Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 60–64 | Cite as

Enhanced Bioavailability of Subcutaneously Injected Insulin by Pretreatment with Ointment Containing Protease Inhibitors

  • Masaharu Takeyama
  • Toshihiko Ishida
  • Noriko Kokubu
  • Fusao Komada
  • Seigo Iwakawa
  • Katsuhiko Okumura
  • Ryohei Hori


The present study was undertaken to develop an ointment preparation containing a protease inhibitor for stabilizing subcutaneously injected insulin. The ointment containing the protease inhibitor, gabexate mesilate or nafamostat mesilate, was applied to the skin around the insulin injection site. Three results were obtained. First, gabexate and nafamostat inhibited insulin degradation in subcutaneous tissue homogenates in vitro. Second, after application of gabexate or nafamostat ointment, an appreciable amount of gabexate or nafamostat appeared in the subcutaneous tissue of rats or hairless mice and their concentrations were comparable to those seen in the in vitro experiment. Third, insulin degradation at the subcutaneous injection site in the rat was depressed after pretreatment with gabexate or nafamostat ointment. Pretreatment with gabexate or nafamostat ointment increased the plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels and the hypoglycemic effect of insulin in healthy volunteers. These results indicate that gabexate or nafamostat ointments stabilize subcutaneously injected insulin.

insulin subcutaneous administration protease inhibitor gabexate nafamostat ointment bioavailability 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaharu Takeyama
    • 1
  • Toshihiko Ishida
    • 2
  • Noriko Kokubu
    • 3
  • Fusao Komada
    • 4
  • Seigo Iwakawa
    • 4
  • Katsuhiko Okumura
    • 4
  • Ryohei Hori
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PharmacyKagawa Medical SchoolKagawaJapan
  2. 2.Department of MedicineKagawa Medical SchoolKagawaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacy, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of MedicineKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Hospital Pharmacy, School of MedicineKobe UniversityKobeJapan

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