Advertisement

Constraints

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 49–69 | Cite as

SmartClients: Constraint Satisfaction as a Paradigm for Scaleable Intelligent Information Systems

  • Marc Torrens
  • Boi Faltings
  • Pearl Pu
Article

Abstract

Many information systems are used in a problem solving context. Examples are travel planning systems, catalogs in electronic commerce, or agenda planning systems. They can be made more useful by integrating problem-solving capabilities into the information systems. This poses the challenge of scaleability: when hundreds of users access a server at the same time, it is important to avoid excessive computational load.

We present the concept of SmartClients: lightweight problem-solving agents based on constraint satisfaction which can carry out the computation- and communication-intensive tasks on the user's computer. We present an example of an air travel planning system based on this technology.

constraint satisfaction software agents electronic commerce electronic catalogs configuration information systems 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Borning, A., Duisberg, R., Feldman-Benson, B., Kramer, A., & Woolf, M. (1987). Constraint hierarchies. In Proceedings 1987 ACM Conference on Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages and Applications, pages 48–60, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choueiry B. Y. (1994). Abstraction Methods for Resource Allocation. PhD thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    FIPA. (1998). Foundation of Intelligent Physical Agents. http://www.fipa.org. Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fox, M. (1987). Constraint-Directed Search: A Case Study of Job-Shop Scheduling. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., Pitman, London.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Freuder, E. C., & Wallace, R. J. (1992). Partial constraint satisfaction. Artificial Intelligence, 58(1): 21–70.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jango. (1998). Excite Product Finder. http://www.jango.com. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kondrak, G., & van Beek, P. (1997). A theoretical evaluation ofselected backtracking algorithms. Artificial Intelligence, 89: 365–387.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Linden, G., Hanks, S. & Lesh, N. (1997). Interactive assessment ofuser preference models: The automated travel assistant. In Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on User Modeling.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mackworth, A. K. (1977). Consistency in networks ofrelations. Artificial Intelligence, 8: 99–118.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pu, P., & Faltings, B. (2000). Enriching buyers' experiences: The SmartClient approach. In CHI: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sabin, D., & Freuder, E. C. (1996). Configuration as composite constraint satisfaction. In Proceedings of the Artificial Intelligence and Manufacturing Research Planning Workshop, pages 153–161.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sanjay Mittal, F. F. (1989). Towards a generic model ofconfiguration tasks. In Proceedings of the 11th IJCAI, pages 1395–1401, Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sathi, A., & Fox, M. S. (1989). Constraint-directed negotiation ofresource allocations. In L. Gasser and M. Huhns, eds., Distributed Artificial Intelligence Volume II, pages 163–194. San Mateo, CA Pitman Publishing; London and Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stefik, M. (1981). Planning with constraints (MOLGEN: Part 1). Artificial Intelligence, 16(2): 111–140.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Torrens, M., Weigel, R., & Faltings, B. (1997). Java Constraint Library: Bringing constraints technology on the Internet using the Java language. In Working Notes of the Workshop on Constraints and Agents, Tehnical Report WS-97-05, AAAI-97, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Travelocity. (1998). http://www.travelocity.com. Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tsang, E. (1993). Foundations of Constraint Satisfaction. London, UK Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    van Beek, P. (1995). CSPLib: A CSP Library Written in C Language. ftp://ftp.cs.ualberta.ca/pub/vanbeek/software.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Willmott, S., Calisti, M., Faltings, B., Gonzalez, S. M., Belakdhar, O., & Torrens, M. (2000). CCL: Expressions ofchoice in agent communication. In The Fourth International Conference on MultiAgent Systems (ICMAS-2000), Boston, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Torrens
    • 1
  • Boi Faltings
    • 1
  • Pearl Pu
    • 2
  1. 1.Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Computer Science DepartmentSwiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)LausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.Database Laboratory, Computer Science DepartmentSwiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL)LausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations