Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus

, Volume 1, Issue 3–4, pp 255–265 | Cite as

Solubility and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals in Two Contaminated Urban Soils from Stockholm, Sweden

  • Ingrid Öborn
  • Mats Linde


The solubility and potential mobility of heavy metals (Cd, Cu,Hg, Pb and Zn) in two urban soils were studied by sequential andleaching extractions (rainwater). Compared to rural (arable) soils on similar parent material, the urban soils were highlycontaminated with Hg and Pb and to a lesser extent also with Cd,Cu and Zn. Metal concentrations in rainwater leachates were related to sequential extractions and metal levels reported fromStockholm groundwater. Cadmium and Zn in the soils were mainly recovered in easily extractable fractions, whereas Cu and Pb were complex bound. Concentrations of Pb in the residual fractionwere between two- and eightfold those in arable soils, indicatingthat the sequential extraction scheme did not reflect the solidphases affected by anthropogenic inputs. Cadmium and Zn conc. inthe rainwater leachates were within the range detected in Stockholm groundwater, while Cu and Pb conc. were higher, whichsuggests that Cu and Pb released from the surface soil were immobilised in deeper soil layers. In a soil highly contaminatedwith Hg, the Hg conc. in the leachate was above the median concentration, but still 50 times lower than the max concentration found in groundwater, indicating the possibilityof other sources. In conclusion, it proved difficult to quantitatively predict the mobility of metals in soils by sequential extractions.

cadmium contaminated copper leaching lead mercury mobility sequential extractions solubility urban soils zinc 


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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingrid Öborn
    • 1
  • Mats Linde
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Soil SciencesSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.Department of Soil SciencesSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

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