Advertisement

Distillery and curd whey wastes as viable alternative sources for biosurfactant production

  • Kirti Dubey
  • Asha Juwarkar
Article

Abstract

Biosurfactant production from synthetic medium and industrial waste, viz. distillery and whey wastes was investigated by using an oily sludge isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2. In synthetic medium separately supplemented with glucose and hexadecane as water-soluble and -insoluble carbon sources, respectively, strain BS2 reduced the surface tension of the fermentation broth from 57 to 27 mN/m. The culture produced biosurfactant during the stationary growth phase and its yield was 0.97 g/l. The culture utilized distillery and whey wastes for its growth, as maximum cell counts reached to 54 × 108 and 64 × 109 c.f.u./ml from an initial inoculum size of 1 × 05 c.f.u./ml, respectively, within 48 h of incubation and in these wastes the yields of biosurfactant obtained were 0.91 and 0.92 g/l, respectively. In synthetic medium, distillery and whey wastes, strain BS2 produced a crystalline biosurfactant which belonged to the category of secondary metabolites and its maximum production occurred after the onset of nitrogen-limiting conditions. After recovering biosurfactant from the fermented waste, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of distillery and whey wastes was significantly reduced by 81 and 87%, respectively. Total acids, nitrogen and phosphate levels in distillery waste were reduced by 90, 92 and 92%, respectively, while in case of whey waste the concentration of these nutrients was reduced by 88, 95 and 93%, respectively. The isolated biosurfactant possessed potent surface active properties, as it effectively reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and formed 100% stable emulsions of a variety of water-insoluble compounds such as hydrocarbons, viz. hexadecane, crude oil, kerosene and oily sludge and pesticides, viz. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzene hexachloride (BHC). The effectiveness of biosurfactant was also evident from its low critical micellar concentration (CMC) which was 0.028 mg/ml.

Biosurfactant critical micellar concentration distillery waste Pseudomonas aeruginosa whey waste 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. APHA, AWWA, WPCF 1989 Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, 17th edn. New York, USA: APHA, AWWA, WPCF. ISBN 0-87553-161-X.Google Scholar
  2. Babu, P.S., Vaidya, A.N., Bal, A.S., Kapur, R., Juwarkar, A. & Khanna, P. 1996 Kinetics of biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2 from industrial wastes. Biotechnology Letters 18, 263-268.Google Scholar
  3. Banat, I.M., Makkar, R.S. & Cameotra, S.S. 2000 Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 53, 495-508.Google Scholar
  4. Bandyopadhyay, A.K. & Mathur, B.N. 1987 Indian milk products: a compendium. Dairy India 211-218.Google Scholar
  5. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 1984. Gram Negative Rods and Cocci, vol. I, pp. 140-198. Baltimore, USA: Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-04108-8(V.1).Google Scholar
  6. Bubela, B. 1987 A comparison of strategies for enhanced oil recovery using in situ and extra situm produced biosurfactants. In Biosurfactants and Biotechnology, eds. Kosaric, N., Criang, W.L. & Gray, N.C.C. pp. 143-161. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. ISBN 0-82477679-8.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, D.G. & Goldenberg, B.G. 1987 Surface active agents from two Bacillus species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53, 224-229.Google Scholar
  8. Cooper, D.G. & Zajic, J.E. 1980 Surface active compounds from microorganisms. Advances in Applied Microbiology 26, 229-253.Google Scholar
  9. Desai, J.D. & Banat, I.M. 1997 Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 61, 47-64.Google Scholar
  10. Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rubero, P.A. & Smith, F. 1956 Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28, 350-356.Google Scholar
  11. Finnerty, W.R. & Singer, M.E. 1984 A microbial biosurfactant physiology, biochemistry and applications. Developments in Industrial Microbiology 25, 31-46.Google Scholar
  12. Guerra-Santos, L., Kaäppeli, O. & Fiechter, A. 1984 Pseudomonas aeruginosa biosurfactant production in continuous culture with glucose as carbon source. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 48, 301-305.Google Scholar
  13. Gutnik, D.L. & Minas, W. 1987 Perspectives on microbial surfactants. Biochemical Society Transactions 15, 22S-35S.Google Scholar
  14. Haferberg, D., Hommel, R., Claus, R. & Kleber, H.P. 1986 Extracellular microbial lipids as biosurfactants. Advances in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology 33, 53-93.Google Scholar
  15. Jack, T.R. 1988 Microbially enhanced oil recovery. Biorecovery 1, 59-73.Google Scholar
  16. Jelen, P. 1979 Industrial whey processing technology: an overview.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 27, 658.Google Scholar
  17. Joshi, H.C. 1997 Utilising distillery e.uents for agricultural production. Invention Intelligence 32, 281-287.Google Scholar
  18. Khire, J.M. & Khan, M.I. 1994 Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) Part I. Importance and Mechanism of MEOR. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 16, 170-172.Google Scholar
  19. Koch, A.K., Reiser, J., Kaëppeli, O. & Fiechter, A. 1988 Genetic construction of lactose utilising strains of P. aeruginosa and their application in biosurfactant production. Biotechnology 6, 1335-1339.Google Scholar
  20. Nickerson, T.K. 1974 In Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry, 2nd edn, eds. Webb, B.H., Johnson, A.M. & Alford, J.A. p. 273. Westport, Connecticut: A VI.Google Scholar
  21. Ramana, K.V. & Karanth, N.G. 1989 Factors a.ecting biosurfactant production using Pseudomonas aeruginosa CFTR-6 under submerged conditions. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 45, 249-257.Google Scholar
  22. Riera, F.S., Cordoba, P. & Sinertz, F. 1985 Use of the UASB reactor for the anaerobic treatment of stillage from sugarcane molasses. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 27, 1710-1716.Google Scholar
  23. Singh, M & Desai, J.D. 1989 Hydrocarbon emulsification by Candida tropicals and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 27, 224-226.Google Scholar
  24. Syldatk, C. & Wagner, F. 1987 Production of biosurfactants. In Biosurfactants and Biotechnology, eds. Kosaric, N., Crians, W.L. & Gray, N.C.C. pp. 89-120. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. ISBN 0-8247-7679-8.Google Scholar
  25. Zajic, J.E. & Stefens, W. 1984 Biosurfactants. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 1, 87-107.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirti Dubey
    • 1
  • Asha Juwarkar
    • 1
  1. 1.National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI)Nehru Marg, NagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations