Advertisement

Human Relations

, Volume 51, Issue 1, pp 73–87 | Cite as

Family-Responsive Variables and Retention-Relevant Outcomes Among Employed Parents

  • Samuel Aryee
  • Vivienne Luk
  • Raymond Stone
Article

Abstract

This study examined the influence offamily-responsive variables and the moderating influence of gender on the retention-relevant outcomes of organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Data were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaires from employed parents (N = 228) in a human service authority in Hong Kong. Results of regression analysis revealed that satisfaction with work schedule flexibility and supervisor work family support were related to both retention-relevant outcomes. Contrary to our prediction, gender did not moderate the influence of any of the family-responsive variables on the retention-relevant outcomes. Limitations of the study, directions for future research and implications of the findings for enhancing the effectiveness of family-responsive human resource policies are discussed.

FAMILY-RESPONSIVE VARIABLES EMPLOYED PARENTS RETENTION-RELEVANT OUTCOMES 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. ALLEN N. J. & MEYER J. P. The measurement and antecedents of affective continuance and normative commitments to the organization. Journal of Occupation al Psychology 1990 63 1-18.Google Scholar
  2. ARYEE S. Dual-earner couples in Singapore: An examination of work and nonwork sources of their experienced burnout. Human Relations 1993 46 1441-1468.Google Scholar
  3. BECKER H. S. Notes on the concept of commitment. American Journal of Sociology 1960 66 33-42.Google Scholar
  4. BIRD G. W. BIRD G. A. & SCRUGGS M. Determinants of family task sharing: A study of husbands and wives. Journal of Marriage and the Family 1984 46 345-355.Google Scholar
  5. BOWEN G. L. Corporate supports for the family lives of employees: A conceptual model for program planning and evaluation. Family Relations 1988 37 183-188.Google Scholar
  6. CAMMANN C. FICHMAN M. JENKINS D. & KLESH J. The Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript University of Michigan Ann Arbor MI.Google Scholar
  7. DUXBURY L. E. & HIGGINS C. A. Gender differences in work–family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology 1991 76 60-74.Google Scholar
  8. FERNANDEZ J. P. Childcare and corporate productivity: Resolving family/work conflicts. Lexington MA: D.C. Heath 1986.Google Scholar
  9. FRONE M. R. RUSSELL M. & COOPER M. L. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work–family conflict: Testing a model of the work–family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology 1992 77 65-78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. GALINSKY E. The Impact of Supervisors' Attitudes and Company Culture on Work–Family Adjustment. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association Atlanta GA August 1988.Google Scholar
  11. GALINSKY E. & STEIN P. J. The impact of human resource policies: Balancing work and family life. Journal of Family Issues 1990 11 368-383.Google Scholar
  12. GOFF S. J. MOUNT M. K. & JAMISON R. L. Employer supported childcare work/family conflict and absenteeism: A field study. Personnel Psychology 1990 43 793-809.Google Scholar
  13. GOODSTEIN J. D. Institutional pressures and strategic responsiveness: Employer involvement in work–family issues. Academy of Management Journal 1994 37 350-382.Google Scholar
  14. Government Secretariat (1993). Green Paper on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men. Government Printer Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  15. GREENBERGER E. GOLDBERG W. A. HAMILL S. O'NEIL R. & PAYNE C. K. Contributions of a supportive work environment to parents' well being and orientation to work. American Journal of Community Psychology 1989 17 755-783.Google Scholar
  16. GREENHAUS J. & BEUTELL N. Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review 1985 10 76-88.Google Scholar
  17. GROVER S. L. & CROOKER K. J. Who appreciates family-responsive human resource policies: The impact of family-friendly policies on the organizational attachment of parents and non-parents. Personnel Psychology 1995 48 271-288.Google Scholar
  18. HALABY C. N. Worker attachment and workplace authority. American Sociological Review 1986 51 634-647.Google Scholar
  19. HALL D. T. A model of coping with role conflict: The role behavior of college-educated women. Administrative Science Quarterly 1972 17 471-789.Google Scholar
  20. HOCHSCHILD A. The second shift: Working parents and the revolution at home. New York: Viking 1989.Google Scholar
  21. IVERSON R. D. & ROY P. A causal model of behavior commitment: Evidence from a study of Australian blue-collar employees. Journal of Management 1994 20 15-41.Google Scholar
  22. KOSSEK E. E. & NICHOL V. The effects of an on-site childcare on employee attitudes and performance. Personnel Psychology 1992 45 485-509.Google Scholar
