The Pulmonary Absorption of Aerosolized and Intratracheally Instilled rhG-CSF and monoPEGylated rhG-CSF
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Purpose. The objective of this study was to highlight differences in the pulmonary absorption of a monoPEGylated rhG-CSF and rhG-CSF after intratracheal instillation and aerosol delivery.
Methods. Male Sprague Dawley rats (250 g) were anesthetized and intratracheally instilled (IT) with protein solution or were endotracheally intubated and administered aerosol for 20 min via a Harvard small animal ventilator. A DeVilbiss “Aerosonic” nebulizer containing 5 ml of protein solution at ≈ 3 mg/ml was used to generate aerosol. The volume of protein solution deposited in the lung lobes was estimated to be ≈13 µl after delivery of Tc-99m HSA solutions. The PEGylated proteins consisted of a 6 kDa (P6) or 12 kDa PEG (PI2) linked to the N-terminus of rhG-CSF. rhG-CSF also was administered IT in buffers at pH 4 and pH 7 and in dosing volumes ranging from 100 to 400 µl. Blood samples were removed at intervals after dosing and the total white blood cell counts (WBC) were determined. Plasma was assayed for proteins by an enzyme immuno assay.
Results. The plasma protein concentration v. time profiles were strikingly different for aerosol v. IT delivery. The Cmax values for rhG-CSF and P12 after aerosol delivery were greater than found after IT (Aerosol: 598 ± 135 (ng/ml) rhG-CSF; 182 ± 14 P12 v. IT: 105 ± 12 rhG-CSF; 65.9 ± 5 P12). Similarly, Tmax was reached much earlier after aerosol administration (Aerosol: 21.7 ± 4.8 (min) rhG-CSF; 168 ± 31 P12 v. IT: 100 ± 17 rhG-CSF; 310 ± 121 P12). Estimated bioavailabilities (Flung %) were significantly greater via aerosol delivery than those obtained after IT (Aerosol: 66 ± 14 rhG-CSF; 12.3 ± 1.9 P12 v. IT: 11.9 ± 1.5 rhG-CSF; 1.6 ± 0.1 P12). An increase in circulating WBC counts was induced by all proteins delivered to the lungs. The rate and extent of absorption of rhG-CSF was not influenced by the pH employed nor the instilled volume.
Conclusions. Estimates of bioavailability are dependent upon the technique employed to administer drug to the lungs. Aerosol administration provides a better estimate of the systemic absorption of macromolecules.
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