Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 325–337 | Cite as

The use of inter-specific hybrids in aquaculture and fisheries

  • D.M. Bartley
  • K. Rana
  • A.J. Immink
Article

Abstract

Inter-specific hybrid fishes have been produced for aquaculture and stocking programmes to increase growth rate, transfer desirable traits between species, combine desirable traits of two species into a single group of fishes, reduce unwanted reproduction through production of sterile fish or mono-sex offspring, take advantage of sexual dimorphism, increase harvestability, increase environmental tolerances, and to increase overall hardiness in culture conditions. Hybrids constitute a significant proportion of some countries' production for certain taxa; for example, hybrid striped bass in the USA, hybrid clarid catfish in Thailand, hybrid characids in Venezuela, and hybrid tilapia in Israel. Despite its widespread use, there is a general impression that inter-specific hybridization is not a very useful tool for aquaculture. We believe this impression stems from inaccurate reporting of some useful hybrids, limited testing of strains used for hybrids, and from early work on salmonids that did not result in hybrids of commercial advantage.Experimentation with new hybrid fishes is ongoing, especially in marine culture systems where sterile fish may be preferred because of the concern that fish may escape into the marine and coastal environment.Hybridization has been used in tandem with polyploidization to improve developmental stability in hybrid progeny. The results of inter-specific hybridization can be variable and depend on the genetic structure (including the sex) of the parent fish. Inadvertent hybridization and backcrossing can lead to unexpected and undesirable results in hybrid progeny, such as failure to produce sterile fish, loss of color pattern, and reduced viability.Hybridization is only one tool to improve aquaculture production and will require knowledge of the genetic structure of the broodstock, good broodstock management and monitoring of the viability and fertility of the progeny. Hybridization does represent a genetic modification wherein genes are moved between different species; implications for biodiversity conservation and regulation of this type of modification are discussed.

genetic improvement hybridization stock enhancement 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ABRAC (1995) Performance Standards for Safely Conducting Research with Genetically Modified Fish and Shellfish. Part 1. Introduction and Supporting Text for Flowcharts. Agricultural Biotechnology Research Advisory Committee. US Department of Agriculture. Document No. 95-04, Washington, D.C. 63 pp. plus annexes.Google Scholar
  2. Allen S.K.J. and Wattendorf R.J. (1987) Triploid grass carp: status and management implications. Fisheries 12, 20–24.Google Scholar
  3. Avise J.C. and Van den Avyle M.J. (1984) Genetic analysis of reproduction of hybrid white bass x striped bass in the Savannah River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 113, 563–570.Google Scholar
  4. Bartley D.M and Hallerman E.M. (1995) Global perspective on the utilization of genetically modified organisms in aquaculture and fisheries. Aquaculture 137, 1–7.Google Scholar
  5. Bartley D.M., Gall G.A.E. and Bentley B. (1990) Biochemical genetic detection of natural and artificial hybridization of chinook and coho salmon in northern California. Transactions American Fisheries Society 119, 431–437.Google Scholar
  6. Basavaraju Y., Deveraj K.V. and Ayyar S.P. (1995) Comparative growth of reciprocal carp hybrids between Catla catla and Labeo fimbriatus. Aquaculture 129, 187–191.Google Scholar
  7. Bhikajee M. (1997) Mariculture of the red tilapia in enclosed bays and in cages - the Mauritian experience. In: Fitzsimmons, K. (ed.), Tilapia Aquaculture, Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service 106, Volume 2, New York, pp. 595–599.Google Scholar
  8. Brecka B.J., Kohler C.C. and Wahl D.H. (1995) Effects of dietary protein concentration on growth, survival, and body composition of muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, and tiger muskellinge, Esox masquinongy x E. luscius, fingerlings. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 26, 416–425.Google Scholar
  9. Bunch E.V. and Bejerano I. (1997) The effect of environmental factors of the susceptibility of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus to Streptococcosis. Israeli J. Aquaculture 49, 67–76.Google Scholar
  10. Colombo L., Barbaro A. Francescon A., Libertini A., Bortolussi M., Argenton F., Dalla Valle L., Vianell S. and Belvedere P. (1998) Towards an integration between chromosome set maipulation, intergeneric hybridization and gene transfer in marine fish culture. In: Bartley D. and Basurco B. (eds.), Genetics and Breeding of Mediterranean Aquaculture Species. Cahiers - Options Méditerranéennes Vol. 34. CIHEAM Zaragoza, Spain, pp. 77–122.Google Scholar
  11. Danzmann R.G., Ferguson M.M. and Allendorf F.W. (1985) Does enzyme heterozygosity influence developmental rate in rainbow trout? Heredity 56, 417–425.Google Scholar
  12. Dorson M., Chevassus B. and Torhy C. (1991) Comparative susceptibility of three species of char and rainbow trout x char triploid hybrids to several pathogenic salmonid viruses. Dis. Aquat. Org. 11, 217–224.Google Scholar
  13. Dunham R.A. (1987) American catfish breeding programmes. In: Tiews K. (ed.), Selection, Hybridization and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture of Fish and Shellfish, Vol. 2. FAO European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission and International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Rome, Italy and Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 407–416.Google Scholar
  14. Dunham R.A. and Argue B.J. (1998) Seinability of channel catfish, blue catfish, and their F1, F2, F3 and backcross hybrids in earthen ponds. Prog. Fish. Cult. 60, 214–220.Google Scholar
  15. Dunham R.A., Brummet R.E., Ella M.O. and Smitherman R.O. (1990) Genotype-environment interactions for growth of blue, channel, and hybrid catfish in ponds and cages at varying densities. Aquaculture 85, 143–151.Google Scholar
  16. Ernst D.H., Watanabe W.O., Ellington L.J., Wicklund R.I. and Olla B.L. (1991) Commercial-scale production of Florida red tilapia seed in low-and brackish-salinity tanks. J. World Aquaculture Soc. 22, 36–44.Google Scholar
  17. FAO (1997) Review of the State of the World Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Circular 885, Rev. 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  18. Galbreath P.F. and Thorgaard G.H. (1995) Sexual maturation and fertility of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon x brown trout hybrids. Aquaculture 137, 299–312.Google Scholar
  19. Glamuzina B., Kozul V., Tutman P. and Skaramuc B. (1999) Hyrbridization of Mediterranean groupers: Epinephelus marginatus x E. aeneus and early development. Aquaculture Research 30, 625–628.Google Scholar
  20. Gorshkova G., Gorshova S., Gordin H. and Knibb W. (1996) Karyological studies in hybrids of Beluga, Huso huso (L.) and the Russian Acipenser guldenstati Brant. Isr. J. Aquacult. Bamidgeh 48, 35–39.Google Scholar
  21. Grey A.K., Evans M.A. and Thorgaard G.H. (1993) Viability and development of diploid and triploid salmon hybrids. Aquaculture 112, 125–142.Google Scholar
  22. Hallerman E.M. and Kapuscinsky A.R. (1995) Incorporating risk assessment and risk management into public policies on genetically modified finfish and shellfish. Aquaculture 137, 9–17.Google Scholar
  23. Head W.D., Zerbi A. and Watanabe W.O. (1994) Preliminary observatoins on the maketability of saltwater-cultured Florida red tilapia in Puerto Rico. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 25, 432–441.Google Scholar
  24. Henderson-Arzapalo A. and Maciorowski A.F. (1994) A comparison of black drum, red drum, and their hybrid in salwater pond culture. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 25, 289–296.Google Scholar
  25. Hooe M.L., Buck D.H. and Wahl D.H. (1994) Growth, survival, and recruitment of hybrid crappies stocked in small impoundments. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 14, 137–142.Google Scholar
  26. Hulata G. (1995) The history and current status of aquaculture genetics in Israel. Israeli J. Aquaculture-Bamidgeh 47, 142–154.Google Scholar
  27. Hulata G., Wohlfarth G.W., Karplus I., Schroeder G.L., Harpaz S., Halevy A., Rothbard S., Cohen S., Israel I. and Kavessa M. (1993) Evaluation of Oreochromis niloticus x O. arueus hybrid progeny of different geographical isolates, reared under varying management regimes. Aquaculture 115, 253–271.Google Scholar
  28. Hussain M.G. (1994) Genetics of body color inheritance in Thai and Egyptian red tilapia strains. Asian Fishery Science 7, 215–224.Google Scholar
  29. Ihssen P.E., Powell M.J. and Miller M. (1982) Survival and growth of matched plantings of lake trout (Salvelinus mamaycush), brook trout (S. fontinalis), and lake x brook F1 splake hybrids and backcrosses in northeastern Ontario lakes. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Fisheries Technical Report seri 6, Toronto.Google Scholar
  30. James C.M., Al-Thobaiti S.A., Rasem B.M. and Carlos M.H. (1999) Potential of grouper hybrid (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x E. polyphekadian) for aquaculture. Naga 22, 19–23.Google Scholar
  31. Khan H.A., Gupta S.D., Reddy P.V.G.K., Tantia M.S. and Kowtal G.V. (1990) Production of sterile intergeneric hybrids and their utility in aquaculture and stocking. In: Keshavanath P. and Radhakrishnan K.V. (eds.), Carp Seed Production Technology. Special Publication of the AFS No 2. Asian Fisheries Society, Mangalor, India, pp. 41–48.Google Scholar
  32. Kim D.S., Nam Y.K. and Park I.S. (1995) Survival and kayological analysis of reciprocal diploid and trploid hybrids bewtween mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) and cyrinid loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Aquaculture 135, 257–265.Google Scholar
  33. Koehn R.K. and Gaffney P.M. (1984) Genetic heterozygosity and growth rate in Mytils edulis. Mar. Biol. 82, 1–7.Google Scholar
  34. Koren A., Pruginin Y. and Hulata G. (1994) Evaluation of some red tilapia strains for aquaculture. Israeli J. Aquaculture 46, 9–12.Google Scholar
  35. Krasnai Z.L. (1987) Interspecific hybridization of warm warm finfish. In: Tiews K. (ed.), Selection, Hybridization, and Genetic Engineering in Aquaculture, Vol. Vol 2. FAO, EIFAC and ICES, Rome, Italy and Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 35–45.Google Scholar
  36. Lahav M. and Lahav E. (1990) The development of all-male tilapia hybrids in Nir David. Isr. J. Aquacult. Bamidgeh 42, 58–61.Google Scholar
  37. Leary R.F., Allendorf F.W. and Knudsen K.L. (1983). Developmental stability and enzyme heterozygosity in rainbow trout. Nature 301, 71–73.Google Scholar
  38. Lim C., Leamaster B. and Brock J.A. (1993) Riboflavin requirement of fingerling red hybrid tilapia grown in seawater. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 24, 451–458.Google Scholar
  39. Lutz C.G. (1997) What do you get when you cross.... Aquaculture Magazine March/April 1997, 84–90.Google Scholar
  40. Nelson K. and Hedgecock D. (1980) Enzyme polymorphism and adaptive strategy in the decapod crustacea. American Naturalist 116, 238–280.Google Scholar
  41. Noy R., Lavie B. and Nevo E. (1987) The niche-width variation hypothesis revisited: genetic diversity in the marine gastropods Littorina punctata and L. neritoides. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. 109, 109–116.Google Scholar
  42. Nwadukwe F.O. (1995) Hatchery propagation of five hybrid groups by artifical hybridization of Clarius gariepinus(B) and Heterobranchus longifilis (Val.) (Clariidae) using dry, powdered carp pituitary hormone. J. Aquacult.-Trop. 10, 1–11.Google Scholar
  43. Padhi B.K. and Mandal R.K. (1997) Inadvertant hybridization in a carp hatchery as detected by nuclear DNA RFLP. J. Fish Biol. 50, 906–909.Google Scholar
  44. Pullin R.S.V. (ed.) (1988) Tilapia Genetic Resources for Aquaculture. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. Manila, Philippines, 108 pp.Google Scholar
  45. Pullin R.S.V., Bartley D.M. and Kooiman J. (eds.) (1999) Towards Policies for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Aquatic Genetic Resources. ICLARM Conference Proceedings, Manila, Philippines, 277 pp.Google Scholar
  46. Reddy P.V.G.K. (2000) Genetic Resources of Indian Major Carps. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 387, FAO, Rome, Italy, 76 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Rosenstein S. and Hulata G. (1994) Sex reversal in the genus Oreochromis: Optimization of feminization protocol. Aquacult. Fish. Man. 25, 329–339.Google Scholar
  48. Salami A.A., Fagbenro O.A. and Sydenham D.H.J. (1993) The production and growth of cariid catfish hybrids in concrete tanks. Isr. J. Aquacult. Bamidgeh 45, 18–25.Google Scholar
  49. Scheerer P.D. and Thorgaard G.H. (1983) Increased survival in salmonid hybrids in induced triploidy. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40, 2040–2044.Google Scholar
  50. Seeb J.E., Thorgaard G.H. and Tynan T. (1993) Triploid hybrids between chum salmon female x chinook salmon male have early sea-water tolerance. Aquaculture 117, 37–45.Google Scholar
  51. Senhorini J.A., Figueiredo G.M., Fontes N.A. and Carolsfeld J. (1988) Larval and fry cultrue of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, and their reciprocal hybrids. Boletin Tecnica CEPTA 1, 19–30.Google Scholar
  52. Smith T.I.J. (1988) Aquaculture of striped bass and its hybrids in North America. Aquacult. Mag. 14, 40–49.Google Scholar
  53. Snucins E.J. (1993) Relative survival of hatchery-reared lake trout, brook trout and F1 splake stocked in low-pH lakes. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 12, 460–464.Google Scholar
  54. Steffens W., Jaehnichen H. and Fredrich F. (1990) Possibilities of sturgeon culture in Central Europe. Aquaculture 89, 101–122.Google Scholar
  55. Suresh A.V. (1991) Culture of walking catfish in Thailand. J. Aquacult. Trop. 2, 10–12.Google Scholar
  56. Tave D. (1986) Genetics for Fish Hatchery Managers. AVI Publishing Co. Inc. Westport Connecticut, 299 pp.Google Scholar
  57. Tidwell J.H., Webster C.D. and Clark J.A. (1992) Growth, feed conversion, and protein utilization of female green sunfish xmale bluegill hybrids fed isocaloric diets with different potein levels. Prog. Fish. Cult. 54, 234–239.Google Scholar
  58. UNEP (1994) Convention on Biological Diversity. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar
  59. Verdegem M.C.J., Hilbrands A.D. and Boon J.H. (1997) Influence of salinity and dietary composition on blood parameter values of hybrid red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus. Aquaculture Research 28, 453–459.Google Scholar
  60. Will P.S., Paret J.M. and Sheehan R.J. (1994) Pressure induced triploidy in hybrid Lepomis. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 25, 507–511.Google Scholar
  61. Wilkins N.P., Gosling E., Curatolo A., Linnane A., Jordan C. and Courtney H.P. (1995) Fluctuating asymmety in Atlantic salmon, European trout and their hybrids, including triploids. Aquaculture 137, 77–85.Google Scholar
  62. Wolters W.R. and DeMay R. (1996) Production characteristics of striped bass x white bass and striped bass x yellow bass hybrids. J. World Aquaculture Soc. 27, 202–207.Google Scholar
  63. Wohlfarth G.W. (1994) The unexploited potential of tilapia hybrids in aquaculture. Aqua. Fish. Manag. 25, 781–788.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fisheries DepartmentFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations;Italy

Personalised recommendations