Environmental and Resource Economics

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 1–26 | Cite as

Environmental Policies

  • Marjan W. Hofkes


This paper analyses a model in which botheconomic and ecological relationships as wellas all the interactions between the two arefully specified. It compares the short termand the long term effects of shocks inenvironmental policies. It appears that shortrun effects may differ substantially fromlong run effects, with respect to both levelsand growth rates of various variables. Thoughin the short run growth optimists may beright, in the long run there appears to be,under the chosen specification, a trade-offbetween economic growth and environmentalquality.

endogenous growth environmental quality renewable resources sustainable development 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marjan W. Hofkes
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM)Vrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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