Biodiversity & Conservation

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 869–891 | Cite as

Effects of tsetse targets on mammals and birds in Kasungu National Park, Malawi

  • Michel De Garine-Wichatitsky
  • Robert A. Cheke
  • Davie Lazaro


Possible effects on wildlife of targets baited with an attractive odour (acetone), impregnated with deltamethrin and used to control tsetse flies (Glossina morsitans morsitans), were investigated in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi. Mammals and birds were censused simultaneously along transects in 'Miombo' woodland or 'Dambo' grassland/mixed woodland, with and without targets. Mammals were also monitored by surveys of their spoor on experimentally cleared plots (5 m in diameter) and a target relocation experiment was conducted when the targets were removed from the test transects and transferred to the controls. Significantly fewer small antelopes (e.g. common Duiker Sylvicapra grimmia) were detected in plots along transects with targets (tests) than along control transects. The presence of targets affected the frequency of occurrence of antelopes, suids and large herbivores in the experimental plots, but small carnivores, monkeys, rodents and hares were unaffected. A conclusion of the relocation experiment was that the deltamethrin-impregnated cloth was responsible for the observed effects and not the acetone. A total number of 23 species of birds meeting a criterion for their abundance in the areas surveyed were selected for detailed analyses. Lower indices in the test areas than in the controls were recorded for 15 of these 23 species in the Dambos and for 10 of 21 species in the Miombo woodland. Matched paired comparisons revealed significantly lower numbers in the test areas than in the controls in both habitats only for black-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatus, but for Grey Lourie Corythaixoides concolor, little bee-eater Merops pusillus, fork-tailed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis and combined data on three species of sunbirds in the Dambos. The black-eyed bulbul Pycnonotus barbatus had significantly lower numbers in the tests than in the controls in Miombo woodland. The numbers of three species of dove were higher in the tests than in the controls in both habitats, significantly so for the Cape turtle dove Streptopelia capicola, and numbers of the Flappet Lark Mirafra rufocinnamomea were significantly higher in the tests than in the controls in Dambos. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies on environmental effects of tsetse control, including effects of tsetse targets on pollinators especially non-target horseflies.

acetone birds deltamethrin environmental effects Glossinidae Malawi mammals Miombo woodland odour-baited targets Sylvicapra grimmia tsetse control 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel De Garine-Wichatitsky
    • 1
  • Robert A. Cheke
    • 2
  • Davie Lazaro
    • 3
  1. 1.CIRAD-EMVT, Programme ECONAP.IAC, Station de Port-LaguerreNouvelle CalédonieFrance
  2. 2.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of GreenwichChathamUK
  3. 3.Department of National Parks Wildlife and TourismKasungu National ParkKasunguMalawi

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