Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 337–353 | Cite as

Coping, Social Support, and Attachment Style as Psychosocial Correlates of Adjustment in Men and Women with HIV/AIDS

  • Julie M. Turner-CobbEmail author
  • Cheryl Gore-Felton
  • Feyza Marouf
  • Cheryl Koopman
  • Peea Kim
  • Dennis Israelski
  • David Spiegel
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial correlates of adjustment to HIV/AIDS in a sample of 137 HIV-positive persons (78 men and 59 women). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine relationships between perceived quality of general social support, three attachment styles, and three coping styles with total score on Positive States of Mind Scale (PSOMS), our measure of adjustment. The influence of demographic and medical status variables was also accounted for. PSOMS total score was significantly associated with greater satisfaction with social support related to HIV/AIDS, more secure attachment style, and less use of behavioral disengagement in coping with HIV/AIDS. These results indicate that for people with HIV or AIDS, those individuals who are more satisfied with their relationships, securely engaged with others, and more directly engaged with their illness are more likely to experience positive adjustment. Implications for physical health outcome and opportunities for intervention are discussed.

coping social support attachment HIV/AIDS 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Adler, N. E., Horowitz, M., Garcia, A., and Moyer, A. (1998). Additional validation of a scale to assess positive states of mind. Psychosom. Med. 60(1): 26–32.Google Scholar
  2. Bartholomew, K., and Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 61(2): 226–244.Google Scholar
  3. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Breakey, W. R., Fischer, P. J., Kramer, M., Nestadt, G., Romanoski, A. J., Ross, A., Royall, R., and Stine, O. C. (1989). Health and mental health problems of homeless men and women in Baltimore. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 262: 1352–1357.Google Scholar
  5. Carver, C. S. (1997). You want to measure coping but your protocol's too long: Consider the brief COPE. Int. J. Behav. Med. 4(1): 92–100.Google Scholar
  6. Carver, C. S., Pozo, C., Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M. F., Robinson, D. S., Ketcham, A. S., Moffatt, F. L., and Clark, K. C. (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 65(2): 375–390.Google Scholar
  7. Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., and Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 56: 267–283.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, S., and McKay, G. (1984). Social support, stress and the buffering hypothesis: A theoretical analysis. In Baum, A., Taylor, S., and Singer, J. (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology and Health. Vol. 4: Social Psychological Aspects of Health, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 253–268.Google Scholar
  9. Collins, N. L., and Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 58: 644–663.Google Scholar
  10. Dew, M. A., Ragni, M. V., Nimorwicz, P. (1990). Infection with human immunodeficiency virus and vulnerability to psychiatric distress: A study of men with hemophilia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 47: 737–744.Google Scholar
  11. Evans, D. L., Leserman, J., Perkins, D. O., Stern, R. A., Murphy, C., Zheng, B., Gettes, D., Longmate, J. A., Silva, S. G., van der Horst, C. M., Hall, C. D., Folds, J. D., Golden, R. N., and Petitto, J. M. (1997). Severe life stress as a predictor of early disease progression in HIV infection. Am. J. Psychiatry 154(5): 630–634.Google Scholar
  12. Fawzy, F. I., Fawzy, N. W., Hyun, C. S., Elashoff, R., Guthrie, D., Fahey, J. L., and Morton, D. L. (1993). Malignant melanoma: Effects of an early structured psychiatric intervention, coping, and affective state on recurrence and survival 6 years later. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 50: 681–689.Google Scholar
  13. Felton, B. J., Revenson, T. A., and Hinrichsen, G. A. (1984). Stress and coping in the explanation of psychological adjustment among chronically ill adults. Soc. Sci. Med. 18(10): 889–898.Google Scholar
  14. First, M.B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., and Williams, J.B.W. (1996). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders—Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP, Version 2.0), Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Fleishman, J. A., and Fogel, B. (1994). Coping and depressive symptoms among people with AIDS. Health Psychol. 13(2): 156–169.Google Scholar
  16. Folkman, S. (1997). Positive psychological states and coping with severe stress. Soc. Sci. Med. 45(8): 1207–1221. 352 Turner-Cobb, Gore-Felton, Marouf, Koopman, Kim, Israelski, and SpiegelGoogle Scholar
  17. Friedland, J., Renwick, R., and McColl, M. (1996). Coping and social support as determinants of quality of life in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care 8(1): 15–31.Google Scholar
  18. Futterman, A. D., Kemeny, M. E., Shapiro, D., and Fahey, J. L. (1994). Immunological and physiological changes associated with induced positive and negative mood. Psychosom. Med. 56(6): 499–511.Google Scholar
  19. Gluhoski, V. L., Fishman, B., and Perry, S.W. (1997). The impact of multiple bereavement in a gay male sample. AIDS Educ. Prev. 9(6): 521–531.Google Scholar
  20. Hazan, C., and Shaver, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 52: 511–524.Google Scholar
  21. Horowitz, M. J., Adler, N., and Kegeles, S. (1988). A scale for measuring the occurrence of positive states of mind: A preliminary report. Psychosom. Med. 50(5): 477–483.Google Scholar
  22. House, J. S., Landis, K. R., and Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science 241(4865): 540–545.Google Scholar
  23. Kelly, J. A. (1998). Group psychotherapy for the medically ill (Special issue). Int. J. Group Psychother. 48(2): 143–162.Google Scholar
  24. Kelly, B., Raphael, B., and Statham, D. (1996). A comparison of the psychosocial aspects of AIDS and cancer-related bereavement. Int. J. Psychiatry Med. 26(1): 35–49.Google Scholar
  25. Kemeny, M. E., Weiner, H., Duran, R., Taylor, S. E., Visscher, B., and Fahey, J. L. (1995). Immune system changes after the death of a partner in HIV-positive gay men. Psychosom. Med. 57(6): 547–554.Google Scholar
  26. Koopman, C., Gore-Felton, C., Marouf, F., Butler, L. D., Field, N., Gill, M., Chen, X.-H., Israelski, D., and Spiegel, D. (2000). Relationships of perceived stress to coping, attachment, and social support among HIV-positive persons. AIDS Care 12(5): 663–672.Google Scholar
  27. Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Hope: An emotion and a vital coping resource against despair. Soc. Res. 66(2): 653–679.Google Scholar
  28. Lazarus, R. S., and Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal and Coping, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Linn, J. G., Monnig, R. L., Cain, V. A., and Usoh, D. (1993). Stage of illness, level of HIV symptoms, sense of coherence and psychological functioning in clients of community-based AIDS counseling centers. J. Am. Nurs. AIDS Care 4(2): 24–32.Google Scholar
  30. Mickelson, K. D., Kessler, R. C., and Shaver, P. R. (1997). Adult attachment in a nationally representative sample. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 73: 1092–1106.Google Scholar
  31. Mikulincer, M., and Florian, V. (1995). Appraisal of and coping with a real life stressful situation: The contribution of attachment styles. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 21: 406–414.Google Scholar
  32. Mikulincer, M., and Florian, V. (1998). The relationship between adult attachment styles and emotional and cognitive reactions to stressful events. In Simpson, J., and Rholes, W. S. (Eds.), Attachment Theory and Close Relationships, Guilford, New York, pp. 143–165.Google Scholar
  33. Mikulincer, M., Florian, V., and Tolmacz, R. (1990). Attachment styles and fear of personal death: A case study of affect regulation. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 58: 273–280.Google Scholar
  34. Mikulincer, M., Florian, V., and Weller, A. (1993). Attachment styles, coping strategies, and posttraumatic psychological distress: The impact of the Gulf War in Israel. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 64(5): 817–826.Google Scholar
  35. Mikulincer, M., Orbach, I., and Lavnieli, D. (1998). Adult attachment style and affect regulation: Strategic variations in subjective self–other similarity. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 75(2): 436–488.Google Scholar
  36. Miller, G. E., and Cole, S.W. (1998). Social relationships and the progression of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A review of evidence and possible underlying mechanisms. Ann. Behav. Med. 20(3): 181–189.Google Scholar
  37. Moskowitz, J. T. (1996). Coping and mood during AIDS-related caregiving and bereavement. Ann Behav. Med. 18(1): 49–57.Google Scholar
