Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 71–92

The Measurement of Engagement and Burnout: A Two Sample Confirmatory Factor Analytic Approach

  • Wilmar B. Schaufeli
  • Marisa Salanova
  • Vicente González-romá
  • Arnold B. Bakker
Article

DOI: 10.1023/A:1015630930326

Cite this article as:
Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., González-romá, V. et al. Journal of Happiness Studies (2002) 3: 71. doi:10.1023/A:1015630930326

Abstract

This study examines the factorial structure of a new instrument to measure engagement, the hypothesized `opposite' of burnout in a sample of university students (N=314) and employees (N=619). In addition, the factorial structure of the Maslach-Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) is assessed and the relationship between engagement and burnout is examined. Simultaneous confirmatory factor analyses in both samples confirmed the original three-factor structure of the MBI-GS (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) as well as the hypothesized three-factor structure of engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption). Contrary to expectations, a model with two higher-order factors – ‘burnout’ and ‘engagement’ – did not show a superior fit to the data. Instead, our analyses revealed an alternative model with two latent factors including: (1) exhaustion and cynicism (‘core of burnout’); (2) all three engagement scales plus efficacy. Both latent factors are negatively related and share between 22% and 38% of their variances in both samples. Despite the fact that slightly different versions of the MBI-GS and the engagement questionnaire had to be used in both samples the results were remarkably similar across samples, which illustrates the robustness of our findings.

burnout engagement measurement students 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilmar B. Schaufeli
    • 1
  • Marisa Salanova
  • Vicente González-romá
  • Arnold B. Bakker
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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