Advertisement

Euphytica

, 120:115 | Cite as

Genomic and biological diversity of the African cassava geminiviruses

  • J.S. Pita
  • V.N. Fondong
  • A. Sangaré
  • R.N.N. Kokora
  • C.M. Fauquet
Article

Abstract

The virological situation of cassava in Africa is increasing in complexity due to the number and types of viruses isolated from different locations within the continent. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequences of both A and B components of two geminivirus species infecting cassava in the Ivory Coast and review the current knowledge of the molecular and biological diversity of the African cassava geminiviruses. As a whole, newly obtained sequences are compared with those of the African cassava mosaic geminiviruses identified to date. Results indicate that all isolates of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV), irrespective of their geographical origin are clustered together with little or no variation in their genomic sequence. On the contrary, the genomes of the East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) are more genetically diverse due to the frequent occurrence of recombinations within their two components. Indeed, the EACMV-like viruses vary so much that their classification is becoming problematic. In addition, there is also a large range of phenotypic symptom variation for each of these virus species, irrespective of the location of isolation. Furthermore, it has been shown that ACMV and EACMV can be synergistic in cassava, resulting in a greater DNA accumulation and consequently inducing severe symptoms. For all these reasons, this paper initiates a discussion concerning the species demarcation for cassava geminivirus.