  38. Neaigus, A., Friedman, S. R., Curtis, R., Des Jarlais, D. C., Furst, R. T., Jose, B., Mota, P., Stephenson, B., Sufian, M., Ward, R., and Wright, J. W. (1994). The relevance of drug injectors' social and risk networks for understanding and preventing HIV infection. Soc. Sci. Med. 38: 67–78.Google Scholar
  39. Nemoto, T., Young, M., Chan, M., and Guydish, J. (1992). Effect of social support on risk behaviors for HIV infection among drug users. Int. Conf. on AIDS 8(2): D401 (Abstract No. PoD 5087). Psychosocial Determinants of Adjustment 353Google Scholar
  40. Nyamathi, A., Flaskerud, J., Leake, B., and Chen, S. (1996). Impoverished women at risk for Aids: Social support variables. J. Psychosoc. Nurs. 34(11): 31–39.Google Scholar
  41. Nyamathi, A., Wayment, H. A., and Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1993). Psychosocial correlates of emotional distress and risk behavior in African-American women at risk for HIV infection. Anxiety, Stress Coping 6: 133–148.Google Scholar
  42. Odets, W. (1995). In the Shadow of the Epidemic: Being HIV-Negative in the Age of AIDS, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
  43. Patterson, T. L., Shaw, W. S., Semple, S. J., Cherner, M., McCutchan, J. A., Atkinson, J. H., and Grant, I. (1996). Relationship of psychosocial factors to HIV disease progression. Ann. Behav. Med. 18(1): 30–39.Google Scholar
  44. Penninx, B.W. J. H., van Tilburg, T., Boeke, A. J. P., Deeg, D. J. H., Kriegsman, D. M.W., and van Eijk, J. T. M. (1998). Effects of social support and personal coping resources on depressive symptoms: Different for various chronic diseases? Health Psychol. 17(6): 551–558.Google Scholar
  45. Rabkin, J. G., Williams, J. B. W., Neugebauer, R., Remien, R. H., and Goetz, R. (1990). Maintenance of hope in HIV-spectrum homosexual men. Am. J. Psychiatry 147: 1322–1236.Google Scholar
  46. Radloff, I. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale:Aself-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl. Psychol. Measure. 1(3): 385–401.Google Scholar
  47. Sarna, L., Van Servellen, G. L., and Padilla, G. (1996). Comparison of emotional distress in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in men with cancer. Appl. Nurs. Res. 9(4): 209–212.Google Scholar
  48. Schwarzer, F., Dunkel-Schetter, C., and Kemeny, M. (1994). The multidimensional nature of received social support in gay men at risk of HIV infection and AIDS. Am. J. Commun. Psychol. 22: 319–339.Google Scholar
  49. Sherbourne, C. D., Meredith, L. S., Rogers, W., and Ware, J. E. (1992). Social support and stressful life events: Age differences in their effects on health-related quality of life among the chronically ill. Qual. Life Res. Int. J. Qual. Life AspectsTreat. Care Rehab. 1(4): 235–246.Google Scholar
  50. Simpson, J. A. (1990). Influence of attachment styles on romantic relationships. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 59: 971–980.Google Scholar
  51. Spiegel, D., Bloom, J. R., Kraemer, H. C., and Gottheil, E. (1989). Effect of psychosocial treatment on survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. Lancet 2: 888–891.Google Scholar
  52. Stone, A. A., and Bovbjerg, D.H. (1994). Stress and humoral immunity: A review of the human studies. Adv. Neuroimmunol. 4(1): 49–56.Google Scholar
  53. Suls, J., and Fletcher, B. (1985). The relavant efficacy of avoidant and nonavoidant coping strategies: A meta-analysis. Health Psychol. 4: 247–288.Google Scholar
  54. Turner Cobb, J. M., and Steptoe, A. (1996). Psychosocial stress and susceptibility to upper respiratory tract illness in an adult population sample. Psychosom. Med. 58: 404–412.Google Scholar
  55. Turner Cobb, J. M., and Steptoe, A. (1998). Psychosocial influences on upper respiratory infectious illness in children. J. Psychosom. Res. 45(4): 319–330.Google Scholar
  56. Watson, M., and Greer, S. (1983). Development of a questionnaire measure of emotional control. J. Psychosom. Res. 27(4): 299–305.Google Scholar
  57. Zich, J., and Temoshok, L. (1987). Perceptions of social support in men with AIDS and ARC: Relationships with distress and hardiness. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 17: 193–215.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie M. Turner-Cobb
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cheryl Gore-Felton
    • 1
  • Feyza Marouf
    • 1
  • Cheryl Koopman
    • 1
  • Peea Kim
    • 1
  • Dennis Israelski
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Spiegel
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford UniversityStanford
  2. 2.USA

Personalised recommendations