Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 408, Issue 0, pp 39–46 | Cite as

Predation by piscivorous fish on age-0 fish: spatial and temporal variability in a biomanipulated lake (Bautzen reservoir, Germany)

  • Hendrik Dörner
  • Annekatrin Wagner
  • Jürgen Benndorf
Article

Abstract

Predation by perch (Perca fluviatilisL.) and zander (Stizostedion luciopercaL.) on their new-hatched fish was studied in the littoral and pelagic zone in the biomanipulated Bautzen reservoir (Germany). Sampling was conducted from the middle of May to the middle of August in 1997. To investigate predation, we compared the littoral and pelagic zone, because the littoral zone could provide a refuge area for age-0 fish. This study focused on: 1. timing of predation, 2. selectivity of predation and 3. feeding pressures. In the littoral zone, age-1 perch fed first on age-0 percids at the beginning of June, when age-0 percids reached a mean length of 20 mm. Age-2 and older perch and zander started feeding on age-0 percids in the middle of June in both habitats. At this time, age-0 percids reached a mean length of 30 mm. In both habitats, species selective feeding on age-0 perch and age-0 zander was found. Most of the sampling time zander fed selectively on their own descendants. In general, mean lengths of age-0 fish found in the predator stomachs were smaller than those in situ. The strongest decrease of age-0 fish abundance started in both areas before percids began to feed on age-0 fish. In the middle of June, predation pressure on age-0 fish was higher in the pelagic zone, whereas in July and August it was higher in the littoral zone. After a strong initial decline due to unknown factors, age-0 fish abundance was controlled by piscivores. Predation started at the time when age-0 fish gape sizes were big enough to feed on large daphnids. As age-1 perch started first feeding on age-0 fish, at high densities they could be an important source of early mortality on age-0 zooplanktivores. This would be advantageous for the daphnid population in two ways, because the efficiency of two different predators would be reduced. Age-0 fish are consumed by age-1 perch, and age-1 perch feed on age-0 fish and not on daphnids. Consequently, the feeding behaviour of age-1 perch could be a key to achieve a stable long-term biomanipulation.

perch zander predation selectivity biomanipulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ali, M. A., R. A. Ryder & M. Anctil, 1977. Photoreceptors and visual pigments as related to behavioral responses and preferred habitats of perches (Percaspp.) and pikeperches (Stizostedionspp.). J. Fish Res. Bd Can. 34: 1475–1480.Google Scholar
  2. Benndorf, J., 1995. Possibilities and limits for controlling eutrophication by biomanipulation. Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 80: 519–534.Google Scholar
  3. Benndorf, J., H. Schultz, A. Benndorf, R. Unger, E. Penz, H. Kneschke, K. Kossatz, R. Dumke, U. Hornig, R. Kruspe & S. Reichel, 1988. Food-web manipulation by enhancement of piscivorous fish stocks: Long-term effects in the hypertrophic Bautzen reservoir. Limnologica 19: 97–110.Google Scholar
  4. Berg, S., E. Jeppesen & M. Søndergaard, 1997. Pike (Esox luciusL.) stocking as a biomanipulation tool. 1. Effects on the fish population in Lake Lyng, Denmark. Hydrobiologia 342/343: 311–318.Google Scholar
  5. Buijse, A. D. & R. P. Houthuijzen, 1992. Piscivory, growth and sizeselective mortality of age-0 pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca). Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 49: 894–902.Google Scholar
  6. Chesson, J., 1983. The estimation and analysis of preference and its relationship to foraging models. Ecology 64: 1297–1304.Google Scholar
  7. Craig, J. F., 1978. A study of the food and feeding of perch, Perca fluviatilisL., in Windermere. Freshwat. Biol. 8: 59–68.Google Scholar
  8. Eklöv, P., 1992. Group foraging versus solitary foraging effiency in piscivorous predators: the perch, Perca fluviatilis, and pike, Esox lucius, patterns. Anim. Behav. 44: 313–326.Google Scholar
  9. Grimm, M. P., 1989. Northern pike (Esox luciusL.) and aquatic vegetation, tools in the management of fisheries and water quality in shallow waters. Hydrobiol. Bull. 23: 59–65.Google Scholar
  10. Hartman, K. J. & F. J. Margraf, 1992. Effects of prey and predator abundances on prey consumption and growth of walleyes in Western Lake Erie. Trans. am. Fish. Soc. 121: 245–260.Google Scholar
  11. Henderson, B. A. & S. J. Nepszy, 1994. Reproductive tactics of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) in Lake Erie. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 51: 986–997.Google Scholar
  12. Hülsmann, S., T. Mehner, S. Worischka & M. Plewa. Is the difference in population dynamics of Daphnia galeatain littoral and pelagic areas of a long-term biomanipulated reservoir affected by age-0 fish predation? Hydrobiologia, this volume.Google Scholar
  13. Jacobsen, L., M. R. Perrow, F. Landkildehus, M. Hjørne, T. L. Lauridsen & S. Berg, 1997. Interactions between piscivores, zooplanktivores and zooplankton in submerged macrophytes: preliminary observations from enclosure and pond experiments. Hydrobiologia 342/343: 197–205.Google Scholar
  14. Jensen, A. L., 1992. Relationship between mortality of young walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and recruitment with different forms of compensation. Envir. Pollut. 76: 177–181.Google Scholar
  15. Knight, R. L., R. F. Carline & F. J. Margraf, 1984. Piscivory by walleyes and yellow perch in western Lake Erie. Trans. am. Fish. Soc. 113: 677–693.Google Scholar
  16. Koonce, J. F., T. B. Bagenal, R. F. Carline, K. E. F. Hokanson & M. Nagiec, 1977. Factors influencing year-class strength of percids: A summary and a model of temperature effects. J. Fish Res. Bd Can. 34: 1900–1909.Google Scholar
  17. Loadman, N. L., G. E. E. Moodie & J. A. Mathias, 1986. Significance of cannibalism in larval walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum). Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 43: 613–618.Google Scholar
  18. McQueen, D. J., R. France & C. Kraft, 1992. Confounded impact of planktivorous fish on freshwater biomanipulations. Arch. Hydrobiol. 125: 1–24.Google Scholar
  19. Mehner, T., H. Schultz, M.-G. Werner, F. Wieland, R. Herbst & J. Benndorf, 1996. Do 0+ percids couple the trophic cascade between fish and zooplankton in the top-down manipulated Bautzen reservoir (Germany)? Publ. Espec. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 21: 243–251.Google Scholar
  20. Mehner, T., M. Plewa, S. Hülsmann & S. Worischka, 1998a. Gape-size dependent feeding of age-0 perch (Perca fluviatilis) and age-0 zander (Stizostedion lucioperca) on Daphnia galeata. Arch. Hydrobiol. 142: 191–207.Google Scholar
  21. Mehner, T., H. Dörner & H. Schultz, 1998b. Factors determining the year-class strength of age-0 Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) in a biomanipulated reservoir. Arch. Fish. Mar. Res. 46(3): 241–251.Google Scholar
  22. Nielsen, L. A., 1980. Effect of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) predation on juvenile mortality and recruitment of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in Oneida Lake, New York. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 37: 11–19.Google Scholar
  23. Parma, A. M. & R. B. Deriso, 1990. Dynamics of age and size composition in a population subject to size-selective mortality: effects of phenotypic variability in growth. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 47: 274–289.Google Scholar
  24. Persson, L., 1981. The effects of temperature and meal size on the rate of gastric evacuation in perch (Perca fluviatilis) fed on fish larvae. Freshwater. Biol. 11 (2): 131–138.Google Scholar
  25. Popova, O. A. & L. A. Sytina, 1977. Food and feeding relations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca) in various waters of the USSR. J. Fish Res. Bd Can. 34: 1559–1570.Google Scholar
  26. Post, J. R. & D. J. McQueen, 1988. Ontogenetic changes in the distribution of larval and juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens): a response to prey or predators? Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 45: 1820–1826.Google Scholar
  27. Quin, J. & D. A. Culver, 1995. Effect of young-of-the-year walleye (Percidae: Stizostedion vitreum) on plankton dynamics and water quality in ponds. Hydrobiologia 297: 217–227.Google Scholar
  28. Schultz, H., 1996. Drastic decline of the proportion of males in the roach (Rutilus rutilusL.) population of Bautzen reservoir (Saxony, Germany): result of direct and indirect effects of biomanipulation. Limnologica 26: 153–164.Google Scholar
  29. Treasurer, J.W., 1989. Mortality and Production of 0+ Perch, Perca fluviatilisL., in two Scottish Lakes. J. Fish Biol. 34: 913–928.Google Scholar
  30. Treasurer, J. W., R. Owen & E. Bowers, 1992. The population dynamics of pike, Esox lucius, and perch, Perca fluviatilis, in a simple predator-prey system. Envir. Biol. Fishes 34: 65–78.Google Scholar
  31. Wissel, B. & J. Benndorf, 1998. Contrasting effects of the invertebrate predator Chaoborus obscuripesand planktivorous fish on plankton communities of a long term biomanipulation experiment. Arch. Hydrobiol. 143: 129–146Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hendrik Dörner
    • 1
  • Annekatrin Wagner
    • 1
  • Jürgen Benndorf
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of HydrobiologyDresden University of TechnologyDresdenGermany Tel

Personalised recommendations