  23. KOSSEK E. E. Diversity in childcare assistance needs: Employee problems preferences and work-related outcomes. Personnel Psychology 1990 43 769-791.Google Scholar
  24. LEWIS S. IZRAELI D. N. & HOOTSMANS H. (Eds.). Dual-earner families: International perspectives. London: Sage Publications 1992.Google Scholar
  25. LEWIS S. & LEWIS J. The work–family challenge: Rethinking employment. London: Sage Publications 1995.Google Scholar
  26. LOSCOCCO K. A. & ROSCHELLE A. R. Influences on the quality of work and nonwork life: Two decades in review. Journal of Vocational Behavior 1991 39 182-225.Google Scholar
  27. MARCH J. G. & SIMON H. A. Organizations. New York: Wiley 1958.Google Scholar
  28. MARSDEN P. V. KALLEBERG A. & COOK C. R. Gender differences in organizational commitment: Influences of work positions and family roles. Work and Occupations 1993 20 368-390.Google Scholar
  29. MATHIEU J. E. & ZAJAC D. M. A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents correlates and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin 1990 108 171-194.Google Scholar
  30. MOEN P. & DEMPSTER-McCLAIN D. I. Employed parents: Role strain work time and preferences for working less. Journal of Marriage and the Family 1987 49 579-590.Google Scholar
  31. MILLER T. I. The effects of employer-supported childcare on employee absenteeism turnover productivity recruitment and job satisfaction: What is claimed and what is known. Personnel Psychology 1984 37 212-226.Google Scholar
  32. MOTTAZ C. J. An analysis of the relationships between attitudinal commitment and behavioral commitment. The Sociological Quarterly 1989 30 143-158.Google Scholar
  33. MOWDAY R. T. PORTER L. W. & STEERS R. M. Employee organizational linkages: The psychology of commitment absenteeism and turnover. New York: Academic Press 1982.Google Scholar
  34. NG H. Y. Employment status of married women in Hong Kong. Sociological Perspectives 1992 35 475-488.Google Scholar
  35. OSTERMAN P. Work/family programs and the employment relationship. Administrative Science Quarterly 1995 40 681-700.Google Scholar
  36. PFEFFER J. Competitive advantage through people: Unleashing the power of the workforce. Boston: Havard Business School Press 1994.Google Scholar
  37. PITTMAN J. F. Work/family fit as a mediator of work factors on marital tension. Evidence from the interface of greedy institutions. Human Relations 1994 47 183-209.Google Scholar
  38. PLECK J. A. Are “family-supportive” employer policies relevant to men? In J. C. Hood (Ed.) Men work and family. Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications 1993 pp. 217-237.Google Scholar
  39. PLECK J. H. Working wives/working husbands. Beverly Hills CA: Sage Publications 1985.Google Scholar
  40. RODGERS C. S. The flexible workplace: What have we learned? Human Resource Management 1992 31 183-199.Google Scholar
  41. ROTHAUSEN T. J. Job satisfaction and the parent worker: The role of flexibility and rewards. Journal of Vocational Behavior 1994 44 317-336.Google Scholar
  42. SALANCIK G. R. Commitment and the control of organizational behavior and belief. In B.M. Staw and G. R. Salancik (Eds.) New directions in organizational behavior. Chicago: St. Clair Press 1987 pp. 1-54.Google Scholar
  43. SKINNER D. A. Dual-career family stress and coping. A literature review. Family Relations 1980 29 473-480.Google Scholar
  44. SPECTOR P. E. Using self-report questionnaires in OB research: A comment on the use of a controversial method. Journal of Organizational Behavior 1994 15 385-392.Google Scholar
  45. STAW B. M. Two Sides of Commitment. Paper presented at the National Meeting of Academy of Management Orlando Florida 1977.Google Scholar
  46. STEEL R. P. & OVALLE N. K. A review and meta-analysis of re search on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology 1984 69 673-686.Google Scholar
  47. THOMPSON C. A. THOMAS C. C. & MAIER M. Work–family conflict: Reassessing corporate policies and initiatives. In U. Sekaran and F. T. L. Leong (Eds.) Womanpower: Managing in times of demographic turbulence. Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications 1992 pp. 59-84.Google Scholar
  48. THOMPSON L. & WALKER L. Gender in families: Women and men in marriage work and parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family 1989 51 845-871.Google Scholar
  49. TROST C. Boss's backing vital to family benefits. Wall Street Journal January 1989 10 p. B1.Google Scholar
  50. VOYDANOFF P. Work and family: A review and expanded conceptualization. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 1989 3 1-22.Google Scholar
  51. WARREN J. A. & JOHNSON P. J. The impact of workplace support on work–family role strain. Family Relations 1995 44 163-169.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Tavistock Institute 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Aryee
  • Vivienne Luk
  • Raymond Stone

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations