Advertisement

Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 869–891 | Cite as

Effects of tsetse targets on mammals and birds in Kasungu National Park, Malawi

  • Michel De Garine-Wichatitsky
  • Robert A. Cheke
  • Davie Lazaro
Article

Abstract

Possible effects on wildlife of targets baited with an attractive odour (acetone), impregnated with deltamethrin and used to control tsetse flies (Glossina morsitans morsitans), were investigated in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi. Mammals and birds were censused simultaneously along transects in 'Miombo' woodland or 'Dambo' grassland/mixed woodland, with and without targets. Mammals were also monitored by surveys of their spoor on experimentally cleared plots (5 m in diameter) and a target relocation experiment was conducted when the targets were removed from the test transects and transferred to the controls. Significantly fewer small antelopes (e.g. common Duiker Sylvicapra grimmia) were detected in plots along transects with targets (tests) than along control transects. The presence of targets affected the frequency of occurrence of antelopes, suids and large herbivores in the experimental plots, but small carnivores, monkeys, rodents and hares were unaffected. A conclusion of the relocation experiment was that the deltamethrin-impregnated cloth was responsible for the observed effects and not the acetone. A total number of 23 species of birds meeting a criterion for their abundance in the areas surveyed were selected for detailed analyses. Lower indices in the test areas than in the controls were recorded for 15 of these 23 species in the Dambos and for 10 of 21 species in the Miombo woodland. Matched paired comparisons revealed significantly lower numbers in the test areas than in the controls in both habitats only for black-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatus, but for Grey Lourie Corythaixoides concolor, little bee-eater Merops pusillus, fork-tailed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis and combined data on three species of sunbirds in the Dambos. The black-eyed bulbul Pycnonotus barbatus had significantly lower numbers in the tests than in the controls in Miombo woodland. The numbers of three species of dove were higher in the tests than in the controls in both habitats, significantly so for the Cape turtle dove Streptopelia capicola, and numbers of the Flappet Lark Mirafra rufocinnamomea were significantly higher in the tests than in the controls in Dambos. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies on environmental effects of tsetse control, including effects of tsetse targets on pollinators especially non-target horseflies.

acetone birds deltamethrin environmental effects Glossinidae Malawi mammals Miombo woodland odour-baited targets Sylvicapra grimmia tsetse control 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bell RHV (1981) An outline of a management plan for Kasungu National Park, Malawi. In: Jewell PA,Holt S andHart D (eds) Problems in Management of Locally Abundant Wild Mammals, pp 69-89. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Brooke RK (1973) Aerial feeding by bulbuls. Ibis 115: 606Google Scholar
  3. Brooke RK (1975) Notes on the food and foraging of the black-eyed bulbul. Honeyguide 81: 19-21Google Scholar
  4. Brosset A andErard C (1986)Les oiseaux des régions forestières du nord-est du Gabon. Vol 1, Ecologie et comportement des espèces. Société Nationale de Protection de la Faune, ParisGoogle Scholar
  5. Burnham KP,Anderson DR andLaake JL (1980) Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations. Wildlife monograph no. 72. Supplement to Journal of Wildlife Management 44Google Scholar
  6. Cheke RA,Mann CF andAllen R (2001) Sunbirds. A Guide to the Sunbirds, Flowerpeckers, Spiderhunters and Sugarbirds of the World. Pica Press, SussexGoogle Scholar
  7. Cuisance D (1989)La piègage des tse-tse. Etudes et syntheses de l'I.E.M.V.T., 32 Maisons Alfort, FranceGoogle Scholar
  8. Cumming DHM (1975) A Field Study of the Ecology and Behaviour of Warthog. Museum Memoir No. 7, Trustees of the National Museums and Monuments of Rhodesia, SalisburyGoogle Scholar
  9. Day RW andQuinn GP (1989) Comparisons of treatments after an analysis of variance in ecology. Ecological Monographs 59: 433-463Google Scholar
  10. Douthwaite RJ andFry CH (1982) Food and feeding behaviour of the Little Bee-eater Merops pusillus in relation to tsetse fly control by insecticides. Biological Conservation 23: 71-78Google Scholar
  11. Dowsett-Lemaire F (1988) Fruit choice and seed dissemination by birds and mammals in the evergreen forests of upland Malawi. Revue d'Ecologie (Terre et Vie) 43: 251-285Google Scholar
  12. Eberhardt LL (1978) Transect methods for population studies. Journal of Wildlife Management 42: 1-31Google Scholar
  13. Fraser W (1982) Various diet notes. Witwatersrand Bird Club Newsletter 116: 9Google Scholar
  14. Fritz H,de Garine-Wichatitsky M andLetessier G (1996) Habitat use by wild and domestic herbivores in an African savanna woodland: the influence of cattle spatial behaviour. Journal of Applied Ecology 33: 589-598Google Scholar
  15. Fry CH,Keith S andUrban EK (1988) The Birds of Africa, Vol 3. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Gaillard JM,Boutin JM andvan Laere G (1993)Dénombrer les populations de chevreuils par l'utilisation du line transect. Etude de faisabilité. Revue dEcologie (Terre et Vie) 48: 73-85Google Scholar
  17. Green CH (1994) Bait methods for tsetse fly control. Advances in Parasitology 34: 239-291Google Scholar
  18. ILRI (1995) Annual Report of the International Livestock Research Institute. ILRI, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  19. Kassai T,Cordero del Campillo M,Euzeby J,Gaafar S,Hieppe Th andHimonas CA (1988) Standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic disease (SNOAPAD). Veterinary Parasitology 29: 299-326Google Scholar
  20. Keith S,Urban EK andFry CH (1992) The Birds of Africa, Vol 4. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Krämer A (1991) Die Bedeutung von Tabaniden als Pollinatoren und ihre potentielle Gefährdung durch Tsetse-Bekämpfungsaktionenen in Simbabwe. MS thesis, Institute of Biogeography, University of SaarbrückenGoogle Scholar
  22. Lamprey HF (1963) Ecological separation of the large species in the Tarangire Game Reserve, Tanganyika. East African Wildlife Journal 1: 63-92Google Scholar
  23. Laveissière C,Couret D andGrébaut P (1987)Recherche sur les écrans pour la lutte contre les glossines en régions forestière de Cote d'Ivoire. Mise au point d'un nouvel écran. Cahiers ORSTOM Série Entomologie Médicale et Parasitologie 25: 145-164Google Scholar
  24. Leak SGA (1998) Tsetse biology and ecology. Their role in the epidemiology and control of trypanosomosis. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Marshall AG (1985) Old World phytophagous bats (Megachiroptera) and their food plants: a survey. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 83: 351-369Google Scholar
  26. Mclachlan GR andLiversidge R (1978) Roberts Birds of South Africa. The Trustees of the John Voelker Bird Book Fund, CapetownGoogle Scholar
  27. Mkanda FX (1993) The effects of prescribed burning on soil and vegetation in Kasungu National Park, Malawi. Nyala 17: 17-22Google Scholar
  28. Mughogho DEC andMunthali SM (1995) Ecological interactions between Gonimbrasia belina (L.) and Gynanisa maia (L.), and the impact of fire on forage preferences in a savanna ecosystem. African Journal of Ecology 33: 84-87Google Scholar
  29. Norton-Griffiths M (1978) Counting Animals. In: Grimsbell JJR (ed) Serengeti Ecological Monitoring Programme. African Wildlife Leadership Foundation, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  30. Phelps RJ andHolloway MTP (1982) Catches of Tabanidae in response to visual and odour attractants in Zimbabwe. Journal of African Zoology 106: 371-380Google Scholar
  31. Phelps RJ andVale GA (1975) Seasonal flight periods of Tabanidae (Diptera) in Rhodesia. Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 38: 341-348Google Scholar
  32. Pomeroy DE andTengecho B (1986) A method of analysing bird distributions. African Journal of Ecology 24: 243-253Google Scholar
  33. Reid RS,Wilson CJ,Kruska RL andMulatu W (1997) Impacts of tsetse control and land-use on vegetative structure and tree species composition in south-western Ethiopia. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 731-747Google Scholar
  34. Rowan MK (1983) The Doves, Parrots, Loeries and Cuckoos of Southern Africa. Croom Helm, Beckenham, KentGoogle Scholar
  35. Saunders CR (1985) Interaction between Grey and Purple-crested Louries. Honeyguide 31: 108Google Scholar
  36. Seber GAF (1986) A review of estimating animal abundance. Biometrics 42: 267-292Google Scholar
  37. SEMG (Scientific Environmental Monitoring Group) (1993) Environmental monitoring of tsetse control operations in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Impact of aerial spraying and odour-baited targets on ecosystems. Report 1987-1990. Institut fur Biogeographie, Saarbrucken, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  38. SEMG (Scientific Environmental Monitoring Group) (1997) Scientific Environmental Monitoring Group activities October 1995-1997. Final Report. Natural Resources Institute, ChathamGoogle Scholar
  39. Shorter C (1989) An Introduction to the Common Trees of Malawi. Likuni Press, MalawiGoogle Scholar
  40. Sievi JR (1975) An attractive tree. Honeyguide 79: 43Google Scholar
  41. Skinner JD andSmithers HN (1990) The mammals of the Southern African subregion. University of Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  42. Sokal RR andRohlf FJ (1981). Biometry. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research, 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Torr SJ,Hall DR,Phelps RJ andVale GA (1997) Methods for dispensing odour attractants for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 87: 299-311Google Scholar
  44. Tree AJ (1997) Black-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatus. In: Harrison JA,Allan DG,Underhill LG,Herremans M,Tree AJ,Parker V andBrown CJ (eds) The atlas of southern African birds, Vol 2. Passerines, pp 100-101. BirdLife South Africa, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  45. Urban EK,Fry CH andKeith S (1986) The Birds of Africa, Vol 2. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Vale GA (1993) Development of baits for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Zimbabwe. Journal of Medical Entomology 30: 831-842Google Scholar
  47. Vale GA,Lovemore DF,Flint S andCockbill GF (1988) Odour-baited targets to control tsetse flies, Glossina spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Zimbabwe. Bulletin of Entomological Research 78: 31-49Google Scholar
  48. Vernon CJ (1975) More notes on the habits of the Black-eyed Bulbul. Honeyguide 82: 42Google Scholar
  49. Warnes ML (1997) Handbook for tsetse field staff. Department of Veterinary Services, ZimbabweGoogle Scholar
  50. WHO (1990) Tropical Diseases 1990 (TDR-CTD/HH 90.1). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  51. WHO (1995) Planning overview of tropical diseases control. Division of Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  52. Wilson CJ,Reid RS,Stanton NL andPerry BD (1997) Effects of land-use and tsetse fly control on bird species richness in southwestern Ethiopia. Conservation Biology 11: 435-447Google Scholar
  53. World Bank (1993) World Development Report (1993) Investing in Health. Oxford University Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel De Garine-Wichatitsky
    • 1
  • Robert A. Cheke
    • 2
  • Davie Lazaro
    • 3
  1. 1.CIRAD-EMVT, Programme ECONAP.IAC, Station de Port-LaguerreNouvelle CalédonieFrance
  2. 2.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of GreenwichChathamUK
  3. 3.Department of National Parks Wildlife and TourismKasungu National ParkKasunguMalawi

Personalised recommendations