Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 849–875 | Cite as

Kin Selection in Primate Groups

  • Joan B. Silk
Article

Abstract

Altruism poses a problem for evolutionary biologists because natural selection is not expected to favor behaviors that are beneficial to recipients, but costly to actors. The theory of kin selection, first articulated by Hamilton (1964), provides a solution to the problem. Hamilton's well-known rule (br > c) provides a simple algorithm for the evolution of altruism via kin selection. Because kin recognition is a crucial requirement of kin selection, it is important to know whether and how primates can recognize their relatives. While conventional wisdom has been that primates can recognize maternal kin, but not paternal kin, this view is being challenged by new findings. The ability to recognize kin implies that kin selection may shape altruistic behavior in primate groups. I focus on two cases in which kin selection is tightly woven into the fabric of social life. For female baboons, macaques, and vervets maternal kinship is an important axis of social networks, coalitionary activity, and dominance relationships. Detailed studies of the patterning of altruistic interactions within these species illustrate the extent and limits of nepotism in their social lives. Carefully integrated analyses of behavior, demography, and genetics among red howlers provide an independent example of how kin selection shapes social organization and behavior. In red howlers, kin bonds shape the life histories and reproductive performance of both males and female. The two cases demonstrate that kin selection can be a powerful source of altruistic activity within primate groups. However, to fully assess the role of kin selection in primate groups, we need more information about the effects of kinship on the patterning of behavior across the Primates and accurate information about paternal kin relationships.

altruism kinship kin selection reciprocity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Alberts, S. A. (1999). Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266: 1501–1506.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, R. D. (1974). The evolution of social behavior. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5: 325–383.Google Scholar
  3. Altmann, J. (1979). Age cohorts as paternal sibships. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 6: 161–169.Google Scholar
  4. Altmann, J. (1980). Baboon Mothers and Infants, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  5. Altmann, J., Alberts, S. C., Haines, S. A., Dubach, J. D., Muruthi, P., Coote, T., Geffen, E., Cheesman, D. J., Mututua, R. S., Saiyalele, S. N., Wayne, R. K., Lacy, R. C., and Bruford, M.W. (1996). Behavior predicts genetic structure in a wild primate group. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 5797–5801.Google Scholar
  6. Altmann, J., Hausfater, G., and Altmann, S. A. (1988). Determinants of reproductive success in savannah baboons, Papio cynocephalus. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Reproductive Success, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 403- 418.Google Scholar
  7. Altmann, J., Myles, B., and Combes, S. (1998). Grooming relationships in a primate group: Social cohesion or currying favors? Poster presented at the annual meetings of the American Primatological Society.Google Scholar
  8. Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (eds.) (1999). Natural Conflict Reconciliation, California University Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  9. Axelrod, R., and Hamilton, W.D. (1981). The evolution of cooperation. Science 211: 1390–1396.Google Scholar
  10. Barrett, L., Henzi, S. P., Weingrill, T., Lycett, J. E., and Hill, R. A. (1999). Market forces predict grooming reciprocity in female babons. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266: 665–670.Google Scholar
  11. Bearder, S. K. (1987). Lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers: Diverse societies in solitary foragers. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds.), Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 11–24Google Scholar
  12. Belisle, P., and Chapais, B. (2001). Tolerated co-feeding in relation to degree of kinship in Japanese macaques. Behaviour 138: 487–510.Google Scholar
  13. Berman, C. M. (1980). Early agonistic experience and rank acquisition among free-ranging infant rhesus monkeys. Int. J. Primatol. 1: 152–170.Google Scholar
  14. Berman, C. M. (1982). The ontogeny of social relationshps with group companions among freeranging infant rhesus monkeys: I. Social networks and differentiation. Anim. Behav. 20: 149–162.Google Scholar
  15. Berman, C. M. (1983a). Matriline differences and infant development. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 132–134.Google Scholar
  16. Berman, C. M. (1983b). Early differences in relationships between infants and other group members based on the mother's status: Their possible relationship to peer- peer rank acquisition. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 154–156.Google Scholar
  17. Berman, C. M. (1983c). Influence of close female relations on peer- peer rank acquisition. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 157–159.Google Scholar
  18. Bernstein, I. S. (1991). The correlation between kinship and behaviour in non-human primates. In Hepper, P. G. (ed.), Kin Recognition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 6–29.Google Scholar
  19. Bernstein, I. S., and Ehardt, C. L. (1985). Agonistic aiding: Kinship, rank, age, and sex influences. Am. J. Primatol. 8: 37–52.Google Scholar
  20. Bernstein, I. S., and Ehardt, C. L. (1986).The influence of kinship and socialization on aggressive behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Anim. Behav. 34: 739–747.Google Scholar
  21. Blaustein, A. R., Bekoff, M., and Daniels, J. (1987). Kin recognition in vertebrates (excluding primates): Empirical evidence. In Fletcher, D. J. C., and Michener, C. D. (eds.), Kin Recognition in Animals,Wiley, New York, pp. 287–331.Google Scholar
  22. Bramblett, C. A., Bramblett, S. S., Bishop, D., and Coelho, A. M., Jr. (1982). Longitudinal stability in adult hierarchies among vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Am. J. Primatol. 2: 10–19.Google Scholar
  23. Bourke, A. F. G. (1997). Sociality and kin selection in insects. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioural Ecology, 4th edn., Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 203–227.Google Scholar
  24. Chapais, B. (1983). Dominance, relatedness, and the structure of female relationships in rhesus monkeys. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 209–219.Google Scholar
  25. Chapais, B. (1992). The role of alliances in social inheritance of rank among female primates. In Harcourt, A. H., and de Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals, Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, pp. 29–59.Google Scholar
  26. Chapais, B. (1995). Alliances as a means of competition in primates: Evolutionary, developmental, and cognitive aspects. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 38: 115–136.Google Scholar
  27. Chapais, B., Girard, M., and Primi, G. (1991). Non-kin alliances and the stability of matrilineal dominance relations in Japanese macaques. Anim. Behav. 41: 481–491.Google Scholar
  28. Chapais, B., Gauthier, C., Prud'homme, J., and Vasey, P. (1997). Relatedness threshold for nepotism in Japanese macaques. Anim. Behav. 53: 1089–1101.Google Scholar
  29. Chapais, B., Prud'homme, P., and Teijeiro, S. (1994). Dominance competition among silbings in Japanese macaques: Constraints on nepotism. Anim. Behav. 48: 1335–1347.Google Scholar
  30. Chapais, B., Savard, L., and Gauthier, C. (2001). Kin selection and the distribution of altruism in relation to degree of kinship in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 49: 403–502.Google Scholar
  31. Cheney, D.L. (1977).The acquisition of rank and the development of reciprocal alliances among free-ranging immature baboons. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 2: 303–318.Google Scholar
  32. Cheney, D. L. (1978). Interactions of immature male and female baboons with adult females. Anim. Behav. 26: 389–408.Google Scholar
  33. Cheney, D. L. (1983). Extrafamilial alliances among vervet monkeys. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 278–286.Google Scholar
  34. Cheney, D. L. (1992). Intragroup cohesion and intergroup hostility: The relation between grooming distributions and intergroup competition among female primates. Behav. Ecol. 3: 334–345.Google Scholar
  35. Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. (1985). Vervet monkey alarm calls: Manipulation through shared information? Behaviour 94: 150–166.Google Scholar
  36. Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Andelman, S. J., and Lee, P. C. (1988). Reproductive success in vervet monkeys. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Reproductive Success, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 384–402.Google Scholar
  37. Cords, M. (1987). Male- male competition in one-male groups. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R.W., and Struhsaker, T.T. (eds.), Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 98–111.Google Scholar
  38. Cords, M. (1997). Friendship, alliances, reciprocity and repair. InWhiten, A., and Byrne, R.W. (eds.), Machiavellian Intelligence II, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 24–49.Google Scholar
  39. Creel, S. R., Monfort, S. L., Wildt, D. E., and Waser, P. M. (1991). Spontaneous lactation is an adaptive result of psuedo-pregnancy. Nature 351: 660–662.Google Scholar
  40. Crockett, C. M. (1984). Emigration by female red howler monkeys and the case for female competition. In Small, M. F. (ed.), Female Primates: Studied by Women Primatologists, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 159–173.Google Scholar
  41. Crockett, C. M., and Janson, C. H. (2000). Infanticide in red howlers: Female group size, male membership, and a possible link to folivory. In van Schaik, C. P., and Janson, J. H. (eds.), Infanticide by Males and its Implications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 75–98.Google Scholar
  42. Crockett, C. M., and Pope, T.R. (1988). Inferring patterns of aggression from red howler monkey injuries. Am. J. Primatol. 14: 1–21.Google Scholar
  43. Crockett, C. M., and Pope, T.R. (1993). Consequences for sex difference in dispersal for juvenile red howler monkeys. In Pereira, M. E., and Fairbanks, L. A. (eds.), Juvenile Primates: Life History, Development, and Behavior, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 104–118.Google Scholar
  44. Darwin, C. (1871). The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London.Google Scholar
  45. Datta, S. B. (1983a). Relative power and the acquisition of rank. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 93–103.Google Scholar
  46. Datta, S. B. (1983b). Relative power and the maintenance of dominance. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 103–112.Google Scholar
  47. Datta, S. B. (1983c). Patterns of agonistic interference. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 289–297.Google Scholar
  48. Defler, T. R. (1978). Allogrooming in two species of macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Macaca radiata). Primates 19: 153–167.Google Scholar
  49. Delgado, R. A., Jr., and van Schaik, C. (2000). The behavioral ecology of the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeusPongo pygmaeus): A tale of two islands. Evol. Anthropol. 9: 201–218.Google Scholar
  50. de Waal, F. B. M. (1977). The organization of agonistic relations within two captive groups of Java-monkeys (Macaca fasicularis). Z. Tierpsychol. 44: 225–282.Google Scholar
  51. de Waal, F. B. M. (1986). Class structure in a rhesus monkey group: The interplay between dominance and tolerance. Anim. Behav. 34: 1033–1040.Google Scholar
  52. deWaal, F.B.M.(1991).Rankdistance as a central feature of rhesus monkey social organization: Sociometric analysis. Anim. Behav. 41: 383–395.Google Scholar
  53. de Waal, F. B. M., and Luttrell, L. M. (1985). The formal hierarchy of rhesus monkeys: An investigation of the bared teeth display. Am. J. Primatol. 9: 73–85.Google Scholar
  54. deWaal, F. B. M., and Luttrell, L. M. (1986). The similarity principle underlying social bonding among female rhesus monkeys. Folia Primatol. 46: 215–234.Google Scholar
  55. DiFiore, A., and Rendall, D. (1994). Evolution of social organization:Areappraisal for primates by using phylogenetic methods. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 9941–9945.Google Scholar
  56. Digby, L. J. (1999). Targetting aggression in blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). Primates 40: 613–617.Google Scholar
  57. Dittus, W. P. J. (1979). The evolution of behaviors regulating density and age-specific sex ratios in a primate population. Behaviour 69: 265–301.Google Scholar
  58. Dittus, W. P. J. (1988). Group fission among wild toque macaques as a consequence of female resource competition and environmental stress. Anim. Behav. 36: 1626–1645.Google Scholar
  59. Dugatkin, L. A. (1997). Cooperation Among Animals, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Dunbar, R. I. M., and Dunbar, E. P. (1975). Social dynamics of gelada baboons. In Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 6, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  61. Ehardt, C. L., and Bernstein, I. S. (1986). Matrilineal overthrows in rhesus monkeys groups. Int. J. Primatol. 7: 157–181.Google Scholar
  62. Emlen, S. T. (1991). Evolution of cooperative breeding in birds and mammals. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioural Ecology, 3rd edn., Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 301–337.Google Scholar
  63. Emlen, S. T. (1997). Predicting family dynamics in social vertebrates. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioural Ecology, 4th edn., Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 228–253.Google Scholar
  64. Erhart, E., Coelho, A. M., and Bramblett, C. A. (1997). Kin recognition by paternal half siblings in captive Papio cyncocephalus. Am. J. Primatol. 43: 147–157.Google Scholar
  65. Fairbanks, L. (1980). Relationships among adult females in captive vervet monkeys: Testing a model of rank-related attractiveness. Anim. Behav. 28: 853–859.Google Scholar
  66. Fairbanks, L., and McGuire, M. T. (1986). Age, reproductive value, and dominance-related behavior in vervet monkeys: Cross-generational influences on social relationships and reproduction. Anim. Behav. 24: 1710–1721.Google Scholar
  67. Fletcher, D. J. C. (1987). The behavioral analysis of kin recognition: Perspectives on methodology and interpretation. In Fletcher, D. J. C., and Michener, C. D. (eds.), Kin Recognition in Animals,Wiley, New York, pp. 19–54.Google Scholar
  68. Fredrickson, W. T., and Sackett, G. P. (1984). Kin preferences in primates (Macaca nemestrina): Relatedness or familiarity? J. Comp. Pyschol. 98: 29–34.Google Scholar
  69. Furiuchi, T. (1983). Interindividual distance and influence of dominance on feeding in a natural Japanese macaque troop. Primates 24: 445–455.Google Scholar
  70. Galdikas, B.M.F. (1988). Orangutan diet, range, and activity atTanjung Putting, Central Borneo. Int. J. Primatol. 9: 1–35.Google Scholar
  71. Garber, P. A. (1997). One for all and breeding for one: Cooperation and competition as a tamarin reproductive strategy. Evol. Anthropol. 5: 187–198.Google Scholar
  72. Gouzoules, S. (1984). Primate mating systems, kin associations, and cooperative behavior: Evidence for kin recognition? Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 27: 99–134.Google Scholar
  73. Gouzoules, S., and Gouzoules, H. (1987). Kinship. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds.), Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 299–305.Google Scholar
  74. Gouzoules, H., Gouzoules, S., and Fedigan, L. (1982). Behavioural dominance and reproductive success in female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Anim. Behav. 30: 1138–1151.Google Scholar
  75. Grafen, A. (1991). Modelling in behavioural ecology. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioural Ecology, 3rd edn., Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 5–31.Google Scholar
  76. Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behavior: I and II. J. Theor. Biol. 7: 1–52.Google Scholar
  77. Hamilton, W. D. (1987). Discriminating nepotism: Expectable, common, overlooked. In Fletcher, D. J. C., and Michener, C. D. (eds.), Kin Recognition in Animals, Wiley, New York, pp. 417–637.Google Scholar
  78. Harcourt, A. H. (1987). Dominance and fertility among female primates. J. Zool. Lond. 213: 471–487.Google Scholar
  79. Hausfater, G., Altmann, J., and Altmann, S. A. (1982). Long-term consistency of dominance relations among female baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Science 217: 752–755.Google Scholar
  80. Hemelrijk, C. K. (1994). Support for being groomed in long-tailed macaques, Macaca fasicularis. Anim. Behav. 48: 479–481.Google Scholar
  81. Henzi, S. P. (2001). Baboons exchange grooming for tolerance around infants. Paper presented at the XVIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, Adelaide, Australia, Jan. 7- 12, 2001.Google Scholar
  82. Henzi, S. P., and Barrett, L. (1999). The value of grooming to female primates. Primates 40: 47–59.Google Scholar
  83. Holmes, W. G., and Sherman, P.W. (1983). Kin recognition in animals. Am. Nat. 71: 46–55.Google Scholar
  84. Horrocks, J., and Hunte, W. (1983). Maternal rank and offspring rank in vervet monkeys: An appraisal of the mechanisms of rank acquisition. Anim. Behav. 31: 772–782.Google Scholar
  85. Imakawa, S. (1988). Development of co-feeding relationships in immature free-ranging Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata). Primates 29: 493–504.Google Scholar
  86. Inouye, M., Takahata, A., Tanaka, S., Kominami, R., and Takenaka, O. (1990). Paternity discrimination in a Japanese monkeys group by DNA fingerprinting. Primates 31: 563–570.Google Scholar
  87. Jaisson, P. (1991). Kinship and fellowship in ants and social wasps. In Hepper, P. G. (ed.), Kin Recognition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 60–93.Google Scholar
  88. Jarvis, J.U. M., O'Riain, M. J., Bennett, N.C., and Sherman, P.W. (1994). Mammalian eusociality: A family affair. Trends Ecol. Evol. 9: 47–51.Google Scholar
  89. Johnson, J. A. (1987). Dominance rank in olive baboons, Papio anubis: The influence of gender, size, maternal rank and orphaning. Anim. Behav. 35: 1694–1708.Google Scholar
  90. Kaplan, J. R. (1977). Patterns of fight interference in free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 47: 279–288.Google Scholar
  91. Kaplan, J. R. (1978). Fight interference and altruism in rhesus monkeys. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 49: 241–249.Google Scholar
  92. Kapsalis, E., and Berman, C. M. (1996a). Models of affiliative relationships among free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): I. Criteria for kinship. Behaviour 133: 1209–1234.Google Scholar
  93. Kapsalis, E., and Berman, C. M. (1996b). Models of affiliative relationships among free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): II.Testing predictions for three hypothesized organizing principles. Behaviour 133: 1235–1263.Google Scholar
  94. Kuester, J., Paul, A., and Arnemann, J. (1994). Kinship, familiarity and mating avoidance in Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus. Anim. Behav. 48: 1183–1194.Google Scholar
  95. Kurland, J. A. (1977). Kin selection in the Japanese monkey. In Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 12, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  96. Lee, P.C. (1983). Context-specific predictability in dominance interactions. In Hinde, R.A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 35–44.Google Scholar
  97. Lee, P. C. (1987). Allomothering among African elephants. Anim. Behav. 35: 278–291.Google Scholar
  98. Lee, P. C., and Oliver, J. I. (1979). Competition, dominance, and the acquisition of rank in juvenile yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Anim. Behav. 27: 576–585.Google Scholar
  99. Ligon, J. D. (1991). Co-operation and reciprocity in birds and mammals. In Hepper, P. G. (ed.), Kin Recognition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 29–30.Google Scholar
  100. MacKenzie, M. M., McGrew, W. C., and Chamove, A. S. (1985). Social preferences in stumptailed macaques (Macaca arcoides): Effects of companionship, kinship, and rearing. Dev. Psychobiol. 18: 115–123.Google Scholar
  101. Mason, W. A. (1966). Social organization of the South American monkey, Callicebus molloch: A preliminary report. Tulane Stud. Zool. 13: 23–28.Google Scholar
  102. Massey, A. (1977). Agonistic aids and kinship in a group of pig-tail macaques. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 2: 31–40.Google Scholar
  103. McGrew, W. C., and McLuckie, E. C. (1986). Philopatry and dispersion in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus (o.) oedipus:An attempted laboratory simulation. Int. J. Primatol. 7: 401–422.Google Scholar
  104. Moore, J. (1978). Dominance relations among free-ranging female baboons in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In Chivers, D. J., and Herbert, J. (eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology I, Academic Press, London, pp. 67–70.Google Scholar
  105. Missakian, E. A. (1974). Mother-offspring grooming relations in rhesus monkeys. Arch. Sex. Behav. 3: 135–141.Google Scholar
  106. Mitani, J. C., Merriwether, D., and Zhang, C. (2000). Male affiliation, cooperation and kinship in wild chimpanzees. Anim. Behav. 59: 885–893.Google Scholar
  107. Muroyama, Y. (1991). Mutual reciprocity of grooming in female Japanese macaques (M. fuscata). Behavior 119: 161–170.Google Scholar
  108. Muroyama, Y. (1994). Exchange of grooming for allomothering in female patas monkeys. Behaviour 128: 103–119.Google Scholar
  109. Netto, W. J., and van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1986). Conflict interference and the development of dominance relationships in immature Macaca fasicularis. In Else, J. G., and Lee, P. C. (eds.), Primate Ontogeny, Cognition and Social Behaviour, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 291–300.Google Scholar
  110. Nievergelt, C. M., Digby, L. J., Ramakrishnan, U., and Woodruff, D. S. (2000). Genetic analysis of group composition and breeding system in a wild common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) population. Int. J. Primatol. 21: 1–20.Google Scholar
  111. Owen, D.D., and Owen, M. J. (1984). Helping behaviour in brown hyenas. Nature 308: 843–846.Google Scholar
  112. Packer, C., Collins, D. A., Sindimwo, A., and Goodall, J. (1995). Reproductive constraints on aggressive competition in female baboons. Nature 373: 60–63.Google Scholar
  113. Palombit, R. A. (1996). Pair bonds in monogamous apes: A comparison of the siamang Hylobates syndactylus and the white-handed gibbon Hylobates lar. Behaviour 133: 321–356.Google Scholar
  114. Parr, L., and de Waal, F. B. M. (1999). Visual kin recognition in chimpanzees. Nature 399: 647–648.Google Scholar
  115. Paul, A., and Kuester, J. (1987). Dominance, kinship, and reproductive value in female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at Affenberg, Salem. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 21: 323–331.Google Scholar
  116. Pereira, M. E., and Altmann, J. (1985). Development of social behavior in free-living nonhuman primtes. In Watts, E. (ed.), Non-Human Primate Models for Human Growth and Development, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 217–309.Google Scholar
  117. Perry, S. (1996). Female- female social relationships in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). Am. J. Primatol. 40: 167–182.Google Scholar
  118. Pfennig, D.W., and Sherman, P.W. (1995). Kin recognition. Sci. Amer. 272: 98–103.Google Scholar
  119. Pope, T. R. (1990). The reproductive consequences of male cooperation in the red howler monkey: Paternity exclusion in multi-male and single-male troops using genetic markers. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 27: 439–446.Google Scholar
  120. Pope, T. R. (1998). Effects of demographic change on group kin structure and gene dynamics of populations of red howling monkeys. J. Mammal. 79: 692–712.Google Scholar
  121. Pope, T. R. (2000a). Reproductive success increases with degree of kinship in cooperative coalitions of female red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 48: 253–267.Google Scholar
  122. Pope, T. R. (2000b). The evolution of male philopatry in neotropical monkeys. In Kappeler, P. M. (ed.), Primate Males, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 219–235.Google Scholar
  123. Prud'homme, J., and Chapais, B. (1996). Development of intervention behavior in Japanese macaques: Testing the targeting hypothesis. Intl. J. Primatol. 17: 429–443.Google Scholar
  124. Pusey, A. E., and Packer, C. (1997). The ecology of relationships. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioural Ecology, 4th edn., Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 301–337.Google Scholar
  125. Reichard, U. (1995). Extra-pair copulations in a monogamous gibbon (Hylobates lar). Ethology 100: 99–112.Google Scholar
  126. Rendall, D., and Di Fiore, A. (1995) The road less traveled: Phylogenetic perspectives in primatology. Evol. Anthropol. 4: 43–52.Google Scholar
  127. Richards, R. J. (1987). Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior, Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  128. Rosenberger, A. L. (1992). Evolution of New World monkeys. In Jones, J., Martin, R., and Pilbeam, D. (eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 209–216.Google Scholar
  129. Sackett, G. P., and Fredrickson, W. T. (1987). Social preferences by pigtail macaques: Familiarity versus degree and type of kinship. Anim. Behav. 35: 603–607.Google Scholar
  130. Sade, D. S. (1965). Some aspects of parent- offspring and sibling relations in a group of rhesus monkeys, with a discussion of grooming. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 23: 1–18.Google Scholar
  131. Samuels, A., and Henrickson, R. V. (1983). Outbreak of severe aggression in captive Macaca mulatta. Am. J. Primatol. 5: 277–281.Google Scholar
  132. Samuels, A., Silk, J. B., and Altmann, J. (1987). Continuity and change in dominance relations among female baboons. Anim. Behav. 35: 785–793.Google Scholar
  133. Saunders, C. D. (1988). Ecological, Social, and Evolutionary Aspects of Baboon (Papio Cynocephalus) Grooming Behavior, PhD Dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  134. Sauther, M. L., Sussman, R.W., and Gould, L. (1999). The socioecology of the ringtailed lemur: Thirty-five years of research. Evol. Anthropol. 8: 120–132.Google Scholar
  135. Schaub, H. (1996). Testing kin altruism in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fasicularis) in a foodsharing experiment. Int. J. Primatol. 17: 445–467.Google Scholar
  136. Seger, J. (1991). Cooperation and conflict in social insects. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioural Ecology, 3rd edn., Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 338–373.Google Scholar
  137. Seyfarth, R. M. (1977). A model of social grooming among adult female monkeys. J. Theor. Biol. 65: 671–698.Google Scholar
  138. Seyfarth, R. M. (1980).The distribution of grooming and related behaviours among adult female vervet monkeys. Anim. Behav. 28: 798–813.Google Scholar
  139. Seyfarth, R. M. (1983). Groming and social competition in primates. In Hinde, R. A. (ed.), Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 182–190.Google Scholar
  140. Seyfarth, R. M., and Cheney, D. L. (1984). Grooming, alliances, and reciprocal altruism in vervet monkeys. Nature 308: 541–543.Google Scholar
  141. Sherman, P.W. (1977). Nepotism and the evolution of alarm calls. Science 197: 1246–1253.Google Scholar
  142. Sherman, P. W., Reeve, H. K., and Pfennig, D. W. (1997). Recognition systems. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioural Ecology, 4th edn., Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 69–96.Google Scholar
  143. Silk, J. B. (1982). Altruism among female Macaca radiata: Explanations and analysis of patterns of grooming and coalition formation. Behaviour 79: 162–168.Google Scholar
  144. Silk, J. B. (1987). Social behavior in evolutionary perspective. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R.W., and Struhsaker, T.T. (eds.), Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 318–329.Google Scholar
  145. Silk, J. B. (1988). Maternal investment in captive bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Am. Nat. 132: 1–19.Google Scholar
  146. Silk, J. B. (1992a). Patterns of intervention in agonistic contests among male bonnet macaques. In Harcourt, S., and deWaal, F. B. M. (eds.), Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 215–232.Google Scholar
  147. Silk, J. B. (1992b). The patterning of intervention among male bonnet macaque: Reciprocity, revenge, and loyalty. Curr. Anthropol. 33: 318–325.Google Scholar
  148. Silk, J. B. (1997). The function of peaceful post-conflict contacts among primates. Primates 38: 265–279.Google Scholar
  149. Silk, J. B. (1999). Why are infants so attractive to others? The form and function of infant handling in bonnet macaques. Anim. Behav. 57: 1021–1032.Google Scholar
  150. Silk, J. B. (2000). Ties that bond: The role of kinship in primate societies. In Stone, L. (ed.), New Directions in Anthropological Kinship, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, pp. 71–92.Google Scholar
  151. Silk, J. B., Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. (1999). The structure of social relationships among female savannah baboons in Moremi Reserve, Botswana. Behaviour 136: 679–703.Google Scholar
  152. Silk, J. B., Samuels, A., and Rodman, P. S. (1981). The influence of kinship, rank, and sex upon affiliation and aggression among adult females and immature bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Behaviour 78: 112–137.Google Scholar
  153. Small, M. F., and Smith, D. G. (1981). Interactions with infants by full-siblings, paternal halfsiblings, and non relatives in a captive group of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Am. J. Primatol. 1: 91–94.Google Scholar
  154. Smith, D.G. (1986). Incidence and consequences of inbreeding in three captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). In Benirschke, K. (ed.), Primates: The Road to Self-Sustaining Populations, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 856–874.Google Scholar
  155. Smith, K. L. (2000). Paternal Kin Matter: The Distribution of Social Behavior AmongWild Adult Female Baboons, PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  156. Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds.) (1987). Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  157. Strier, K.B. (2000). From binding brotherhoods to short-term sovereignty:The dilemma of male Cebidae. In Kappeler, P.M. (ed.), Primate Males, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 72–83.Google Scholar
  158. Thierry, B. (2000). Covariation of conflict management patterns across macaque species. In Aureli, F., and deWaal, F.B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 106–128.Google Scholar
  159. Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q. Rev. Biol. 46: 35–57.Google Scholar
  160. Van Schaik, C. P., and Janson, C. H. (2000). Infanticide by males: Prospectus. In van Schaik, C. P., and Janson, C. H. (eds.), Infanticide by Males and its Implications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  161. Vick, L. G., and Pereira, M. E. (1989). Episodic targetting aggression and the histories of lemur social groups. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 1: 3–12.Google Scholar
  162. Walters, J. R. (1980). Interventions and the development of dominance relationships in female baboons. Folia Primatol. 34: 61–89.Google Scholar
  163. Walters, J. R. (1981). Inferring kinship from behavior: Maternity determination in yellow baboons. Anim. Behav. 29: 126–136.Google Scholar
  164. Walters, J. R. (1987a). Kin recognition in non-human primates. In Fletcher, D. J. C., and Michener, C. D. (eds.), Kin Recognition in Animals,Wiley, New York, pp. 359–393.Google Scholar
  165. Walters, J. R. (1987b). Transition to adulthood. In Smuts, B. B., Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Wrangham, R. W., and Struhsaker, T. T. (eds.), Primate Societies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 358–369.Google Scholar
  166. Welker, C., Schwibbe, M. H., Shäfer-Witt, C., and Visalberghi, E. (1987). Failure of kin recognition in Macaca fasicularis. Folia Primatol. 49: 216–221.Google Scholar
  167. Widdig, A., Nü rnberg, P., Krawczak, M., Streich, W. J., and Bercovitch, F. B. (2001). Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98(24): 13769–13773.Google Scholar
  168. Widdig, A., Nürnberg, P., Krawczak, M., Streich, W. J., and Bercovitch, F. (in press). Affiliation and aggression among adult female rhesus macaques: A genetic analysis of paternal cohorts. Behavior.Google Scholar
  169. Widdig, A., Streich, W. J., and Tembrock, G. (2000). Coalition formation among male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Am. J. Primatol. 50: 37–51.Google Scholar
  170. Wu, H. M., Holmes, W. G., Medina, S. R., and Sackett, G. P. (1980). Kin preferences in infant Macaca nemestrina. Nature 285: 225–227.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joan B. Silk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of California – Los AngelesLos Angeles

Personalised recommendations