Journal of Philosophical Logic

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 155–185 | Cite as

Constraints for Input/Output Logics

  • David Makinson
  • Leendert van der Torre


In a previous paper we developed a general theory of input/output logics. These are operations resembling inference, but where inputs need not be included among outputs, and outputs need not be reusable as inputs. In the present paper we study what happens when they are constrained to render output consistent with input. This is of interest for deontic logic, where it provides a manner of handling contrary-to-duty obligations. Our procedure is to constrain the set of generators of the input/output system, considering only the maximal subsets that do not yield output conflicting with a given input. When inputs are authorised to reappear as outputs, both maxichoice revision in the sense of Alchourrón/Makinson and the default logic of Poole emerge as special cases, and there is a close relation with Reiter default logic. However, our focus is on the general case where inputs need not be outputs. We show in what contexts the consistency of input with output may be reduced to its consistency with a truth-functional combination of components of generators, and under what conditions constrained output may be obtained by a derivation that is constrained at every step.

input/output logic contrary-to-duty obligations deontic logic consistency constraints default logics revision 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Makinson
    • 1
  • Leendert van der Torre
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ComputingKing's CollegeLondon
  2. 2.Department of Artificial IntelligenceVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands

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