Journal of Science Teacher Education

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 175–198 | Cite as

Development of an Instrument to Assess Prospective Elementary Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Equitable Science Teaching and Learning (SEBEST)

  • Jennifer M. Ritter
  • William J. Boone
  • Peter A. Rubba


This paper presents an overview of the procedures used to develop and validate an instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of prospective elementary teachers about equitable science teaching and learning. The instrument, titled the SEBEST, was based on the work of Ashton and Webb (1986a, 1986b) and Bandura (1977, 1986). It was modeled after the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI) (Riggs, 1988) and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument for Prospective Teachers (STEBI-B) (Enochs & Riggs, 1990). Based on the standardized development procedures used and associated evidence, the SEBEST appears to be a content and construct valid instrument, with high internal reliability qualities. "Most probable response" plots are introduced and used to bring meaning to SEBEST raw scores.


Science Teaching Prospective Teacher Internal Reliability Probable Response Valid Instrument 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen and Seumptewa (1988). The need for strengthening Native American science and mathematics education. Journal of College Science Teaching, 55, 364-369.Google Scholar
  2. American Association of University Women. (1992). The AAUW Report: How schools shortchange girls, Washington, DC: The AAUW Educational Foundation.Google Scholar
  3. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. (1987). Teaching teachers: Facts and figures, research about a teacher education project. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1989). Science for all Americans. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Ashton, P., & Webb, R. (March, 1982). Teachers' sense of efficacy: Toward and ecological model. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Ashton, P., & Webb, R. (1986a). Teacher efficacy attitudes, classroom behavior, and maintaining professional self-esteem. In P. Ashton, & R. Webb (Eds.). Making a difference: Teachers' sense of efficacy and student achievement. (pp. 55-89). New York: Longman Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Ashton, P., & Webb, R. (1986b). Teachers' sense of efficacy, classroom behavior, and student achievement. In P. Ashton, & R. Webb (Eds.). Making a difference: teachers' sense of efficacy and student achievement. (pp. 125-144). New York: Longman Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Atwater, M. M. (1994). Research on cultural diversity in the classroom. In D. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning. (pp. 558-576). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, D. (1998). Equity issues in science education. In B. Fraser & K. Tobin (Eds.) International Handbook of Science Education Part Two (pp. 869-895). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  10. Banks, J. (1991). Teaching multicultural literacy to teachers. Teaching Education, 4(1), 135-144.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1981). Self-referent thought: A developmental analysis of self-efficacy. In J. H. Flavelll & L. Ross (Eds.). Social cognitive development frontiers and possible futures. Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  13. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  14. Bandura, A. (1995). Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies. Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York. W. H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  16. Brickhouse, N. (1994). Bringing in the outsides: Reshaping the sciences of the future. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 26(4), 401-416.Google Scholar
  17. Brophy, J., & Good, T. (1970). Teachers' communication of differential expectations for children's classroom performance: Some behavioral data. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 356-374.Google Scholar
  18. Czerniak, C. & Chiarelott, L. (1990). Teacher education for effective science instruction-a social cognitive perspective. Journal of Teacher Education, 41(1), 49-58.Google Scholar
  19. Datta, L., Schaefer, E., Davis, M. (1968). Sex and scholastic aptitude as variables on teachers' rating of the adjustment and classroom behavior of Negro and other seventh-grade students. Journal of Education Psychology, 59, 94-101.Google Scholar
  20. DeTure, Gregory, & Ramsey. (1990, April). The science preparation of elementary teachers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  21. Dweck, C. S., & Bush, E.S. (1976). Sex differences in learned helplessness: Differential debilitation with peer and adult evaluators. Developmental Psychology, 12, 147-156.Google Scholar
  22. Ducharmen, E., & Agne, R. (1989). Professors of education: Uneasy residents of academe. In R. Wisniewski & E. Ducharme (Eds.), The professors of teaching (pp. 67-86. Albany, New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  23. Edwards, A. (1957). Techniques of attitude scale construction. New York, New York. Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  24. Enochs, L. G. & Riggs, I. M. (1990). Further development of an elementary science teaching efficacy belief instrument: preservice elementary scale. School Science and Mathematics, 90(8), 694-706.Google Scholar
  25. Gomez, M. L. (1996). Telling stories of our teaching, reflecting on our practices. Action in Teacher Education, 18(3), 1-12.Google Scholar
  26. Good, T.L., & Tom, D.Y.H. (1985). Self-regulation, efficacy, expectations, and social orientation: teacher and classroom perspectives. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.). Research on Motivation in Education: Vol., 2. The Classroom Milieu (pp. 307-326). Orlando, FI: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Grant, C.A. & Tate, W.F. (1995). Multicultural education through the lens of the multicultural education research literature. In J. Banks (Ed), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 145-166) New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  28. Haberman, M. (1987). Recruiting and selecting teachers for urban schools. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Institute for Urban and Minority Education.Google Scholar
