Transdermal drug delivery of ionized drugs can be enhanced by iontophoresis. Drug in the ionic form, contained in some reservoir, can be “phoresed” through the skin with a small current across two electrodes, one above the reservoir and one at a distal skin location. Positive ions can be introduced from the positive pole, or negative ions from the negative pole. The design and development of iontophoretic devices are rather simple. Some of the principles of operation and the advantages/disadvantages and clinical implications associated with these devices are outlined in this review.
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