, Volume 124, Issue 2, pp 245–252 | Cite as

Relevance of integrated disease management to resistance durability

  • Christopher C. Mundt
  • Christina Cowger
  • Karen A. Garrett


Three aspects of integrated disease management are considered. The first is the epidemiological synergism that can be derived through combining management tactics, and through disease management at regional scales. Field studies with potato late blight are used to demonstrate epidemiological impacts of integrating host resistance, fungicides, host density, and host genetic diversity. The importance of considering spatial scale and regional disease management are demonstrated with examples of cultivar mixtures in three different pathosystems. The second aspect is the potential for integrated management to increase the durability of resistance, e.g., through reduction of pathogen population size and imposition of disruptive selection. At this point in time, most information on this topic is limited to arguments of logic and to the results of mathematical models; empirical data are largely lacking. We suggest that current theoretical approaches need to be supplemented with inclusion of more complex processes, such as the effect of fitness modifiers in pathogen populations and the influence of quantitative adaptation of pathogens to their hosts. The third aspect is integration of resistance into overall crop management, including factors such as the balance between yield potential and disease resistance and the management of genotype x environment interaction. Such integration will increase the likelihood that farmers will utilize durable resistance, and will be demonstrated with examples from wheat production in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA.

durable resistance epidemiology integrated diseasemanagement pathogen evolution spatial scale 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmed, H.U., C.C. Mundt & S.M. Coakley, 1995. Host-pathogen relationship of geographically diverse isolates of Septoria tritici and wheat cultivars. Plant Pathol 44: 838–847.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed, H.U., C.C. Mundt, M.E. Hoffer & S.M. Coakley, 1996. Selective influence of wheat cultivars on pathogenicity of Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici). Phytopathology 86: 454–458.Google Scholar
  3. Boeger, J.M., R.-S. Chen, & B.A. McDonald, 1993. Gene flow between geographic populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph Septoria tritici) detected with restriction fragment length polymorphism markers. Phytopathology 83: 1148–1154.Google Scholar
  4. Chen, R.-S., J.M. Boeger & B.A. McDonald, 1994. Genetic stability in a population of a plant pathogenic fungus over time. Mol Ecol 3: 209–218.Google Scholar
  5. Chin, K.M. & M.S Wolfe, 1984. Selection on Erysiphe graminis in pure and mixed stands of barley. Plant Pathol 33: 535–546.Google Scholar
  6. Cohan, F.M., E.C. King & P. Zawadzki, 1994. Amelioration of the deleterious pleiotropic effects of an adaptive mutation in Bacillus subtilis. Evolution 48: 81–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowger, C., M.E. Hoffer & C.C. Mundt, 2000. Specific adaptation by Mycosphaerella graminicola to a resistant wheat cultivar. Plant Pathol 49: 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferrandino, F.J., 1993. Dispersive epidemic waves: I. Focus expansion within a linear planting. Phytopathology 83: 795–802.Google Scholar
  9. Garrett, K.A. & C.C. Mundt, 1999. Epidemiology in mixed host populations. Phytopathology 89: 984–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Garrett, K.A. & C.C. Mundt, 2000. Host diversity can reduce potato late blight severity for focal and general patterns of primary inoculum. Phytopathology 90: 1307–1312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Garrett, K.A., R.J. Nelson, C.C. Mundt, G. Chacon, R.E. Jaramillo & G.A. Forbes, 2001. The effects of host diversity and other management components on epidemics of potato late blight in the humid highland tropics. Phytopathology 91: in press.Google Scholar
  12. Kiyosawa, S., 1989. Breakdown of blast resistance in relation to general strategies of resistance gene deployment to prolong effectiveness of resistance in plants. In: K.J. Leonard & W.E. Fry (Eds.), Plant Disease Epidemiology, Vol. 2, pp. 251–283. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Kronstad, W.E., M.F. Kolding, P.K. Zwer & R.S. Karow, 1994. Registration of 'Gene' wheat. Crop Sci 34: 538.Google Scholar
  14. Lannou, C. & C.C. Mundt, 1996. Evolution of a pathogen population in host mixtures. I. Study of the simple race-complex race equilibrium. Plant Pathol 45: 440–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lannou, C. & C.C. Mundt, 1997. Evolution of a pathogen population in host mixtures: Rate of emergence of complex races. Theor Appl Genet 94: 991–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leonard, K.J., 1977. Selection pressures and plant pathogens. Ann NY Acad Sci 277: 207–222.Google Scholar
  17. Leonard, K.J. & R.J. Czochor, 1980. Theory of genetic interactions among populations of plants and their pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 18: 237–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Levin, B.R., P. Veronique & N. Walker, 2000. Compensatory mutations, antibiotic resistance and the population genetics of adaptive evolution in bacteria. Genetics 154: 985–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Line, R.F. & X. Chen, 1995. Successes in breeding for and managing durable resistance in wheat rusts. Plant Dis 12: 1254–1255.Google Scholar
  20. Marshall, D.R., 1989. Modeling the effects of multiline varieties on the population genetics of plant pathogens, In: K.J. Leonard & W.E. Fry (Eds.), Plant Disease Epidemiology, Vol. 2, pp. 284–317. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  21. McDonald, B.A., C.C. Mundt & R.-S. Chen, 1996. The role of selection on the genetic structure of pathogen populations: Evidence from field experiments with Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat. Euphytica 92: 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Minogue, K.P. & W.E. Fry, 1983. Models for the spread of disease: Model description. Phytopathology 73: 1168–1173.Google Scholar
  23. Morrell, V., 1997. Antibiotic resistance: Road of no return. Science 278: 575–576.Google Scholar
  24. Mundt, C.C., 1994. Use of host genetic diversity to control cereal diseases: Implications for rice blast, In: S.A. Leong, R.S. Zeigler & P.S. Teng (Eds.), Rice Blast Disease, pp. 293–307. CAB International, Wallingford (UK).Google Scholar
  25. Mundt, C.C., 2002. Performance of wheat cultivars and cultivar mixtures in the presence of Cephalosporium stripe. Crop Prot 21: 91–99Google Scholar
  26. Mundt, C.C. & L.S. Brophy, 1988. Influence of number of host genotype units on the effectiveness of host mixtures for disease control: A modeling approach. Phytopathology 78: 1087–1094.Google Scholar
  27. Mundt, C.C., C. Cowger & M.E. Hoffer, 1999a. Disease management using variety mixtures. In: M. van Ginkel, A. McNab & J. Krupinsky (Eds.), Septoria and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals: A Compilation of Global Research, pp. 111–116. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.Google Scholar
  28. Mundt, C.C., M.E. Hoffer, H.U. Ahmed, S.M. Coakley, J.A. DiLeone & C. Cowger, 1999b. Population genetics and host resistance, In: J.A. Lucas, P. Bowyer & H.M. Anderson (Eds.), Septoria on Cereals: A Study of Pathosystems, pp. 115–130. CAB International, Wallingford (UK).Google Scholar
  29. Parlevliet, J.E., 1981. Stabilizing selection in crop patho-systems: An empty concept or a reality? Euphytica 30: 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Parlevliet, J.E., 1989. Identification and evaluation of quantitative resistance, In: K.J. Leonard & W.E. Fry (Eds.), Plant Disease Epidemiology, Vol. 2, pp. 215–248. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Parlevliet, J.E. & A. van Ommeren, 1975. Partial resistance of barley to leaf rust, Puccinia hordei. II. Relationship between field trials, micro plot tests and latent period. Euphytica 24: 293–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Paysour, R.E. & W.E. Fry, 1983. Interplot interference: A model for planning field experiments with aerially disseminated pathogens. Phytopathology 73: 1014–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Somasco, O.A., C.O. Qualset & D.G. Gilchrist, 1996. Single-gene resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in the spring wheat cultivar 'Tadinia'. Zeitschrift Pflanzen 115: 261–267.Google Scholar
  34. van den Bosch, F., J.C. Zadoks & J.A.J. Metz, 1988. Focus expansion in plant disease. I. The constant rate of focus expansion. Phytopathology 78: 54–58.Google Scholar
  35. Vanderplank, J.E., 1975. Principles of Plant Infection. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Wolfe, M.S., 1985. The current status and prospects of multiline cultivars and variety mixtures for disease resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 23: 251–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wolfe, M.S., 1992. Barley diseases: Maintaining the value of our varieties, In: L. Munck (Ed.), Barley Genetics VI, pp. 1055–1067. Munksgaard International Publishers, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  38. Zhu, Y., H. Chen, J. Fan, Y. Wang, Y. Li, J. Chen, J.-X. Fan, S. Yang, L. Hu, H. Leung, T.W. Mew, P.S. Teng, Z. Wang & C.C. Mundt, 2000. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice. Nature 406: 718–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher C. Mundt
    • 1
  • Christina Cowger
    • 1
  • Karen A. Garrett
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Botany & Plant Pathologyregon State UniversityCorvallisU.S.A
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyKansas State UniversityManhattanU.S.A

Personalised recommendations