Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 759–783 | Cite as

Competition for Resources and Its Behavioral Consequences Among Female Primates

  • Andreas Koenig
Article

Abstract

Via the current model on the evolutionary ecology of female social relationships, Sterck et al. (1997) argue that ecological conditions determine how competition over food resources affects female fitness. The relative importance of different modes of competition then affects female social relationships and dispersal patterns. I outline the model and review relevant data. There are 3 modes of feeding competition: within-group scramble (WGS), within-group contest (WGC), and between-group contest (BGC), which occur in various combinations in different populations of nonhuman primates. Ecological measures support predictions that limiting resources lead to WGS and clumped resources induce WGC. The ecological basis of BGC remains elusive, but it is probably linked to resource abundance. Tests of the proxies of feeding competition support the idea that short-term search substrates and increasing group size lead to WGS, while high-quality patches of intermediate size relative to group size lead to WGC. However, when tested across populations, independent measures of aggression rates do not always match the actual or presumed competitive regimes. This mismatch might be explained by confounding factors and the predominately indirect measures of feeding competition. Predicted relationships between feeding competition and female social relationships/dispersal are only partly supported. This might be attributed to the fact that few studies have taken ultimate approaches using mechanistic correlates of fitness (net energy gain) or lifetime reproductive success to measure consequences of feeding competition. But to resolve existing inconsistencies, additional factors need to be taken into account as well, for example, male sexual strategies may affect female feeding competition; constraints on group size may enforce female dispersal; and demography may alter rates of alliances. More explicitly, ultimate approaches are needed to test the consistency of the socioecological model.

competition for resources females feeding competition net energy gain reproductive success resource characteristics agonistic interactions dominance relationships dominance hierarchies dispersal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Alexander, R. D. (1974). The evolution of social behavior. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5: 325–383.Google Scholar
  2. Altman, J., Hausfater, G., and Altmann, S. (1988). Determinants of reproductive success in savannah baboons, Papio cynocephalus. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Reproductive Success, Chicago University Press, Chicago, pp. 403–418.Google Scholar
  3. Aureli, F., Das, M., and Veenema, H. C. (1997). Differential kinship effect on reconciliation in three species of macaques (Macaca fascicularis, M. fuscata, and M. sylvanus). J. Comp.Psychol. 111: 91–99.Google Scholar
  4. Barnard, C. J., and Silby, R. M. (1981). Producers and scroungers: A general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows. Anim. Behav. 29: 543–550.Google Scholar
  5. Barta, Z., and Giraldeau, L.-A. (1998). The effect of dominance hierarchy on the use of alternative foraging tactics:Aphenotype-limited producing-scrounging game. Behav. Ecol.Sociobiol. 42: 217–223.Google Scholar
  6. Barton, R. A., Byrne, R. W., and Whiten, A. (1996). Ecology, feeding competition and social structure in baboons. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 38: 321–329.Google Scholar
  7. Barton, R. A., and Whiten, A. (1993). Feeding competition among female olive baboons, Papio anubis. Anim. Behav. 46: 777–789.Google Scholar
  8. Beauchamp, G. (1998). The effect of group size on mean food intake rate in birds. Biol. Rev. 73: 449–472.Google Scholar
  9. Boinski, S. (1999). The social organization of squirrel monkeys: Implications for ecological models of social evolution. Evol. Anthropol. 8: 101–112.Google Scholar
  10. Borries, C. (1993). Ecology of female social relationships: Hanuman langurs and the van Schaik model. Folia Primatol. 61: 21–30.Google Scholar
  11. Borries, C., Sommer, V., and Srivastava, A. (1991). Dominance, age, and reproductive success in free-ranging Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int. J. Primatol. 12: 231–257.Google Scholar
  12. Chapais, B. (1992). The role of alliances in social inheritance of rank among female primates.In Harcourt, A. H., and DeWaal, F. B. M. (eds.), Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 29–59.Google Scholar
  13. Chapman, C. A. (1988). Patch use and patch depletion by the spider and howling monkeys of Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. Behaviour 105: 99–116.Google Scholar
  14. Chapman, C. A., and Chapman, L. J. (2000). Determinants of group size in primates: The importance of travel costs. In Boinski, S., and Garber, P. A. (eds.), On the Move. How and Why Animals Travel in Groups, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 24–42.Google Scholar
  15. Chapman, C. A., Wrangham, R.W., and Chapman, L. J. (1995). Ecological constraints on group size: An analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 36: 59–70.Google Scholar
  16. Cheney, D. L., and Seyfarth, R. M. (1987). The influence of intergroup competition on the survival and reproduction of female vervet monkeys. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 21: 375–386.Google Scholar
  17. Cheney, D. L., Seyfarth, R. M., Andelman, S. J., and Lee, P. C. (1988). Reproductive success in vervet monkeys. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Reproductive Success, Chicago University Press, Chicago, pp. 384–402.Google Scholar
  18. Clark, C. W., and Mangel, M. (1986). The evolutionary advantages of group foraging. Theor.Popul. Biol. 30: 45–75.Google Scholar
  19. Clutton-Brock, T. H., and Harvey, P.H. (1977). Primate ecology and social organization. J. Zool.Lond. 183: 1–39.Google Scholar
  20. Cords, M. (2000). Agonistic and affiliative relationships in a blue monkey group. InWhitehead, P. F., and Jolly, C. J. (eds.), Old World Monkeys, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 453–479.Google Scholar
  21. Crockett, C. M., and Janson, C. H. (2000). Infanticide in red howlers: Female group size, male composition, and a possible link to folivory. In van Schaik, C. P., and Janson, C. H. (eds.), Infanticide by Males and its Implications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 75–98.Google Scholar
  22. Darwin, C. (1859). The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, John Murray, London.Google Scholar
  23. Datta, S. B., and Beauchamp, G. (1991). Effects of group demography on dominance relationships among female primates. I. Mother- daughter and sister- sister relations. Am. Nat. 138: 201–226.Google Scholar
  24. de Vries, H. (1995).Animproved test of linearity in dominance hierarchies containing unknown or tied relationships. Anim. Behav. 50: 1375–1389.Google Scholar
  25. de Waal, F. B. M., and Luttrell, L. M. (1989). Toward a comparative socioecology of the genus Macaca: Different dominance styles in rhesus and stumptail monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 19: 83–109.Google Scholar
  26. DiFiore, A., and Rendall, D. (1994). Evolution of social organization:Areappraisal for primates by using phylogenetic methods. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 9941–9945.Google Scholar
  27. Digby, L. (2000). Infanticide by female mammals: Implications for the evolution of social systems.In van Schaik, C. P., and Janson, C. H. (eds.), Infanticide by Males and its Implications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 423–446.Google Scholar
  28. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1988). Primate Social Systems, Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
  29. Fashing, P. J. (2001). Male and female strategies during intergroup encounters in guerezas (Colobus guereza): Evidence for resource defense mediated through males and a comparison with other primates. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 50: 219–230.Google Scholar
  30. Furichi, T. (1983). Interindividual distances and influence of dominance on feeding in natural Japanese macaque troop. Primates 24: 445–455.Google Scholar
  31. Gillespie, T. A., and Chapman, C. A. (2001). Determinants of group size in the red colobus monkey (Procolobus badius): An evaluation of the generality of the ecological-constraints model. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 50: 329–338.Google Scholar
  32. Glander, K. E. (1992). Dispersal patterns in Costa Rican mantled howling monkeys. Int. J.Primatol. 13: 415–436.Google Scholar
  33. Harcourt, A. H. (1987). Dominance and fertility among female primates. J. Zool., Lond. 213: 471–487.Google Scholar
