory study. Psycho Oncol 3: 223-232, 1994Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cella DF, Orofiamma B, Holland JC, Silberfarb PM, Tross S, Feldstein M, Perry M, Maurer H, Comis R, Orav EJ: The relationship of psychological distress, extent of disease, and performance status in patients with lung cancer. Cancer 60: 1661-1667, 1987Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mor V, Malin M, Allen S: Age differences in the psychosocial problems encountered by breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 16: 191-197, 1994Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cleeland CS: The impact of pain on the patient with cancer. Cancer 54 (11 Suppl.): 2635-2641, 1984Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Portenoy RK, Miransky J, Thaler HT, Hornung J, Bianchi C, Cibas-Kong I, Feldhamaer E, Lewis F, Matamoros I, Sugar MZ, Olivieri AP, Kemeny NE, Foley KM: Pain in ambulatory patients with lung or colon cancer: prevalence, characteristics, and effect. Cancer 70: 1616-1624, 1992Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Greer S: Psychological response to cancer and survival. Psychol Med 21: 43-49, 1991Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Greer S, Morris T, Pettingale KW: Psychological response to breast cancer: effect on outcome. Lancet 2: 785-787, 1979Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshie Okano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hitoshi Okamura
    • 1
    • 3
  • Toru Watanabe
    • 4
  • Masaru Narabayashi
    • 4
  • Noriyuki Katsumata
    • 4
  • Masashi Ando
    • 4
  • Isamu Adachi
    • 4
  • Keiko Kazuma
    • 2
  • Tatsuo Akechi
    • 1
    • 5
  • Yosuke Uchitomi
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Psycho-Oncology DivisionNational Cancer Center Research Institute EastJapan
  2. 2.Department of Adult Nursing/Terminal and Long-term Care Nursing, Graduate School of MedicineThe University of TokyoTokyo
  3. 3.Psychiatry DivisionNational Cancer Center Hospital EastJapan
  4. 4.Department of Medical OncologyNational Cancer Center HospitalJapan
  5. 5.Japan

Personalised recommendations