  29. Helton, G.B., Workman, E.A., & Matuszck, P.N. (1982) Psycoeducational Assessment: Integrating concepts and techniques. Florida: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  30. Hodson, D. (1993). In search of a rationale for multicultural science education. Science Education, 77(6), 685-711.Google Scholar
  31. Irvine, J.J. (1990). Black students and school failure. New York: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  32. Jackson, G., & Cosca, C. (1974). The inequality of educational opportunity in the Southwest: An observational study of ethnically mixed classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 11, 219-22Google Scholar
  33. Kahle, J. B., & Meece, J. (1994). Research on gender issues in the classroom. In D. Gabel (Ed.), Handbook of research on science teaching and learning. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Kelly, A., (1985). The construction of masculine science. British Journal of sociology of education, 6(2), 133-153.Google Scholar
  35. Koballa, T. R. & Crawley, F.E. (1985). The influence of attitude of science teaching and learning. School Science and Mathematics, 85, 222-232.Google Scholar
  36. Linacre, J.M. and Wright, B.D. (2001). Winsteps Computer Program. MESA Press, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  37. Martin, R. (1972). Student sex and behavior as determinants of the type of frequency of teacher-student contacts. Journal of School Psychology, 10, 339-347.Google Scholar
  38. National Assessment of Educational Progress. 1996. Trends in academic progress. Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  39. Nunnally, J. C. (1970). Introduction to psychological measurement. New York. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  40. Pallas, A., Natriell, G., & McDill, E. (1989). The changing nature of the disadvantaged population. Educational Researcher, 18(5), 16-22.Google Scholar
  41. Park, S. (1996). Development and validation of the Korean science teaching efficacy beliefs instrument (K-STEBI) for prospective elementary school teachers. Dissertation Abstract International.Google Scholar
  42. Pearson P.D. (1985). The comprehension revolution (report No. 57). Urbana: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for the Study of Reading.Google Scholar
  43. Postlethwaite, T. & Wiley, D. (1992). The IEA study of science II: Science achievement in twenty-three countries. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  44. Quality Education for Minorities Project. (1990). Education that works: An action plan for the education of minorities. Cambridge, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  45. Rakow, S.J. (1985). Minority students in science: Perspectives from the 1981–1982 National Assessment in Science. Urban Education, 20(1), 103-113.Google Scholar
  46. Remmers, H.H., Gage, N.L., & Rummel, J.F. (1965) A practical introduction to measurement and evaluation. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  47. Riggs, I. M. (1988). The development of an elementary teachers' science teaching efficacy belief instrument. Dissertation Abstract International.Google Scholar
  48. Sadker, D., & Sadker, M. (1981). The development and field trial of a nonsexist teacher education curriculum. High School Journal, 64, 331-336.Google Scholar
  49. Sadker, D., & Sadker, M. (1985). Is the O.K. classroom O.K.? Phi Delta Kappan, 66(5), 358-361.Google Scholar
  50. Shrigley, R.L. (1974). The attitude of preservice elementary teachers toward science. School Science and Mathematics, 74(3), 437-446.Google Scholar
  51. Spurlin, Q. (1995). Making science comprehensible for language minority students. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 6(2), 71-78.Google Scholar
  52. Stegemiller, H.A. (1989). An annotated bibliography of the literature dealing with the contributing factors of teacher expectations on student performance. (Report No. SP 031 604). South Bend: Indiana University at South Bend. (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED 313 323).Google Scholar
  53. Tilgner, P. J. (1990). Avoiding science in the elementary school. Science Education, 74(4), 421-431.Google Scholar
  54. Tobin, K. (1996). Cultural perspectives on the teaching and learning of science', in M. Ogawa (ed.), Traditional culture, science and technology and development-Toward a new literacy for Science and Technology, University of Ibaraka, Mito City, Japan, 75-99.Google Scholar
  55. Tobin, K., & Garnett, P. (1987). Gender related differences in science activities. Science Education, 71, 91-103.Google Scholar
  56. Weiss, I. R. (1987). Report on the 1985–1986 national survey of science and mathematics education. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Center for Educational Research and evaluation, Research Triangle Institute.Google Scholar
  57. Westerback, M. (1982). Studies on attitude toward teaching science and anxiety about teaching science in preservice teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 19(7), 603-616.Google Scholar
  58. Westerback, M. (1984). Studies on anxiety about teaching science in preservice elementary teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 21(9), 937-950.Google Scholar
  59. William, R. & Goldstein, M. (1984) Multivariate analysis: Methods and applications. New York: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  60. Wright, B. D., & Master, J. (1982) Rating Scale Analysis. MESA Press, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer M. Ritter
    • 1
  • William J. Boone
    • 2
  • Peter A. Rubba
    • 3
  1. 1.Elementary Education DepartmentMillersville UniversityMillersvilleU.S.A
  2. 2.School of Education 3068Indiana UniversityBloomingtonU.S.A
  3. 3.The Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkU.S.A

Personalised recommendations