Brain and Mind

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 5–38

A Primer on Binocular Rivalry, Including Current Controversies

  • Randolph Blake
Article

Abstract

Among psychologists and vision scientists,binocular rivalry has enjoyed sustainedinterest for decades dating back to the 19thcentury. In recent years, however, rivalry'saudience has expanded to includeneuroscientists who envision rivalry as a “tool” for exploring the neural concomitants ofconscious visual awareness and perceptualorganization. For rivalry's potential to berealized, workers using this “tool” need toknow details of this fascinating phenomenon,and providing those details is the purpose ofthis article. After placing rivalry in ahistorical context, I summarize major findingsconcerning the spatial characteristics and thetemporal dynamics of rivalry, discuss two majortheoretical accounts of rivalry (“eye” vs“stimulus” rivalry) and speculate on possibleneural concomitants of binocular rivalry.

binocular rivalry conscious awareness neural model perceptual organization suppression 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abadi, R., 1976: Induction masking-a study of some inhibitory interactions during dichoptic viewing, Vision Res. 16, 269-275.Google Scholar
  2. Alais, D. andBlake, R., 1998: Interactions between global motion and local binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 38, 637-644.Google Scholar
  3. Alais, D. andBlake, R., 1999: Grouping visual features during binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 39, 4341-4353.Google Scholar
  4. Alais, D.,O'shea, R.P.,Mesana-Alais, C. and Wilson, I.G., 2000: Translation of Diaz-Caneja (1928) [On line]. Available: http://psy.otago.ac.nz:800/r_oshea/br_DJtrans.htmlGoogle Scholar
  5. Amira, L., 1989: When are two eyes not better than one? Perception 18, 540 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, J.D.,Bechtoldt, H.P. andGregory, L.D., 1978: Binocular integration in line rivalry, Bull. Psychon. Soc. 11, 399-402.Google Scholar
  7. Andrews, T.J. andBlakemore, C., 1999: Form and motion have independent access to consciousness, Nature Neurosci. 2, 405-406.Google Scholar
  8. Andrew, T.J. andPurves, D., 1997: Similarities in normal and binocular rivalrous viewing, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 9905-9908.Google Scholar
  9. Anstis, S. andRamachandran, V.S., 1987: Visual inertia in apparent motion, Vision Res. 27, 755-764.Google Scholar
  10. Asher, H., 1953: Suppression theory of binocular vision, Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 37, 37-49.Google Scholar
  11. Barany, E.H. andHallden, V., 1948: Phasic inhibition of the light reflex of the pupil during retinal rivalry, J. Neurophysiol. 11, 25-30.Google Scholar
  12. Blake, R., 1988: Dichoptic reading: The role of meaning on binocular rivalry, Percept. Psychophys. 44, 133-141.Google Scholar
  13. Blake, R., 1989: A neural theory of binocular rivalry, Psychol. Rev. 96, 145-167.Google Scholar
  14. Blake, R., 1995: Psychoanatomical strategies for studying human vision, in T. Papathomas,C. Chubb,E. Kowler andA. Gorea (eds), Early Vision and Beyond, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. Blake, R., 1997: What can be perceived in the absence of visual awareness? Current Directions in Psychol. Sci. 6, 157-162.Google Scholar
  16. Blake, R. andFox, R., 1974a: Binocular rivalry suppression: Insensitive to spatial frequency and orientation change, Vision Res. 14, 687-692.Google Scholar
  17. Blake, R. andFox, R., 1974: Adaptation to “invisible” gratings and the site of binocular rivalry suppression, Nature 249, 488-490.Google Scholar
  18. Blake, R. andBoothroyd, K. 1985: The precedence of binocular fusion over binocular rivalry, Percept. Psychophys. 37, 114-124.Google Scholar
  19. Blake, R. andBravo, M., 1985: Binocular rivalry suppression interferes with phase adaptation, Percept. Psychophys. 38, 277-280.Google Scholar
  20. Blake, R.,Fox, R. andMcIntyre, C., 1971: Stochastic properties of stabilized-image binocular rivalry alternations, J. Exp. Psychol. 88, 327-332.Google Scholar
  21. Blake, R.,Fox, R. andWestendorf, D., 1974: Visual size constancy occurs after binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 14, 585-586.Google Scholar
  22. Blake, R.,Westendorf, D. andOverton, R., 1979: What is suppressed during binocular rivalry? Perception 9, 223-231.Google Scholar
  23. Blake, R.,Zimba, L. andWilliams, D., 1985: Binocular correspondence and visual motion, Biol. Cybern. 52, 391-397.Google Scholar
  24. Blake, R.,Westendorf, D. andFox, R., 1990: Temporal perturbations of binocular rivalry, Percept. Psychophys. 48, 593-602.Google Scholar
  25. Blake, R.,Westendorf, D.H. andYang, Y., 1991: Discriminating binocular fusion from false fusion, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32, 2821-2825.Google Scholar
  26. Blake, R.,O'shea, R.P. andMueller, T.J., 1992: Spatial zones of binocular rivalry in central and peripheral vision, Visual Neurosci. 8, 469-478.Google Scholar
  27. Blake, R.,Yu, K.,Lokey, M. AndNorman, H., 1998: Binocular rivalry and visual motion, J. Cogn. Neurosci. 10, 46-60.Google Scholar
  28. Blake, R.,Ahlstrom, U. andAlais, D., 1999: Perceptual priming by invisible motion, Psychol. Sci. 10, 145-150.Google Scholar
  29. Blakemore, C.,Iverson, S.D. andZangwill, O.L., 1972: Brain functions, Ann. Rev. Psychol. 23, 413-456.Google Scholar
  30. Bosking, W.H.,Zhang, Y.,Schofield, B. andFitzpatrick, D., 1997: Orientation selectivity and the arrangement of horizontal connections in tree shrew striate cortex, J. Neurosci. 17, 2112-2127.Google Scholar
  31. Bossink, C.J.H., Stalmeier, P.F.M. and deWeert, C.M.M., 1993: A test of Levelt's second proposition for binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 33, 1413-1419.Google Scholar
  32. Breese, B.B., 1899: On inhibition, Psychol. Monogr. 3, 1-65.Google Scholar
  33. Breese, B.B., 1909: Binocular rivalry, Psychol, Rev. 16, 410-415.Google Scholar
  34. Brenner, R.L.,Charles, S.T. andFlynn, J.T., 1969: Pupillary responses in rivalry and amblyopia, Arch. Ophthal. 82, 23-29.Google Scholar
  35. Brown, K.T., 1955: Rate of apparent change in a dynamic ambiguous figure as a function of observation time, Amer. J. Psychol. 68, 358-371.Google Scholar
  36. Campbell, F.W. andHowell, E. R., 1972: Monocular alternation; a method for the investigation of pattern vision, J. Physiol. 225, 19-21P.Google Scholar
  37. Carlson, T.A. andHe, S., 2000: Visible binocular beats from invisible monocular stimuli during binocular rivalry, Current Biol. 10, 1055-1058.Google Scholar
  38. Carney, T.,Shadlen, M. andSwitkes, E., 1987: Parallel processing of motion and colour information, Nature 328, 647-649.Google Scholar
  39. Cave, C.,Blake, R. andMcNamara, T., 1998: Binocular rivalry disrupts visual priming, Psychol. Sci. 9, 299-302.Google Scholar
  40. Collins, J.F. andBlackwell L.K., 1974: Effects of eye dominance and retinal distance on binocular rivalry, Percept. Mot. Skills 39, 747-754.Google Scholar
  41. Creed, R.S., 1935: Observations on binocular fusion and rivalry, J. Physiol. 84, 381-392.Google Scholar
  42. Das, A. andGilbert, C. D., 1995: Long-range horizontal connections and their role in cortical reorganization revealed by optical recording of cat primary visual cortex, Nature 375, 780-784.Google Scholar
  43. Diaz-Caneja, E., 1928: Sur l'alternance binoculaire, Ann. Oculist, October, 721-731.Google Scholar
  44. Dörrenhaus, W., 1975: Musterspezifischer visueller wettstreit, Naturwissenschaften 62, 578-579.Google Scholar
  45. Engel, E., 1956: The role of content in binocular resolution, Amer. J. Psychol. 69, 87-91.Google Scholar
  46. Engel, A.A.K.,Fries, P.,Konig, P.,Brecht, M. andSinger, W., 1999: Temporal binding, binocular rivalry and consciousness, Consciousness Cogn. 8, 128-151.Google Scholar
  47. Fahle, M., 1982: Cooperation between different spatial frequencies in binocular rivalry, Biol. Cybern. 44, 27-29.Google Scholar
  48. Fahle, M., 1987: Naso-temporal asymmetry of binocular inhibition, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 1016-1017.Google Scholar
  49. Field, D.J.,Hayes, A. andHess, R.F., 1993: Contour integrations by the human visual system: evidence for a local “association” field, Vision Res. 33, 173-193.Google Scholar
  50. Fox, R., 1991: Binocular rivalry, in D.M. Regan (ed.), Binocular Vision and Psychophysics. MacMillan Press, London, pp. 93-110.Google Scholar
  51. Fox, R. andHerrmann, J., 1967: Stochastic properties of binocular rivalry alternations, Percept. Psychophys. 2, 432-436.Google Scholar
  52. Fox, R. andCheck, R., 1968: Detection of motion during binocular rivalry suppression, J. Exp. Psychol. 78, 388-395.Google Scholar
  53. Fox, R. andRasche, F., 1969: Binocular rivalry and reciprocal inhibition, Percept. Psychophys. 5, 215-217.Google Scholar
  54. Fox, R. andCheck, R., 1972: Independence between binocular rivalry suppression and duration and magnitude of suppression, J. Exp. Psychol. 93, 283-289.Google Scholar
  55. Fukuda, H., 1981: Magnitude of suppression of binocular rivalry within the invisible pattern, Percept. Mot. Skills 53, 371-375.Google Scholar
  56. Fukuda, H. andBlake, R., 1992: Spatial interactions in binocular rivalry, J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perf. 18, 362-370.Google Scholar
  57. Gibson, J.J., 1966: The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston.Google Scholar
  58. Goryo, K., 1969: The effect of past experience upon the binocular rivalry, Jap. Psychol. Res. 11, 46-53.Google Scholar
  59. Grindley, G.C. andTownsend, V., 1965: Binocular masking induced by a moving object, Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 17, 97-109.Google Scholar
  60. Harrad, R.A.,McKee, S.P.,Blake, R. andYang, Y., 1994: Binocular rivalry disrupts Stereopsis, Perception 23, 15-28.Google Scholar
  61. Helmholtz, H. von., 1925: In J.P. Southall (ed.), Treatise on Physiological Optics, Dover, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Hochberg, J., 1964: Depth perception loss with local monocular suppression: a problem in the explanation of stereopsis, Science 145, 1334-1335.Google Scholar
  63. Hollins, M., 1980: The effect of contrast on the completeness of binocular rivalry suppression, Percept. Psychophys. 27, 550-556.Google Scholar
  64. Hollins, M. andLeung E.H.L., 1978: The influence of color on binocular rivalry, in J.C. Armington,J. Krauskopf andB.R. Wooten (eds.), Visual Psychophysics and Physiology, Academic Press, New York, pp. 181-190.Google Scholar
  65. Hollins, M.And Hudnell, K., 1980: Adaptation of the binocular rivalry mechanism, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., 19, 1117-1120.Google Scholar
  66. Holopigian, K., 1989: Clinical suppression and binocular rivalry suppression: the effects of stimulus strength on the depth of suppression, Vision Res. 29, 1325-1334.Google Scholar
  67. Howard, I.P. andRogers, B.J., 1995: Binocular Vision and Stereopsis, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  68. Ichihara, S. andGoryo, K., 1978: The effects of relative orientation of surrounding gratings on binocular rivalry and apparent brightness of central gratings, Jap. Psychol. Res. 20, 159-166.Google Scholar
  69. Jalavisto, E., 1964: The phenomenon of retinal rivalry in the aged, Gerontologia 9, 1-8.Google Scholar
  70. Julesz, B. andMiller, J.E., 1975: Independent spatial-frequency-tuned channels in binocular fusion and rivalry, Perception 4, 125-143.Google Scholar
  71. Julesz, B. andTyler, C.W., 1976: Neurontropy, an entropy-like measure of neural correlation in binocular fusion and rivalry, Biol. Cybern. 23, 25-32.Google Scholar
  72. Kakizaki, S., 1960: Binocular rivalry and stimulus intensity, Jap. Psychol. Res. 2, 94-105.Google Scholar
  73. Kaufman, L., 1963: On the spread of suppression and binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 3, 401-415.Google Scholar
  74. Kovács, I.,Papathomas, T.V.,Yang, M. andFehér, A., 1997: When the brain changes its mind, Interocular grouping during binocular rivalry, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 15508-15511.Google Scholar
  75. Kulikowski, J.J., 1992: Binocular chromatic rivalry and single vision, Ophthal. Physiol. Optics 12, 168-170.Google Scholar
  76. Lack, L., 1969: The effect of practice on binocular rivalry control, Percept. Psychophys. 6, 397-400.Google Scholar
  77. Lack, L., 1978: Selective Attention and the Control of Binocular Rivalry. Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  78. Lee, S.H. andBlake, R. 1999: Rival ideas about binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 39, 1447-1454.Google Scholar
  79. Lehky S.R., 1988: An astable multivibrator model of binocular rivalry, Perception 17, 215-228.Google Scholar
  80. Lehky, S.R., 1995: Binocular rivalry is not chaotic, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 259, 71-76.Google Scholar
  81. Lehmkuhle, S. andFox, R., 1976: Effect of binocular rivalry suppression on the motion aftereffect, Vision Res. 15, 855-859.Google Scholar
  82. Leopold, D. andLogothetis, N., 1996: Activity changes in early visual cortex reflect monkeys' percepts during binocular rivalry, Nature 379, 549-553.Google Scholar
  83. Levelt, W., 1965: On Binocular Rivalry, Soesterberg, the Netherlands, Institute for Perception RVOTNO.Google Scholar
  84. Liu, L.,Tyler, C.W. andSchor, C.M., 1992: Failure of rivalry at low contrast: evidence of a suprathreshold binocular summation process, Vision Res. 32, 1471-1479.Google Scholar
  85. Livingstone, M.S. andHubel, D.H., 1987: Psychophysical evidence for separate channels for the perception of form, color, movement, and depth, J. Neurosci. 7, 3416-3468.Google Scholar
  86. Logothetis, N.K., 1998: Single units and conscious vision, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 353, 1801-1818.Google Scholar
  87. Logothetis, N.K., 1999: Vision: a window on consciousness, Scientific Amer. 281, 68-75.Google Scholar
  88. Logothetis, N.K. andSchall, J.D., 1989: Neuronal correlates of subjective visual perception, Science 245, 761-763.Google Scholar
  89. Logothetis, N.K.,Leopold, D.A. andSheinberg, D.L., 1996: What is rivalling during binocular rivalry? Nature 380, 621-624.Google Scholar
  90. Lorber, M.,Zuber, B.L. andStark, L., 1965: Suppression of the pupillary light reflex in binocular rivalry and saccadic suppression, Nature 208, 558-560.Google Scholar
  91. LoSciuto, L.A. andHartley, E.L., 1963: Religious affiliation and open-mindedness in binocular resolution, Percept. Mot. Skills 17, 427-430.Google Scholar
  92. Lumer, E.D.,Friston, K. andRees, G., 1998: Neural correlates of perceptual rivalry in the human brain, Science 280, 1930-1934.Google Scholar
  93. Mapperson, B. andLovegrove, W., 1991: Orientation and spatial-frequency-specific surround effects on binocular rivalry, Bull. Psychon. Soc. 29, 95-97.Google Scholar
  94. Mayhew, J.E.W. andFrisby, J.P., 1976: Rivalrous texture stereograms, Nature 264, 53-56.Google Scholar
  95. Meenes, M., 1930: A phenomenological description of retinal rivalry, Amer. J. Psychol. 42, 260-269.Google Scholar
  96. Mueller, T.J., 1990: A physiological model of binocular rivalry, Visual Neurosci. 4, 63-73.Google Scholar
  97. Mueller, T.J. andBlake, R., 1989: A fresh look at the temporal dynamics of binocular rivalry, Biol. Cybern. 61, 223-232.Google Scholar
  98. Myerson, J.,Miezin, F. andAllman, J., 1981: Binocular rivalry in macaque monkeys and humans: a comparative study in perception, Behav. Anal. Letters 1, 149-159.Google Scholar
  99. Neisser, U. andBecklen, R., 1975: Selective looking: attending to visually specified events, Cogn. Psychol. 7, 480-494.Google Scholar
  100. Ogle, K.N.andWakefield, J.M., 1967: Stereoscopic depth and binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 7, 89-98.Google Scholar
  101. Ono, H.,Angus, R. andGregor, P., 1977: Binocular single vision achieved by fusion and suppression, Percept. Psychophys. 21, 513-521.Google Scholar
  102. Ooi, T.L. andHe, Z.J., 1999: Binocular rivalry and visual awareness: the role of attention, Perception 28, 551-574.Google Scholar
  103. O'shea, R.P., 1987: Chronometric analysis supports fusion rather than suppression theory of binocular vision, Vision Res. 27, 781-791.Google Scholar
  104. O'shea, R.P. andCrassini, B., 1981: Interocular transfer of the motion aftereffect is not reduced by binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 21, 801-804.Google Scholar
  105. O'shea, R.P. andCrassini, B., 1981: The sensitivity of binocular rivalry suppression to changes in orientation assessed by reaction-time and forced-choice techniques, Perception 10, 283-293.Google Scholar
  106. O'shea, R.P. andCrassini, B., 1984: Binocular rivalry occurs without simultaneous presentation of rival stimuli, Percept. Psychophys. 36, 266-276.Google Scholar
  107. O'shea, R.P. and Blake, R., 1986: Dichoptic temporal frequency differences do not lead to binocular rivalry, Percept. Psychophys. 39, 59-63.Google Scholar
  108. O'shea, R.P. andWilliams, D.R., 1996: Binocular rivalry with isoluminant stimuli visible only via short-wavelength-sensitive cones, Vision Res. 36, 1561-1571.Google Scholar
  109. O'shea, R.P.,Blake, R. andWolfe, J.M., 1994: Binocular rivalry and fusion under scotopic luminances, Perception 23, 771-784.Google Scholar
  110. O'shea, R.P.,Sims, A.J.H. andGovan, D.G., 1997: The effect of spatial frequency and field size on the spread of exclusive visibility in binocular rivalry, Vision Res. 37, 175-183.Google Scholar
  111. Palmer, S.E., 1999: Vision Science: Photons to Phenomenology, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  112. Papathomas, T.V.,Kovács, I.I.,Fehér, A. andJulesz, B., 1999: Visual dilemmas: competition between eyes and between percepts in binocular rivalry, in E. Lepore andZ. Pylyshyn (eds), What is Vognitive Science? Blackwell Publishers, Malden, MA, pp. 263-294.Google Scholar
  113. Polansky, A.,Blake, R.,Braun, J. andHeeger, D., 2000: Neuronal activity in human primary visual cortex correlates with perception during binocular rivalry, Nature Neurosci. 3, 1153-1159.Google Scholar
  114. Porta, J.B., 1593: De Refractione. Optices Parte. Libri Novem. Carlinum and Pacem, Naples (cited in Wade, 1998).Google Scholar
  115. Ramachandran, V.S., 1991: Form, motion, and binocular rivalry, Science 251, 950-951.Google Scholar
  116. Sheinberg, D.L. andLogothetis, N.K., 1997: The role of temporal cortical areas in perceptual organization, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 3408-3413.Google Scholar
  117. Sherrington, C.S., 1906: Integrative Action of the Nervous System, Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  118. Shimojo, S. andNakayama, K., 1990: Real world occlusion constraints and binocular rivalry, Vision Res 30, 69-80.Google Scholar
  119. Smith, E.L.,Levi, D.M.,Harwerth, R.S. andWhite, J.M., 1982: Color vision is altered during the suppression phase of binocular rivalry, Science 218, 802-804.Google Scholar
  120. Srinivasan, R.,Russell, D.P.,Edelman, G. M. andTononi, G., 1999: Increased synchronization of neuromagnetic responses during conscious perception, J. Neurosci. 19, 5435-5448.Google Scholar
  121. Struber, D. andStadler, M., 1999: Differences in top-down influences on the reversal rate of different categories of reversible figures, Perception 28, 1185-1196.Google Scholar
  122. Sugie, N., 1982: Neural models of brightness perception and retinal rivalry in binocular vision, Biol. Cybern. 43, 13-21.Google Scholar
  123. Thompson, R.F., 1985 The Brain, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Tong, F.,Nakayama, K.,Vaughan, J.T. andKanwisher, N., 1998: Binocular rivalry and visual awareness in human extrastriate cortex, Neuron 21, 753-759.Google Scholar
  125. Tononi, G.,Srinivvasan, R.,Russell, D.P. andEdelman, G.M., 1998: Investigating neural correlates of conscious perception by frequency-tagged neuromagnetic responses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 3198-3203.Google Scholar
  126. Tootell, R.B.H.,Reppas, J.B.,Dale, A.M.,Look, R.B.,Sereno, M.I.,Malach, R.,Brady, T.J. andRosen, B.R., 1995: Visual motion aftereffect in human cortical area MT revealed by magnetic resonance imagery. Nature 375, 139-141.Google Scholar
  127. Treisman, A.M., 1962: Binocular rivalry and stereoscopic depth perception, Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 14, 23-37.Google Scholar
  128. Treisman, A. andSchmidt, H., 1982: Illusory conjunctions in the perception of objects, Cogn. Psychol. 14, 107-141.Google Scholar
  129. van de Grind, A., van Hof, P., van der Smagt, M.J. and Verstraten, A.J., in press: Slow and fast visual motion channels have independent binocular rivalry stages, Proc. Roy. Soc., Biol. Sci. Google Scholar
  130. van der Zwan, R. andWenderoth, P., 1994: Psychophysical evidence for area V2 involvement in the reduction of subjective contour tilt aftereffects by binocular rivalry, Visual Neurosci. 11, 823-830.Google Scholar
  131. van der Zwan, R.,Wenderoth, P. andAlais, D., 1993: Reduction of a pattern-induced motion aftereffect by binocular rivalry suggests the involvement of extrastriate mechanisms, Visual Neurosci. 10, 703-709.Google Scholar
  132. Wade, N.J., 1974: The effect of orientation in binocular contour rivalry of real images and afterimages, Percept. Psychophys. 15, 227-232.Google Scholar
  133. Wade, N.J., 1975: Binocular rivalry between single lines viewed as real images and afterimages, Percept. Psychophys. 17, 571-577.Google Scholar
  134. Wade, N.J., 1998: A Natural History of Vision, MIT Press, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  135. Wade, N.J. andWenderoth, P., 1978: The influence of colour and contour rivalry on the magnitude of the tilt after-effect, Vision Res. 18, 827-836.Google Scholar
  136. Wade, N.J.,de Weert, C.M. M. andSwanston, M.T., 1984: Binocular rivalry with moving patterns, Percept. Psychophys. 35, 111-122.Google Scholar
  137. Wales, R. andFox, R. 1970: Increment detection thresholds during binocular rivalry suppression, Percept. Psychophys. 8, 90-94.Google Scholar
  138. Walker, P., 1975: The subliminal perception of movement and the “suppression” in binocular rivalry, Br. J. Psychol. 66, 347-356.Google Scholar
  139. Walker, P., 1978: Binocular rivalry: central or peripheral selective processes? Psychol. Bull. 85, 376-389.Google Scholar
  140. Walker, P. andPowell, D.J., 1979: The sensitivity of binocular rivalry to changes in the nondominant stimulus, Vision Res. 19, 247-249.Google Scholar
  141. Wiesenfelder, H. andBlake, R., 1990: The neural site of binocular rivalry relative to the analysis of motion in the human visual system, J. Neurosci. 10, 3880-3888.Google Scholar
  142. Wiesenfelder, H. andBlake, R., 1991: Apparent motion can survive binocular rivalry suppression, Vision Res. 31, 1589-1600.Google Scholar
  143. Wheatstone, C., 1838: On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, phenomena of binocular vision. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 128, 371-394.Google Scholar
  144. Whittle, P., 1965: Binocular rivalry and the contrast at contours, Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 17, 217-226.Google Scholar
  145. Whittle, P.,Bloor, D. andPocock, S. 1968: Some experiments on figural effects in binocular rivalry, Percept. Psychophys. 4, 183-188.Google Scholar
  146. Wolfe, J., 1983: Influence of spatial frequency, luminance, and duration on binocular rivalry and abnormal fusion of briefly presented dichoptic stimuli, Perception 12, 447-456.Google Scholar
  147. Wolfe, J., 1986: Stereopsis and binocular rivalry, Psychol. Rev. 93, 269-282.Google Scholar
  148. Wolfe, J. andFranzel, S.L., 1988: Binocularity and visual search, Percept. Psychophys. 44, 81-93.Google Scholar
  149. Yang, Y.,Rose, D. andBlake, R., 1992: On the variety of percepts associated with dichoptic viewing of dissimilar monocular stimuli, Perception 21, 47-62.Google Scholar
  150. Yu, K. andBlake, R., 1992: Do recognizable figures enjoy an advantage in binocular rivalry? J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perf. 18, 1158-1173.Google Scholar
  151. Zimba, L. andBlake, R., 1983: Binocular rivalry and semantic processing: Out of sight, out of mind, J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perf. 9, 807-815.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randolph Blake
    • 1
  1. 1.Vanderbilt Vision Research CenterVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations