Biologia Plantarum

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 7–12 | Cite as

Efficient In Vitro Micropropagation and Regeneration of Humulus Lupulus on Low Sugar, Starch-Gelrite Media

  • I. Smýkalová
  • M. Ortová
  • H. Lipavská
  • J. Patzak


Several Czech and foreign hop mericlones were tested in vitro for efficiency of green callus formation and plant regeneration from internodal or nodal explants. Modified MS media gelled either with agar, starch or a mixture of potato starch and Gelrite, supplemented with different concentrations of either glucose or maltose, were investigated. Two mericlones of Czech hop (Osvald 72 no. 5216 and Sládek no. 6908) were studied in more details because of their different regeneration capacities. The HPLC analysis of medium sugar concentrations after the explant cultivation has revealed slow uptake of sugar from the medium. Presence of glucose at concentration of 45 g dm−3 in agar medium resulted in a decreased number of nodes compared to the control with 30 g dm−3 of glucose. The use of a mixture of potato starch plus Gelrite instead of routinely used agar and decreasing the medium glucose concentration to 15 g dm−3 proved to be most efficient for multiplication rate. The use of this medium results in lower cost of micropropagation of healthy hop cultures without exhibition of vitrification.

gelling agents glucose hop maltose micropropagation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Batista, D., Sousa, M.J., Pais, M.S.: Plant regeneration from shoot and petiole-derived callus of Humulus lupulus L. (hop) clone Bragança and var. Brewer's Gold.-In Vitro cell. develop. Biol. 32: 37–41, 1996.Google Scholar
  2. Galzy, R., Compan, D.: Remarks on mixotrophic and autotrophic carbon nutrition of Vitis plantlets cultured in vitro.-Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 31: 239–244, 1992.Google Scholar
  3. George, E.F. (ed.): Plant Production by Tissue Culture. Part I. The Technology. 2nd Edition.-Exegetics Ltd., Edington-Westbury 1993.Google Scholar
  4. George, E.F., Sherington, P.D.: Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture: Handbook and Directory of Commercial Laboratories.-Exegetics Ltd., Edington-Westbury 1984.Google Scholar
  5. Henderson, W.E., Kinnersley, A.M.: Corn starch as an alternative gelling agent for plant tissue culture.-Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 15: 17–22, 1988.Google Scholar
  6. Kang, K.S., Veeder, G.T., Mirrasoul, P.J., Kaneko, T., Cottrell, W.: Agar-like polysaccharides produced by a Pseudomonas species: Production and basic properties.-Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43: 1086–1091, 1982.Google Scholar
  7. Langezaal, C.r., Scheffer, J.J.C.: Initiation and growth characterisation of some hop cell suspension cultures.-Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 30: 159–164, 1992.Google Scholar
  8. Lee, N., Wetzstein, H.Y., Sommer, H.E.: Effect of quantum flux density on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in tissue-cultured plantlets and seedlings of Liquidambar styraciflua L. towards improved acclimatization and field survival.-Plant Physiol. 78: 637–641, 1985.Google Scholar
  9. Mathes, M.C., Morselli, M., Marvin, J.V.: Use of various carbon sources by isolated maple callus cultures.-Plant Cell Physiol. 14: 797–801, 1973.Google Scholar
  10. Murashige, T., Skoog, F.: A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture.-Physiol. Plant. 15: 473–497, 1962.Google Scholar
  11. Nairn, B.J.: Significance of gelling agents in a production tissue culture laboratory.-Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Propag. Soc. 37: 200–205, 1988.Google Scholar
  12. Paul, M., Stitt, M.: Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies on levels of carbohydrates, respitatory enzymes and metabolites in seedlings of tobacco and their response to exogenous sucrose.-Plant Cell Environ. 16: 1047–1057, 1993.Google Scholar
  13. Rakouský, S., Matoušek, J.: Direct organogenesis in hop — a prerequisite for application of A. tumefaciens — mediated transformation.-Biol. Plant. 36: 191–200, 1994.Google Scholar
  14. Sheen, J.: Metabolic repression of transcription in higher plants.-Plant Cell 2: 1027–1038, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. Solárová, J.: Photosynthesis of plant regenerants: Diurnal variation in CO2 concentration in cultivation vessels resulting from plantlets photosynthetic activity.-Photosynthetica 23: 100–107, 1989.Google Scholar
  16. Svoboda, P.: Clonal micropropagation of hop in vitro.-Rost. Výroba (Praha) 37: 643–648, 1991.Google Scholar
  17. Svoboda, P.: Callus culture of hop.-Rost. Výroba (Praha) 37: 643–648, 1992a.Google Scholar
  18. Svoboda, P.: Tissue culture of hop.-Rost. Výroba (Praha) 38: 107–112, 1992b.Google Scholar
  19. Svoboda, P.: Culture isolated from shoot apex of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in vitro.-Rost. Výroba (Praha) 38: 523–528, 1992c.Google Scholar
  20. Šustar-Vozlič, J., Bohanec, B., Javornik, B.: Hop callus culture and attempts of shoot regeneration.-Book of Abstracts. Proceedings of IPBA. Pp. 57–63. Rogla 1996.Google Scholar
  21. Tichá, I.: Optimization of photoautotrophic tobacco in vitro culture: effect of suncaps closures on plantlet growth.-Photosynthetica 32: 475–479, 1996.Google Scholar
  22. Trevisan, M.T.S., Scheffer, J.J.C., Verpoorte, R.: Effect of elicitation on the peroxidase activity in merishoot cell suspension cultures of hop, Humulus lupulus.-Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 48: 121–126, 1997.Google Scholar
  23. Welander, M., Pawlicki, N.: Carbon compounds and their influence on in vitro growth and organogenesis.-In: Lumsden, P.J., Nicholas, J.R., Davies, W.J. (ed.): Physiology, Growth and Development of Plants in Culture. Pp. 83–93. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1994.Google Scholar
  24. Zimmerman, R.H., Bhardwaj, S.V., Fordham, I.M.: Use of starch-gelled medium for tissue culture of some fruit crops.-Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 43: 207–213, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Smýkalová
    • 1
  • M. Ortová
    • 1
  • H. Lipavská
    • 2
  • J. Patzak
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Tissue Culture, Faculty of AgronomyCzech University of AgriculturePrague 6 - SuchdolCzech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of ScienceCharles UniversityPrague 2Czech Republic
  3. 3.Hop Research Institute Co., Ltd.ŽatecCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations