Journal of Child and Family Studies

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 155–180 | Cite as

Parent Expectancies for Child Therapy: Assessment and Relation to Participation in Treatment

  • Matthew K. Nock
  • Alan E. Kazdin

Abstract

Two studies examined parents' pre-treatment expectancies for their child's psychotherapy among children (N = 405, ages 2–15) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. Study I focused on the development of a measure to assess expectancies. The results indicated that the measure was internally consistent. Moreover, socioeconomic disadvantage and ethnic minority status, severity of child dysfunction, child age, and parental stress and depression were significant predictors of lower parent expectancies for child therapy. Study II examined the relation of parent expectancies and participation in therapy. The results indicated that parent expectancies predicted subsequent barriers to treatment participation, treatment attendance, and premature termination from therapy. Overall, these findings have implications for the study of expectancies for therapy, for identifying families at risk for premature termination from treatment, and for the development of interventions designed to increase parent participation in child therapy.

parent expectancies expectations child psychotherapy premature termination participation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Abidin, R. R. (1990). Parenting Stress Index clinical manual. Charlottesville,VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., revised). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. Armbruster, P., & Kazdin, A. E. (1994). Attrition in child therapy. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 16, pp. 81-109). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4 53-63.Google Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D., & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: The Hopelessness Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42 861-865.Google Scholar
  7. Borkovec, T. D., & Costello, E. (1993). Efficacy of applied relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61 611-619.Google Scholar
  8. Burck, C. (1975). A study of families' expectancies and experiences at a child guidance clinic. British Journal of Social Work, 8 145-158.Google Scholar
  9. Campbell, D. T. (1960). Recommendations for APA test standards regarding construct, trait, and discriminant validity. American Psychologist, 15 546-553.Google Scholar
  10. Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56 81-105.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd Ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Day, L., & Reznikoff, M. (1980). Preparation of children and parents for treatment at a children's psychiatric clinic through videotaped modeling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48 303-304.Google Scholar
  13. Derogatis, L. R., & Cleary, P. A. (1977). Confirmation of the dimensional structure of the SCL-90: A study in construct validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33 981-989.Google Scholar
  14. Fisher, S., & Greenberg, R. P. (Eds.). (1989). The limits of biological treatments for psychological distress: Comparisons with psychotherapy and placebo. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Frank, J. D., & Frank, J. B. (1991). Persuasion & healing: A comparative study of psychotherapy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Furey, W. M., & Basili, L. A. (1988). Predicting consumer satisfaction in parent training for noncompliant children. Behavior Therapy, 19 555-564.Google Scholar
  17. Garfield, S. L. (1994). Research on client variables in psychotherapy. In A. E. Bergin & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (4th ed., pp. 190-228). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Gould, M. S., Shaffer, D., & Kaplan, D. (1985). The characteristics of dropouts from a child psychiatry clinic. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24 316-328.Google Scholar
  19. Hahn, R. A. (1997). The nocebo phenomenon: Scope and foundations. In A. Harrington (Ed.), The placebo effect: An interdisciplinary explorations (pp. 56-76). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four-Factor Index of Social Status. New Haven, CT: Yale University Department of Sociology.Google Scholar
  21. Kazdin, A. E. (1995). Conduct disorder in childhood and adolescence (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Kazdin, A. E. (1996a). Problem solving and parent management in treating aggressive and antisocial behavior. In E.D. Hibbs & P.S. Jensen (Eds.), Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice (pp. 377-408). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  23. Kazdin, A.E. (1996b). Dropping out of child therapy: Issues for research and implications for practice. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1 133-156.Google Scholar
  24. Kazdin, A. E., & Crowley, M. (1997). Moderators of treatment outcome in cognitively based treatment of antisocial children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21 185-207.Google Scholar
  25. Kazdin, A.E., & Esveldt-Dawson, K. (1986). The Interview for Antisocial Behavior: Psychometric characteristics and concurrent validity with child psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 8 289-303.Google Scholar
  26. Kazdin, A. E., & Holland, L. (1991). Parent expectancies for therapy scale. Yale University, Child Conduct Clinic, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  27. Kazdin, A. E., Holland, L., & Crowley, M. (1997). Family experience of barriers to treatment and premature termination from child therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65 453-463.Google Scholar
  28. Kazdin, A. E., Holland, L., Crowley, M., & Breton, S. (1997). Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale: Evaluation and validation in the context of child outpatient treatment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38 1051-1062.Google Scholar
  29. Kazdin, A. E., Mazurick, J. L., & Bass, D. (1993). Risk for attrition in treatment of antisocial children and families. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22 2-16.Google Scholar
  30. Kazdin, A. E., Siegel, T., & Bass, D. (1992). Cognitive problem-solving skills training and parent management training in the treatment of antisocial behavior in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60 733-747.Google Scholar
  31. Kazdin, A. E., Stolar, M. J., & Marciano, P. L. (1995). Risk factors for dropping out of treatment among White and Black families. Journal of Family Psychology, 9 412-417.Google Scholar
  32. Kazdin, A.E., & Wassell, G. (2000). Therapeutic changes in children, parents, and families resulting from treatment of children with conduct problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39 414-420.Google Scholar
  33. Kirsch, I. (1997). Specifying nonspecifics: Psychological mechanisms of placebo effects. In A. Harrington (Ed.), The placebo effect: An interdisciplinary explorations (pp. 166-186). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Lloyd, B. H., & Abidin, R. R. (1985). Revision of the Parenting Stress Index. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 10 169-177.Google Scholar
  35. Miller, G. E., Prinz, R. J. (1990). Enhancement of social learning family interventions for childhood conduct disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 108 291-307.Google Scholar
  36. Novick, J., Benson, R., & Rembar, J. (1981). Patterns of termination in an outpatient clinic for children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20 834-844.Google Scholar
  37. Park, L. C., & Covi, L. (1965). Nonblind placebo trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12 336-344.Google Scholar
  38. Patterson, G. R., & Chamberlain, P. (1994). A functional analysis of resistance during parent training therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 1 53-70.Google Scholar
  39. Plunkett, J. W. (1984). Parents' treatment expectancies and attrition from a child psychiatric service. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40 372-377.Google Scholar
  40. Shapiro, A. K., & Shapiro, E. (1998). Powerful placebo: From ancient priest to modern physician. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press. (updates Shapiro 1978)Google Scholar
  41. Sue, S., & Zane, N. (1987). The role of culture and cultural techniques in psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 42 37-45.Google Scholar
  42. Takeuchi, D. T., Sue, S., & Yeh, M. (1995). Return rates and outcomes from ethnicity-specific mental health programs in Los Angeles. American Journal of Public Health, 85 638-643.Google Scholar
  43. United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1991). Adolescent health. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO.Google Scholar
  44. Walitzer, K. S., Dermen, K. H., & Connors, G. J. (1999). Strategies for preparing clients for treatment: A review. Behavior Modification, 23 129-151.Google Scholar
  45. Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, WISC-R. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Testing Corporation.Google Scholar
  46. Wierzbicki, M., & Pekarik, G. (1993). A meta-analysis of psychotherapy dropout. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24 190-195.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc. 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew K. Nock
    • 1
  • Alan E. Kazdin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew Haven
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew Haven

Personalised recommendations