Hydrobiologia

, Volume 387, Issue 0, pp 101–107

Phylogenetic relationships of phylum Rotifera with emphasis on the families of Bdelloidea

  • Giulio Melone
  • Claudia Ricci
  • Hendrik Segers
  • Robert L. Wallace
Article

Abstract

We investigated phylogenetic relationships of phylum Rotifera using cladistic analysis to uncover all most-parsimonious trees from a data set comprising 60 morphological characters of nine taxa: one Acanthocephala, six Rotifera, and two outgroups (Turbellaria, Gnathostomulida). Analysis of our matrix yielded a single most-parsimonious tree. From our analysis we conclude the following: (1) Class Digononta is paraphyletic; (2) it is still premature to reject rotiferan monophyly; (3) the classification hierarchy that best conforms to this morphologically based, cladistic analysis is similar to several traditional schemes. In spite of these results, it is significant that this analysis yielded a tree that is incongruent with those trees developed from molecular data or by using the principles of evolutionary taxonomy.

Acanthocephala aschelminthes cladistics evolution Gnathostomulida phylogeny pseudocoelomates Rotifera 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlrichs, W. H., 1997. Epidermal ultrastructure of Seison nebaliae and Seison annulatus, and a comparison of epidermal structures within Gnathifera. Zoomorphology 117: 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Donoghue, M. J., R. G. Olmstead, J. F. Smith & J. D. Palmer, 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of Dipsacales on RbcL sequences. Ann. MO Bot. Gard. 79: 333–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Edmondson, W. T., 1959. Rotifera. In Edmondson, W. T. (ed.), Fresh-Water Biology, 2nd edn. John Wiley, N.Y.: 420–494.Google Scholar
  4. Epp, R. W. & W. M. Lewis, Jr., 1979. Sexual dimorphism in Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera): evolutionary and adaptive significance. Evolution 33: 919–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Faith, D. P. & P. S. Cranston, 1991. Could a cladogram this short have arisen by chance alone? On permutation tests for cladistic structure. Cladistics 7: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Garey J. R., T. J. Near, M. R. Nonnemacher & S. A. Nadler, 1996. Molecular evidence for Acanthocephala as a sub-taxon of Rotifera. J. Mol. Evol. 43: 287–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Garey J. R., A. Schmidt-Rhaesa, T. J. Near & S. A. Nadler, 1998. The evolutionary relationships of rotifers and acanthocephalans. Hydrobiologia 387/388 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 134): 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hillis, D.M., 1991. Discriminating between phylogenetic signal and random noise in DNA sequences. In Miyamoto, M. M. & J. Cracraft (eds), Phylogenetic Analysis of DNA Sequences. Oxford University Press, N.Y.: 278–294.Google Scholar
  9. Kristensen, R. M., 1995. Are Aschelminthes pseudocoelomates or acoelomates? In Lanzavecchia, G., R. Valvassori & M. D. Candia Carnevali (eds), Body Cavities Function and Phylogeny. Selected Symposia and Monographs U.Z.I. 8 Mucchi, Modena: 41–43.Google Scholar
  10. Koste, W., 1978. Rotatoria. Die Rädertiere Mitteleuropas. 2 vols, Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Stuttgart, Germany.Google Scholar
  11. Lorenzen, S., 1985. Phylogenetic aspects of pseudocoelomate evolution. In Conway Morris, S., J. D. George & H. M. Platt (eds), The Origins and Relationships of Lower Invertebrates. System. Assoc. Volume 28. Clarendon Press, Oxford, U.K.: 210–223.Google Scholar
  12. Maddison W. P. & D. R. Maddison, 1992. MacClade: Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution. Version 3.0. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.Google Scholar
  13. Markevich, G. I., 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of Rotifera to other veriform taxa. Hydrobiologia 255/256: 521–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Melone, G. & C. Ricci, 1995. Rotatory apparatus in bdelloids. Hydrobiologia 313/314: 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nielsen, C., 1995. Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  16. Nogrady, T., R. L. Wallace & T. W. Snell, 1993. Rotifera. In Dumont, H. J. (ed.), Guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World, vol. 4. SPB Academic Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  17. Pennak, R.W., 1989. Fresh-water Invertebrates of the United States, 3rd edn. John Wiley, New York, N.Y., U.S.A.Google Scholar
  18. Ricci, C., 1998. Are lemnisci and proboscis present in the Bdelloidea? Hydrobiologia 387/388 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 134): 93–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rieger, R. M. & S. Tyler, 1995. Sister-group relationship of Gnathostomulida and Rotifera-Acanthocephala. Invertebr. Biol. 114: 186–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Swofford, D. L., 1991. PAUP: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, Version 3.0s Computer program distributed by the Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  21. Wallace, R. L. & R. A. Colburn, 1989. Phylogenetic relationships within phylum Rotifera: orders and genus Notholca. Hydrobiologia 186/187: 311–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wallace, R. L., C. Ricci & G. Melone, 1996. A cladistic analysis of pseudocoelomate (aschelminth) morphology. Invertebr. Biol. 115: 104–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wallace, R. L. & T. W. Snell, 1991. Rotifera. In Thorp J. & A. Covich (eds), Ecology and Classifications of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, ch. 8. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.: 187–248.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giulio Melone
    • 1
  • Claudia Ricci
    • 1
  • Hendrik Segers
    • 2
  • Robert L. Wallace
    • 3
  1. 1.1Dipartimento di BiologiaUniversita di MilanoMilanoItaly
  2. 2.Laboratory of Animal Ecology, Zoogeography and Nature Conservation, Dept. M.S.E.University of GhentGentBelgium
  3. 3.3Department of BiologyRipon CollegeRiponU.S.A

Personalised recommendations