Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 37, Issue 14, pp 3059–3066 | Cite as

Processing and characterisation of sol-gel glasses and powders in the system TeO2-TiO2

  • S. N. B. Hodgson
  • L. Weng


Sol-gel processing routes have been developed for the production of thin films and powders in the system TeO2-TiO2 from tellurium and titanium alkoxides. The structure and properties of the resultant materials have been characterised as a function of heat treatment temperature. Pure sol-gel derived TeO2 thin films are difficult to prepare with good optical transparency due to the presence of organic impurities and/or a highly dispersed metallic tellurium phase when heated at temperatures up to approximately 340°C, with crystallisation to α-TeO2 occurring when the heat treatment temperature is further increased. Additions of TiO2 were found to retard the crystallisation of the α-TeO2 but promote the formation of other TiO2 or TiTe3O8 phases. However, an optimum composition in the range 0.9TeO2 0.1TiO2 was identified, which allows optically transparent thin films to be prepared with high refractive index and offers the potential for practical device manufacture.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    P. PRASAD, in “Ultrastructure Processing of Advanced Materials,” edited by D. Uhlmann and D. Ulrich (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992) p. 461.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. J. IKUSHIMA, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 178 (1994) 1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. WADA, S. YAMADA and Y. MATSUOKA, Spring Proceedings in Physics 36 (1989) 292.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. E. LINES, J. Appl. Phys. 69 (1991) 6876.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. M. VOGEL, M. J. WEBER and D. M. KORL, Phys. Chem. Glasses 32 (1991) 231.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. A. EL-MALLAWANY, J. Appl. Phys. 72 (1992) 1774.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. IMAOKA, in “Advances in Glass Technology,” edited by Am. Ceram. Soc. (Plenum Press, New York, 1962) p. 149.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. KIM, T. YOKO and S. SAKKA, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 76 (1993) 2486.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. N. B. HODGSON and L. WENG, J. Sol Gel Sci. and Tech. 18 (2000) 145.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Idem., J. Non Cryst. Solids 276 (2000) 195.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. SWANEPOEL, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 6 (1983) 1214.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. K. J. AL-ANI, C. A. HOGARTH and R. A. EL-MALAWANY,J. Mater. Sci. 20 (1985) 661.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. LOVELL, A. AVERY and M. VERNON, “Physical Properties of Materials” (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. MALIK and C. HOGARTH, J. Mater. Sci. 25 (1990) 713.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. CHOPRA, A. MANSINGH and G. CHADHA, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 126 (1990) 194.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. ABDEL-KADER, A. HIGAZY and M. ELKHOLY, J. Mater. Sci.: Mat. in Electron. 2 (1991) 204.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. HASSAN and C. HOGARTH, J. Mater. Sci. 23 (1988).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. CALZADA, R. SIRERA, F. CARMONA and B. JIMENEZ, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 78 (1995) 1802.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Joint Committee for Powder Diffraction Standards Files, Pub. JCPDS International Centre for Diffraction standards, File No. 36-1452, Metallic Tellurium, (1993).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. C. BRADLEY, R. C. MEHROTRA and D. P. GAOR, “Metal Alkoxide” (Academic Press Inc., London, 1978) p. 191.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. M. TRACEY, S. N. B. HODGSON, A. K. RAY and Z. GHASSEMLOOY, J. Mat. Proc. Tech. 77 (1998) 86.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. C. SABADEL, P. ARMAND and D. CACHAUHERREILLAT, J. Solid State Chemistry 132 (1997) 411.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. MOCHIDA, K. TAKAHASHI, K. NAKATA and S. SHIBUSAWA, Yogyo-Kyokai-shi 86 (1978) 317.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. ARNAUDOV, V. DIMITROV, Y. DIMITRIEV and L. MARKOVA, Mat. Res. Bull. 17 (1982) 1121.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W. D. KINGERY, H. K. BOWEN and D. R. UHLMANN, “Introduction to Ceramics,” 2nd ed. (John Wiley, New York, 1976) p. 669.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. HILGENDORFF and V. SUNDSTROM, J. Phys. Chem. B 102 (1998) 10505.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. YAMAMOTO, H. NASU and J. MATSUOKA, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170 (1994) 87.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. HASSAN, W. KHELIF and C. HOGARTH, J. Mater. Sci. 24 (1989) 1607.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. PYE, H. STEVENS and W. LACOURSE (eds.), “Introduction to Glass Science” (Plenum Press, New York, 1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. N. B. Hodgson
    • 1
  • L. Weng
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials EngineeringLoughborough UniversityLoughborough, LeicestershireUK

Personalised recommendations