Advertisement

Perspectives on Donald Super's Construct of Career Maturity

  • Wendy Patton
  • Jan Lokan
Article

Abstract

The evolution of Donald Super's construct of Career Maturity (CM) is traced from the Career Pattern Study of the 1950s to the innovative research of the Work Importance Study in the 1980s. Successful attempts to establish the portability of the CM construct across countries, particularly in Canada and Australia, are described. An overview of instruments derived from Super's theories about career development and maturity is presented, together with an overview of research on the correlates of CM. Reference is made to implications of changes over time in the nature of work and the nature of careers for Super's theories. As others have recognised, evolving changes in these areas mean that theories, to remain relevant, also need to evolve. The article includes discussion of some of the dimensions identified more recently as useful in explaining career development levels and patterns, including career indecision and work role salience.

Keywords

Career Development Work Role Development Level Innovative Research Successful Attempt 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achebe, C. C. (1982). Assessing the vocational maturity of students in the East Central State of Nigeria. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 20, 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvi, S. A. & Khan, S. B. (1983). An investigation into the construct validity of Crites' career maturity model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 22, 174–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansell, E. M. & Hansen, J. C. (1971). Patterns of vocational development in urban youth. Journal of Counseling and Development, 18, 505–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baloyi, D. K. (1996). Career development in high schools: A systematic cross-cultural perspective. Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa.Google Scholar
  5. Bernadelli, A., De Stefano, J. & Dumont, F. (1983). Occupational information-seeking as a function of perception of locus of control and other personality variables. Canadian Counsellor, 17, 75–81.Google Scholar
  6. Brusoki, G. C., Golin, A. K., Gallagher, R. P. & Moore, M. (1993). Career group effects on career indecision, career maturity, and locus of control of undergraduate clients. Journal of Career Assessment, 1, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buros, O. K. (1978). Eighth mental measurements year book (Vol II). Highland Park, NJ: Gryphon Press, reviews by Katz (p. 1562), Sorenson (p. 1567) and Zytowski (p. 1565).Google Scholar
  8. Cosby, A. G. & Picou, J. S. (1973). Structural models and occupational aspirations: Blackwhite variations among deep-south adolescents. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 3, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Creed, P. & Patton, W. (2000). The effect of paid work experience on the career maturity of high school students. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  10. Crites, J. O. (1965). Measurement of vocational maturity in adolescence: I: Attitude scale of the Vocational Development Inventory. Psychological Monographs, 79 (2, Whole No. 595).Google Scholar
  11. Crites, J. O. (1978). Theory and research handbook for the Career Maturity Inventory (2nd. ed.). Monterey, CA: CTB/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  12. Crites, J. O. & Savickas, M. L. (1995). Career Maturity Inventory: Source book. Clayton, NY: Careerware.Google Scholar
  13. Fouad, N. A. (1988). The construct of career maturity in the United States and Israel. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gupta, N. (1987). Career maturity: A function of grade and sex. Indian Psychologist, 4, 19–31.Google Scholar
  15. Hartman, B. W., Fuqua, D. R. & Hartman, P. T. (1983). The predictive potential of the Career Decision Scale in identifying chronic indecision. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 32, 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Healy, C. C., O'shea, D. & Crook, R. C. (1985). Relation of career attitudes to age and career progress during college. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Healy, C. C., Mitchell, J. M. & Mourton, D. L. (1987). Age and grade differences in career development among community college students. The Review of Higher Education, 10, 247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Herr, E. L. & Enderlein, T. E. (1976). Vocational maturity: The effects of school, grade, curriculum and sex. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 8, 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hickson, J. & White, E. (1989). Career maturity development in black South African adolescents: Implications for vocational counselling. South African Journal of Education, 9, 77–81.Google Scholar
  20. Jackson, G. C. (1992). The career development of high-risk college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, USA (DAI 53, 3120-A).Google Scholar
  21. Jordaan, J. P. & Heyde, M. B. (1979). Vocational maturity during the high school years. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kelly, K. R. & Colangelo, N. (1990). Effects of academic ability and gender on career development. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 13, 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khan, S. B. & Alvi, S. A. (1983). Educational, social and psychological correlates of vocational maturity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 22, 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. King, S. (1989). Sex differences in a causal model of career maturity. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68, 208–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Langley, R. (1990). Career Development Questionnaire (CDQ) manual. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council.Google Scholar
  26. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying theory of career and academic interest, choice and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Levy, B. (1987). A longitudinal study of vocational maturity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  28. Lokan, J. (1977). Locus of control in relation to Super's theory of vocational maturity during adolescence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  29. Lokan, J. (1984). Manual of the Career Development Inventory — Australian Edition. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  30. Lokan, J. J., Boss, M. W. & Patsula, P. J. (1982). A study of vocational maturity during adolescence and locus of control. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 20, 331–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lokan, J. J. & Biggs, J. B. (1982). Student characteristics and motivational and process factors in relation to styles of career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lokan, J. J. & Shears, M. J. (1995). Studies of work importance in Australia. In D. E. Super & B. Sverko (Eds.), Life roles, values and careers: International findings of the work importance study (pp. 77–99). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Loughhead, T. A., Liu, S. & Middleton, E. B. (1995). Career development for at risk youth: A program evaluation. The Career Development Quarterly, 43, 274–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Loughlin, C. A. & Barling, J. (1998). Teenagers' part-time employment and their work-related attitudes and aspirations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 197–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Luzzo, D. A. (1993). Predicting the career maturity of undergraduates: A comparison of personal, educational, and psychological factors. Journal of College Student Development, 34, 271–275.Google Scholar
  36. Luzzo, D. A. (1995). The relationship between career aspiration-current occupation congruence and the career maturity of undergraduates. Journal of Employment Counseling, 32, 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Luzzo, D. A., McWhirter, E. H.& Hutcheson, K.G. (1997). Evaluating career decision-making factors associated with employment among first-year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 38(2), 166–172.Google Scholar
  38. Luzzo, D. A. & Jenkins-Smith, A. (1998). Development and initial validation of the Assessment of Attributions for Career Decision Making. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 52, 224–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moracco, J. C. (1976). Vocational maturity of Arab and American high school students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 8, 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Naidoo, A. V., Bowman, S. L. & Gerstein. L. H. (1998). Demographics, causality, work salience, and the career maturity of African-American students: A causal model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 53, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Neely, M. A. & Johnson, C. W. (1981). The relationship of performance on six scales of the Career Development Inventory to sex, father's education, and father's occupation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 41, 917–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Neice, D. E. & Bradley, R.W. (1979). Relationship of age, sex and educational group to career decisiveness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nevill, D. D. & Super, D. E. (1986). The Salience Inventory: Theory, application and research (Manual). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  44. Nevill, D. D. & Super, D. E. (1988). Career maturity and commitment to work in university students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Niles, S.G. (1998). Special section introduction: Time and timing in career development. The Career Development Quarterly, 47(1), 4–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Niles, S. & Herr, E. L. (1989). Using secondary school behaviors to predict career behaviors in young adulthood: Does “success” breed “success”? The Career Development Quarterly, 32, 345–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Niles, S. G. & Goodnough, G. E. (1996). Life-role salience and values: A review of recent research. The Career Development Quarterly, 45, 65–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Patton,W. & Creed, P. (in press). Developmental issues in career maturity and career decision status. The Career Development Quarterly.Google Scholar
  49. Ponterotto, J. G. & Casas, J. M. (1991). Handbook of racial/ethnic minority counseling research. Springfield, Il: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  50. Post-Kammer, P. (1987). Intrinsic and extrinsic work values and career maturity of 9th and 11th grade boys and girls. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 420–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Powell, D. F. & Luzzo, D. A. (1998). Evaluating factors associated with the career maturity of high school students. The Career Development Quarterly, 47, 145–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Raskin, P. M. (1998). Career maturity: The construct's validity, vitality, and viability. The Career Development Quarterly, 47, 32–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reid-Van Niekerk, H. H. & Van Niekerk, E. C. (1990). Career maturity of black, coloured and white university students. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 16, 1–4.Google Scholar
  54. Rogers, W. B. & Westbrook, B. W. (1983). Measuring career indecision among college students: Toward a valid approach for counseling practitioners and researchers. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 16, 78–85.Google Scholar
  55. Rojewski, J. W. (1994). Predicting career maturity attitudes in rural economically disadvantaged youth. Journal of Career Development, 2, 49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rojewski, J. W., Wicklein, R. C. & Schell, J. W. (1995). Effects of gender and academic risk behaviour on the career maturity of rural youth. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 11, 92–104.Google Scholar
  57. Schmitt-Rodermund, E. & Silbereisen, R. K. (1998). Career maturity determinants: Individual development, social context, and historical time. The Career Development Quarterly, 47, 16–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sheridan, B. (1981). Career development in adolescents: Its relationship to orientation to work and locus of control. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Western Australia, Perth.Google Scholar
  59. Stead, G. B. & Watson, M. B. (1998). The appropriateness of Super's career theory among Black South Africans. South African Journal of Psychology, 28, 40–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Super, D. E. (1955). Dimensions and measurement of vocational maturity. Teachers College Record, 57, 151–165.Google Scholar
  61. Super, D. E. (1980). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 13, 282–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D. Brown & L. Brooks (eds.), Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice (2nd ed., pp. 197–262). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  63. Super, D. E. & Forrest, D. J. (1972). Career Development Inventory Form I: Preliminary Manual. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  64. Super, D. E. & Nevill, D. D. (1984). Work role salience as a determinant of career maturity in high school students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 25, 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Super, D. E., Thompson, A. S., Lindeman, R. H., Jordaan, J.-P. & Myers, R. A. (1981). Career Development Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  66. Super, D. E., Thompson, A. S. & Lindeman, R. H. (1988). Adult Career Concerns Inventory: Manual for research and exploratory use in counselling. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  67. Super, D. E. & B. Šverko (eds). (1995). Life roles, values and careers: International findings of the work importance study. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  68. Super, D. E., Savickas, M. L. & Super, C. M. (1996). The life-span, life-space approach to careers. In D. Brown, L. Brooks & Associates (eds.), Career choice and development (3rd ed., pp. 121–178). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  69. Thomas, H. B. (1974, April). The effects of sex, occupational choice and career development responsibility on the career maturity of ninth-grade students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  70. Thompson, A. S. & Lindeman, R. H. (1981). Career Development Inventory, Volume 1: Users' manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  71. Thompson, A.S. & Lindeman, R. H. (1984). Career Development Inventory, Volume 2: Technical manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  72. Tilden, A. J. (Jr) (1978). Is there a monotonic criterion for measures of vocational maturity in college students? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 12, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Trice, A. D., Haire, J. R. & Elliott, K. A. (1989). A career locus of control scale for undergraduate students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69, 555–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vondracek, F.W., Lerner, R.M. & Schulenberg, J. E. (1986). Career development: A life-span developmental approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  75. Vondracek, F. W. & Reitzle, M. (1998). The viability of career maturity: A developmental-contextual perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 47, 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wallace-Broscious, A., Serafica, F. C. & Osipow, S. H. (1994). Adolescent career development: Relationships to self-concept and identity status. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4(1), 127–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ward, R. (1981). The use of the Career Development Inventory in Britain. Cambridge: National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling.Google Scholar
  78. Watson, M. B. (1984). Career development of coloured high school pupils. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Port Elizabeth, South Africa.Google Scholar
  79. Watson, M. B. & Van Aarde, J. A. (1986). Attitudinal career maturity of South African colored high school pupils. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 7–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Watson, M. B., Stead, G. B. & De Jager, A. C. (1995). The career development of black and white South African university students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 18, 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Westbrook, B. W., Cutts, C. C., Madison, S. S. & Arcia, M. A. (1980). The validity of Crites' model of career maturity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 16, 249–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Westbrook, B. W. (1984). Career maturity: The concept, the instruments, and the research. In W. B. Walsh & S. H. Osipow (eds.), Handbook of vocational psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 263–303). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  83. Williams, C. P.& Savickas,M. L. (1990). Developmental tasks of career maintenance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 166–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Cognitive Processes in LearningQueensland University of TechnologyQueenslandAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Council for Educational ResearchCamberwellAustralia

Personalised recommendations