Advertisement

Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 179–198 | Cite as

Panic Disorder in African-Americans: Symptomatology and Isolated Sleep Paralysis

  • Steven Friedman
  • Cheryl Paradis
Article

Abstract

While attention has been paid to thestudy of panic disorder (PD) with or withoutagoraphobia among Caucasians, surprisinglylittle empirical research within the UnitedStates has looked at the phenomenology of PDamong minority groups. In this paper wepresent data we have collected and review otherresearch on the phenomenology, social supports,and coping behavior among African-Americanswith panic disorder. Our studies indicate that,in comparison to Caucasians, African-Americanswith PD reported more intense fears of dying orgoing crazy, as well as higher levels ofnumbing and tingling in their extremities. African-Americans reported higher rates ofcomorbid post traumatic disorder and moredepression. African-Americans also usedsomewhat different coping strategies (such asreligiosity and counting one's blessings), lessself-blame, and were somewhat more dissatisfiedwith social supports. The incidence ofisolated sleep paralysis was, as per previousreports, higher in African-Americans. Thesefindings, results of other research, and theimplications for assessment and treatment arediscussed within a semantic network analysis of panic (Hinton and Hinton 2002, thisissue).

African-Americans isolated sleep paralysis panic disorder 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Adebimpe, V.R. 1981 Overview: White Norms and Psychiatric Diagnosis of Black Patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry 138: 279–285.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, D. and D. Nutt 1993 Co-existence of Panic Disorder and Sleep Paralysis. British Association for Psychopharmacology 7: 293–294.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, L.P. 1991 Acculturative Stress: A Theory of Relevance to Black Americans. Clinical Psychological Review 11: 685–702.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, N.B., H.F. Myers, T. Pickering and J.S. Jackson 1991 Hypertension in Blacks: Psychosocial and Biological Perspectives. Journal of Hypertension 7: 161–172.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, D.H. 1988 Anxiety and its Disorders: The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barlow, D.H. and J.A. Cerny 1988 Psychological Treatment of Panic. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bell, C.C., D.D. Dixie-Bell and B. Thompson 1986 Further Studies on the Prevalence of Isolated Sleep Paralysis in Black Subjects. Journal of the National Medical Association 78: 649–659.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, C.C., C.J. Hildreth, E.J. Jenkins and C. Carter 1988 The Relationship of Isolated Sleep Paralysis and Panic Disorder to Hypertension. Journal of the National Medical Association 80: 389–394.Google Scholar
  9. Bell, C.C. and Jenkins, E.J. 1994 Isolated Sleep Paralysis in African-Americans. In Anxiety Disorders in African-Americans. S. Friedman, ed., pp. 117–127. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  10. Bell, C.C., B. Shakoor, B. Thompson, D. Dew, E. Hughley, R. Mays and K. Shorter-Gooden 1984 Prevalence of Isolated Sleep Paralysis in Black Subjects. Journal of the National Medical Association 76: 501–508.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, G.W. and T.O. Harris 1993 Aetiology of Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in an Inner-city Population. 1. Early adversity. Psychological Medicine 23: 143–154.Google Scholar
  12. Carter, M.M., T. Sbrocco and C. Carter 1996 African-Americans and Anxiety Disorders Research: Development of a Testable Theoretical Framework. Psychotherapy 33: 449–463.Google Scholar
  13. Chambless, D.L. and K.E. Williams 1995 A Preliminary Study of African-Americans with Agoraphobia: Symptom Severity and Outcome of Treatment with In Vivo Exposure. Behavior Therapy 26: 501–515.Google Scholar
  14. Chambless, D.L. and A.J. Goldstein 1980 Clinical Treatment of Agoraphobia. In Phobia: Psychological and Pharmacological Treatment. M.R. Mavissakalian and D.H. Barlow, eds. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. DiNardo, P.A., D.H. Barlow and J. Cerny et al. 1985 Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule Revised (ADIS-R). State University of New York at Albany, Phobia and Anxiety Disorders Clinic.Google Scholar
  16. Eaton, W.W., R.C. Kessler, H.U. Wittchen and W.J. Magee 1994 Panic and Panic Disorder in the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry 151: 413–420.Google Scholar
  17. Fabrega, H., Jr., J. Mezzich and R.F. Ulrich 1988 Black-white Differences in Psychopathology in an Urban Psychiatric Population. Comprehensive Psychiatry 29: 285–297.Google Scholar
  18. Fierman, E.J., M.F. Hunt, LA. Pratt, M.G. Warshaw, K.A. Yonkers, L.G. Peterson, T.M. Epstein-Kaye and H.S. Norton 1993 Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Subjects with Anxiety Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 150: 1872–1874.Google Scholar
  19. Friedman, S. and C. Paradis 1991 African-American Patients with Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 5: 35–41.Google Scholar
  20. Friedman, S., C.M. Paradis and M. Hatch 1994 Characteristics of African-American and White patients with Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 45: 798–803.Google Scholar
  21. Friedman, S., L. Smith, D. Fogel, C. Paradis, R. Viswanathan, R. Ackerman and B. Trappler n.d. The Incidence and Influence or Early Traumatic Life Events in Patients with Panic Disorder: A Comparison with Other Psychiatric Outpatients. Journal of Anxiety Disorder (in press).Google Scholar
  22. Fukada, K., A. Miyasita, M. Inugami and K. Ishihara 1987 High Prevalence of Isolated Sleep Paralysis: Kanashibari Phenomena in Japan. Sleep 10: 279–286.Google Scholar
  23. Hall, F.L. 1993 Unique Panic Disorder Presentation: “Ridden by the Witch.” Clinical Psychiatry News, December, p. 13.Google Scholar
  24. Hatch, M.L, S. Friedman and C.M. Paradis 1997 Behavioral Treatment of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder in African-Americans. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 3: 303–316.Google Scholar
  25. Hinton, D. and S. Hinton 2002 Panic Disorder, Somatization, and the New Cross-Cultural Psychiatry; or, the Seven Bodies of a Medical Anthropology of Panic. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry 26(2).Google Scholar
  26. Horwath, E., J. Johnson, C.D. Hornig and M.M. Weissman 1993 Epidemiology of Panic Disorder in African-Americans. American Journal of Psychiatry 150: 465–468.Google Scholar
  27. Hufford, D.J. 1982 The Terror That Comes in the Night. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  28. Jones, B.E. and B.A. Gray 1986 Problems in Diagnosing Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders Among Blacks. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 37: 61–65.Google Scholar
  29. McNally, R.J. 1994 Panic Disorder: A Critical Analysis. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Mezzich, J.E., A. Kleinman, H. Fabrega, Jr. and D.L. Parron 1996 Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis: A DSM-IV Perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric PressGoogle Scholar
  31. Michelson, L., K. June, A. Vives, S. Testa and N. Marchione 1998 The Role of Trauma and Dissociation in Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy Outcome and Maintenance for Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. Behavior Research and Therapy 36: 1011–1050.Google Scholar
  32. Mukherjee, S., S.S. Shukla and J. Woodle et al. 1983 Misdiagnosis of Schizophrenia in Bipolar Patients: A Multiethnic Comparison. American Journal of Psychiatry 140: 1571–1574.Google Scholar
  33. Neal, A.M., L. Nagle-Rich and W.D. Smucker 1994 The Presence of Panic Disorder Among African-American Hypertensives: A Pilot Study. Journal of Black Psychology 20: 29–35.Google Scholar
  34. Neal, A.M. and S.M. Turner 1991 Anxiety Disorders Research with African-Americans: Current Status. Psychological Bulletin 109: 400–410.Google Scholar
  35. Neal-Barnett, A.M. and J.H. Crowther 2000 To be Female,Middle Class, Anxious and Black. Psychology ofWomen Quarterly 24: 129–136.Google Scholar
  36. Neal-Barnett, A.M. and J. Smith 1997 African-Americans. In Cultural Issues in the Treatment of Anxiety. S. Friedman ed., pp. 154–174. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Neighbors, H.W., C.H. Caldwell, E. Thompson and J.S. Jackson 1994 Help-seeking Behavior and Unmet Needs. In Cultural Issues in the Treatment of Anxiety. S. Friedman ed., pp. 26–39. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Ness, R.C. 1978 The Old Hag Phenomenon as Sleep Paralysis: A Biocultural Interpretation. Cultural Medical Psychiatry 2: 15–39.Google Scholar
  39. Ohaeri, J.U., M.F. Adelekan, A.O. Odejide and B.A. Ikuesan 1992 The Pattern of Isolated Sleep Paralysis Among Nigerian Nursing Students. Journal of the National Medical Association 84: 67–70.Google Scholar
  40. Paradis, C.M., S. Friedman and M.J. Hatch 1997 Isolated Sleep Paralysis in African-Americans with Panic Disorder. Journal of Cultural Diversity and Mental Health 3: 69–76.Google Scholar
  41. Paradis, C.M., S. Friedman, R.M. Lazar, J. Grubea and M. Kesselman 1992 Use of a Structured Interview to Diagnose Anxiety Disorders in a Minority Population. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 43: 61–64.Google Scholar
  42. Regier, D.A., J.K. Myers, L.N. Kramer, L.N. Robins, D.G. Blazer, R.L. Hough, W.W. Eaton and B.Z. Locke 1984 The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. Archives of General Psychiatry 41: 934–941.Google Scholar
  43. Smith, L.C., S. Friedman and J. Nevid 1999 Clinical and Socioclinical Differences in African-American and European American Patients with Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 187: 549–560.Google Scholar
  44. Takeuchi, T., A. Miyasita, Y. Sasaki, M. Inugami and K. Fukuda 1992 Isolated Sleep Paralysis Elicited by Sleep Interruption. Sleep 15: 217–225.Google Scholar
  45. Ulbrich, P.M., G.J. Warheit and R.S. Zimmerman 1989 Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Psychological Distress: An Examination of Differential Vulnerability. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 30: 131–146.Google Scholar
  46. Wade, S.L., S.M. Monroe and L.K. Michelson 1993 Chronic Life Stress and Treatment Outcome in Agoraphobia with Panic Attacks. American Journal of Psychiatry 150: 1491–1495.Google Scholar
  47. Weidman, H.H. 1979 Falling Out: A Diagnostic and Treatment Problem Viewed from a Transcultural Perspective. Social Science Medicine 13B: 95–112.Google Scholar
  48. Wilson, S.A.K. 1928 The Narcolepsies. Brain 21: 63.Google Scholar
  49. Wyatt, G.L. 1997 Stolen Women: Reclaiming Our Sexuality, Taking Back Our Lives. New York: J. Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Friedman
    • 1
  • Cheryl Paradis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryState University of New York, Downstate Medical CenterBrooklyn
  2. 2.Marymount Manhattan CollegeNew York

Personalised recommendations