African cassava mosaic disease geminivirus synergism trans-replication 

References

  1. Berrie, L.C., K. Palmer, E.P. Rybicki & M.E.C. Rey, 1997. A New Isolate of African CassavaMosaic Virus in South Africa. Proc 3rd Intl Sci Meeting, Cassava Biotechnology Network (CBN III) 26–31 August 1996. Kampala, Uganda.Google Scholar
  2. Brough, C.L., R.J. Hayes, A.J. Morgan, R.H.A. Coutts & K.W. Buck, 1988. Effects ofmutagenesis in vitro on ability of cloned tomato golden mosaic virus DNA to infect Nicotiana benthamiana plants. J Gen Virol 69: 503–514.Google Scholar
  3. Chatterji, A., M. Padidam, R.N. Beachy & C.M. Fauquet, 1999. Identification of replicationspecificity determinants in two strains of tomato leaf curl virus from New Delhi. J Virol 73: 5481–5489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chatterji, A., U. Chatterji, R.N. Beachy & C.M. Fauquet, 2000. De-fining sequence parameters that determinespecificity of binding of the replication associated protein to its cognate sites in two strains of tomato leaf curl virus. Virology (In press).Google Scholar
  5. Dellaporta, S.L., J. Wood & J.B. Hicks, 1983. A plant DNA mini preparation: Version II. Plant Mol BiolRep 1: 19–21.Google Scholar
  6. Deng, D., W.G. Otim-Nape, A. Sangaré, S. Ogwal, R.N. Beachy & C.M. Fauquet, 1997.Presence of a new virus closely related to East African cassava mosaic geminivirus, associated with cassava mosaic outbreak in Uganda. Afr J Root Tuber Crops 2: 23–28.Google Scholar
  7. Etessami, P., R. Callis, S. Ellwood & J. Stanley, 1988.Delimitation of essential genes of cassava latent virus DNA 2. Nuc Acids Res 14: 1253–1265.Google Scholar
  8. Fargette, D.,C.M. Fauquet & J.C. Thouvenel, 1988. Yield losses induced by African cassava mosaic virus in relation to the mode and date of infection. Trop pest Manag 34: 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fondong, V.N., J.S. Pita, C. Rey, R.N. Beachy & C.M. Fauquet, 1998. First report of the presence of East African cassava mosaic virus in Cameroon. Plant Dis 82: 1172.Google Scholar
  10. Fondong, V.N., J.S. Pita, M.E.C. Rey, A. DeKochko, R.N. Beachy & C.M. Fauquet, 2000. Evidenceof Synergism Between African Cassava Mosaic Virus and a New Double Recombinant Geminivirus Infecting Cassava in Cameroon. J Gen Virol 81: 287–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Harrison, B.D., A.M. Lennon, P.R. Massalski, D.J. Robinson & J.E. Thomas,1986. SCRI (Scottish Crop Research Institute. 1986. Annual Report 1986. Dundee, Scotland. pp. 179–180.Google Scholar
  12. Ingham, D.J., E. Pascal & S.G. Lazarowitz, 1995. Both bipartite geminivirus movement proteins define viral hostrange, but only BL1 determines viral pathogenicity. Virology 207: 191–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Padidam, M., R.N. Beachy & C.M. Fauquet, 1995. Classification and identification of geminiviruses using sequence comparisons. J Gen Virol 76: 249–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Padidam, M., S. Sawyer & C.M. Fauquet, 1999. Possible emergence of new geminiviruses byfrequent recombination. Virology 265: 218–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pita, J.S., V.N. Fondong, A. Sangaré, G.W. Otim-Nape, S. Ogwal & C.M. Fauquet, 1999. Biodiversity of Cassava Mosaic Disease in East and West Africa: Special Cases in Uganda and Ivory Coast. In: Proc 4th Intl Sci Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. November 3–7, 1999.Google Scholar
  16. Pita, J.S., V.N. Fondong, A. Sangaré, G.W. Otim-Nape, S. Ogwal & C.M. Fauquet, 2000.Recombination, pseudo-recombination and synergism of geminiviruses are determinant keys to the epidemic of severe cassava mosaic disease in Uganda. Submitted.Google Scholar
  17. Rogers, S.G., D.M. Bisaro, R.T. Fraley, N.L. Hoffmann, L. Brand, J.S. Elmer & A.M. Lioyd, 1986. Tomato golden mosaic virus A component DNA replicates autonomously in transgenic plants. Cell 45: 593–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sunter, G., W.E. Gardinier, A.E. Rushing, S.G. Rogers & D.M. Bisaro, 1987. Independentencapsidation of tomato golden mosaic virus A component DNA in transgenic plants. Plant Mol Biol 8: 477–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Swanson, M.M. & B.D. Harrison, 1994. Properties, relationships and distribution of cassava mosaic geminiviruses.Trop Sci 34: 15–25.Google Scholar
  20. Swofford, D.L., 1993. PAUP: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, Version 3.1.1.Champaign, IL: Illinois Natural History Survey.Google Scholar
  21. Townsend, R., J. Watts & J. Stanley, 1986. Synthesis of viralDNA forms in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protopasts inoculated with cassava latent virus (CLV): Evidence for the independent replication of one component of CLV genome. Nuc Acids Res 14: 1253–1265.Google Scholar
  22. Von Arnim, A., T. Frischmuth & J. Stanley, 1993. Detection and possible functions of African cassava mosaic virus DNA B gene products. Virology 192: 264–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Van Regenmortel, M.H.V., D.H.L. Bishop, C.M. Fauquet, M.A. Mayo, J. Maniloff & C.H. Calisher, 1997. Guidelines to the demarcation of virus species. Arch Virol 142: 1505–1518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. VanRegenmortel, M.H.V., 1998. From absolute to exquisite specificity. Reflections on the fuzzy nature of species, specificity and antigenetic sites. J Immunol Meth 216: 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhou, X., Y. Lui, L. Calvert, C. Munoz, G.W. Otim-Nape, D.J. Robinson & B.D. Harrison, 1997. Evidence that DNA-A of a geminivirus associated with severe cassava mosaic disease in Uganda has arisen by inter specific recombination. J Gen Virol 78: 2101–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.S. Pita
    • 1
    • 2
  • V.N. Fondong
    • 3
  • A. Sangaré
    • 2
  • R.N.N. Kokora
    • 1
    • 2
  • C.M. Fauquet
    • 4
  1. 1.International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology (ILTAB)/Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, UMSL/CME-M308St LouisU.S.A.
  2. 2.Laboratoire de GénétiqueUniversité de CocodyAbidjan 22Côte d'Ivoire
  3. 3.Dept. of Plant PathologyCornell UniversityIthacaU.S.A.
  4. 4.International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology (ILTAB)/Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, UMSL/CME-M308St LouisU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations