Euphytica

, 124:35 | Cite as

Genetic diversity of Brazilian oil palm (Elaeis oleifera H.B.K.) germplasm collected in the Amazon Forest

  • M.C. Moretzsohn
  • M.A. Ferreira
  • Z.P.S. Amaral
  • P.J.A. Coelho
  • D. Grattapaglia
  • M.E. Ferreira

Abstract

Elaeis oleifera or ‘caiaué’, a close relative of oil palm (E. guineensis), has some agronomic traits of great interest for the oil palm genetic breeding such as slow growth, oil quality (mostly unsaturated) and disease resistance. An analysis of a Brazilian oil palm germplasm collection was carried out using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers with the objective of understanding the genetic variation of ‘caiaué’ accessions collected in the Amazon Forest in the last two decades. A sample of 175 accessions obtained along the Amazon River Basin was analyzed and compared to 17 accessions of oil palm from Africa. Ninety-six RAPD markers were used in the analysis, of which fourteen were shown to be specific to oil palm, while twelve were specific to ‘caiaué’. Results showed that the Brazilian ‘caiaué’ accessions studied have moderate levels of genetic diversity as compared to oil palm accessions. The data allowed the establishment of similarity groups for ‘caiaué’ accessions, which is useful for selecting parental plants for population breeding. Cluster analysis showed that, in general, genetic similarities are not correlated to geographical distances, but consistent with geographical dispersal along the Amazon River network. AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation is found within populations, as expected for anallogamous and long-lived perennial species. The study provides important information to define strategies for future collection expeditions, for germplasm conservation and for the use of E. oleifera in breeding programs.

AMOVA Elaeis spp. genetic diversity genetic resources oil palm RAPD 

References

  1. Amblard, P., J.-M. Noiret, B. Kouamé, F. Potier & B. Adon, 1995. Performances comparées des hybrides interspécifiques et du matériel commercial E. guineensis. Oléagineux Corps gras Lipides 2: 335–340.Google Scholar
  2. Andrade, E.B., 1983. Relatório de expedição para coleta de germoplasma de caiaué (Elaeis oleifera(H.B.K.) Cortés), na Amazônia brasileira. Manaus, EMBRAPA/CNPSD (atual CPAA).Google Scholar
  3. Barcelos, E., 1986. Características genético-ecológicas de populações naturais de caiaué (Elaeis oleifera (H.B.K.) Cortés) na Amazônia brasileira. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Fundação Universidade do Amazonas. Dissertação de mestrado.Google Scholar
  4. Baudouin, L., 1992. Utilisation des marqueurs moléculaires pour l'amélioration du palmier à huile. I – Marqueurs protéiques. Oléagineux 47: 681–691.Google Scholar
  5. Baudouin, L., T.V. Cao. & A. Gallais, 1995. Analysis of the genetic effects for several traits in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) populations. I. Population means. Theor Appl Genet 90: 561–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergamin Filho, A., L. Amorim, F.F. Laranjeira, R.D. Berger & B. Hau, 1998. Análise temporal do amarelecimento fatal do dendezeiro como ferramenta para elucidar sua etiologia. Fitopatologia Brasileira 23: 391–396.Google Scholar
  7. Excoffier, L., P. Smouse & J. Quattro, 1992. Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: Application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics 131: 479–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferreira, M.E. & D. Grattapaglia, 1998. Introdução ao uso de marcadores moleculares em análise genética. 3a ed. Brasília: EMBRAPA-CENARGEN.Google Scholar
  9. Gascon, J.P., J.C. Jacquemard, M. Houssou, D. Boutin, H. Chaillard & F. Kangafondjo, 1981. La production de semences sélectionées de palmier à huile Elaeis guineensis. Oléagineux 36: 481.Google Scholar
  10. Ghesquière, M., 1985. Polymorphisme enzymatique chez le palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq.). II – Variabilité et structure génétique de sept origines de palmiers. Oléagineux 40: 529–540.Google Scholar
  11. Ghesquière, M., E. Barcelos, M.M. Santos & P. Amblard, 1987. Polymorphisme enzymatique chez Elaeis oleifera H.B.K. (Elaeis melanococca). Analyse des populations du Bassin amazonien. Oléagineux 42: 143–153.Google Scholar
  12. Grattapaglia, D. & R. Sederoff, 1994. Genetic linkage maps of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using a pseudotestcross: Mapping strategy and RAPD markers. Genetics 137: 1121–1137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hamrick, J.L. & M.J.W. Godt, 1990. Allozyme diversity in plant species. In: A.H.D. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler & B.S. Weir (Eds.), Plant Population Genetics, Breeding and Genetic Resources, pp. 43–63. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  14. Hardon, J.J., V. Rao & N. Rajanaidu, 1985. A review of oil-palm breeding. In: G.E. Russell (Ed.), Progress in Plant Breeding, pp. 139–163. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  15. Hartley, C.W.S., 1977. The Oil Palm. Longman Group Limited, London.Google Scholar
  16. Jaccard, P., 1908. Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bull Soc Vaud Sci Nat 44: 223–270.Google Scholar
  17. Le Guen, V., P. Amblard, A. Omore, A. Koutou & J. Meunier, 1991. Le programme hybride interspécifique Elaeis oleifera ?Elaeis guineensis de l'IRHO. Oléagineux 46: 479–487.Google Scholar
  18. Mantel, N., 1967. The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res 27: 209–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Meunier, J. 1975. Le << palmier à huile >> américain Elaeis melanococca. Oléagineux 30: 51–61.Google Scholar
  20. Moretzsohn, M.C., 1995. Estudo de padrões eletroforéticos e análise da variabilidade genética de dendê (E. guineensis), caiaué (E. oleifera) e gerações F1 e RC1. MsC thesis, USP, São Paulo, Brazil.Google Scholar
  21. Moretzsohn, M.C., C.D.M. Nunes, M.E. Ferreira & D. Grattapaglia, 2000. RAPD linkage mapping of the shell thickness locus in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Theor Appl Genet 100: 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ooi, S.C., E.B. Da Silva, A.A. Müller, & J.C. Nascimento, 1981. Oil Palm Genetic Resources – Native E. oleifera populations in Brazil offer promising sources. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 16: 385–395.Google Scholar
  23. Renard, J.L., J.M. Noiret & J. Meunier, 1980. Sources and ranges of resistance to Fusarium wilt in the oil palms Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis melanococca. Oléagineux 35: 387–392.Google Scholar
  24. Rival A., L. Bertrand, T. Beule, M.C. Combes, P. Trouslot & P. Lashermes, 1998. Suitability of RAPD analysis for the detection of somaclonal variants in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Plant Breed 117: 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rohlf, F.J., 1993. NTSYS-pc Numerical taxonomy and multivariate system. Version 2.0. Applied Biostatistics Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  26. Santos, M.M., 1991. Polimorfismo isoenzimático de população subespontânea de dendê (E. guineensis Jacq.) do estado da Bahia e sua relação genética com seis procedências africanas. PhD thesis, USP, São Paulo, Brazil.Google Scholar
  27. Schneider, S., J.-M. Kueffer, D. Roessli & L. Excoffier, 1997. Arlequin ver. 1.1: A software for population genetic data analysis. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  28. Shah, F.H., O. Rashid, A.J. Simons & A. Dunsdon, 1994. The utility of RAPD markers for the determination of genetic variation in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Theor Appl Genet 89: 713–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zeven, A.C., 1964. On the origin of the oil palm. Grana palynologica 5: 121–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M.C. Moretzsohn
    • 1
  • M.A. Ferreira
    • 1
  • Z.P.S. Amaral
    • 1
  • P.J.A. Coelho
    • 1
  • D. Grattapaglia
  • M.E. Ferreira
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Genética de PlantasEmbrapa Recursos Genéticos e BiotecnologiaBrasília, D.F.Brazil

Personalised recommendations