  34. Hemelrijk, C. (1999). An individual-oriented model of the emergence of despotic and egalitarian societies. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266: 361–369.Google Scholar
  35. Hill, D. A., and Okayasu, N. (1995). Absence of "youngest ascendancy" in the dominance relations of sisters in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui). Behaviour 132: 367–379.Google Scholar
  36. Hill, D. A., and Okayasu, N. (1996). Determinants of dominance among female macaques: Nepotism, demography and danger. In Fa, J. E., and Lindburg, D. G. (eds.), Evolution and Ecology of Macaque Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 459–472.Google Scholar
  37. Hinde, R. A. (1976). Interactions, relationships and social structure. Man 11: 1–17.Google Scholar
  38. Hladik, C. M. (1975). Ecology, diet and social patterns in Old andNewWorld primates. InTuttle, R. H. (ed.), Socioecology and Psychology of Primates, Mouton, The Hague, pp. 3–35.Google Scholar
  39. Hladik, C. M. (1977). A comparative study of the feeding strategies of two sympatric species of leaf monkeys: Presbytis senex and Presbytis entellus. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes, Academic Press, London, pp. 323–353.Google Scholar
  40. Hrdy, S. B., and Hrdy, D. B. (1976). Hierarchical relations among female Hanuman langurs (Primates: Colobinae, Presbytis entellus). Science 193: 913–915.Google Scholar
  41. Huntingford, F., and Turner, A. K. (1987). Animal Conflict, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  42. Isbell, L. A. (1991). Contest and scramble competition: Patterns of female aggression and ranging behavior among primates. Behav. Ecol. 2: 143–155.Google Scholar
  43. Isbell, L. A., and Pruetz, J. D. (1998). Differences between vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in agonistic interactions between adult females. Int.J. Primatol. 19: 837–855.Google Scholar
  44. Isbell, L. A., Pruetz, J. D., and Young, T. P. (1998). Movements of vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) as estimators of food resource size, density, and distribution. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 42: 123–133.Google Scholar
  45. Isbell, L. A., and van Vuren, D. (1996). Differential costs of locational and social dispersal and their consequences for female group-living primates. Behaviour 133: 1–36.Google Scholar
  46. Janson, C. H. (1985). Aggressive competition and individual food consumption in wild brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18: 125–138.Google Scholar
  47. Janson, C. H. (1986). The mating system as determinant of social evolution in capuchin monkeys (Cebus). In Else, J.G., and Lee, P. C. (eds.), Primate Ecology and Conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 169–179.Google Scholar
  48. Janson, C. H. (1988a). Intra-specific food competition and primate social structure:Asynthesis.Behaviour 105: 1–17.Google Scholar
  49. Janson, C. H. (1988b). Food competition in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): Quantitative effects of group size and tree productivity. Behaviour 105: 53–76.Google Scholar
  50. Janson, C. H. (1992). Evolutionary ecology of primate social structure. In Smith, E. A., and Winterhalder, B. (eds.), Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior, Aldine de Gruyter, New York, pp. 95–130.Google Scholar
  51. Janson, C. H. (2000). Primate socio-ecology: The end of the golden age. Evol. Anthropol. 9: 73–86.Google Scholar
  52. Janson, C. H., and Goldsmith, M. L. (1995). Predicting group size in primates: Foraging costs and predation risks. Behav. Ecol. 6: 326–336.Google Scholar
  53. Janson, C. H., and van Schaik, C. P. (1988). Recognizing the many faces of primate food competition: Methods. Behaviour 105: 165–186.Google Scholar
  54. Jones, C. B. (1980). The function of status in the mantled howler monkey, Alouatta palliata GRAY: Intraspecific competition for group membership in a folivorous neotropical primate. Primates 21: 389–405.Google Scholar
  55. Kappeler, P.M. (1999). Lemur social structure and convergence in primate socioecology. In Lee, P. C. (ed.), Comparative Primate Socioecology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 273–299.Google Scholar
  56. Koenig, A. (2000). Competitive regimes in forest-dwelling Hanuman langur females (Semnopithecus entellus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 48: 93–109.Google Scholar
  57. Koenig, A., Beise, J., Chalise, M. K., and Ganzhorn, J. U. (1998). When females should contest for food—testing hypotheses about resource density, distribution, size, and quality with Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 42: 225–237.Google Scholar
  58. Koenig, A., and Borries, C. (2001). Socioecology ofHanumanlangurs—the story of their success.Evol. Anthropol. 10: 122–137.Google Scholar
  59. Lomnicki, A. (1988). Population Ecology of Individuals, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  60. Maestripieri, D. (1996). Primate cognition and the bared-teeth display: A reevaluation of the concept of formal dominance. J. Comp. Psychol. 110: 402–405.Google Scholar
  61. Matsumura, S. (1998). Relaxed dominance relations among female moor macaques (Macaca maurus) in their natural habitat, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Folia Primatol. 69: 346–356.Google Scholar
  62. Matsumura, S. (1999). The evolution of “egalitarian” and “despotic” social systems among macaques. Primates 40: 23–31.Google Scholar
  63. Matsumura, S., and Kobayashi, T. (1998).Agame model for dominance relations among groupliving animals. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 42: 77–84.Google Scholar
  64. Maynard Smith, J. (1974). The theory of games and the evolution of animal conflicts. J. Theor.Biol. 47: 209–221.Google Scholar
  65. Mitchell, C. L., Boinski, S., and van Schaik, C. P. (1991). Competitive regimes and female bonding in two species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi and S. sciureus). Behav. Ecol.Sociobiol. 28: 55–60.Google Scholar
  66. Mori, A. (1979). Analysis of population changes by measurement of body weight in theKoshima troop of Japanese monkeys. Primates 20: 371–397.Google Scholar
  67. Nicholson, A. J. (1954). An outline of the dynamics of animal populations. Austral. J. Zool. 2: 9–65.Google Scholar
  68. Overdorff, D. J. (1996). Ecological correlates to social structure in two lemur species in Madagascar. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 100: 487–506.Google Scholar
  69. Parker, G. A. (1974). Assessment strategy and the evolution of fighting behaviour. J. Theor.Biol. 47: 223–243.Google Scholar
  70. Pope, T. R. (2000). Reproductive success increases with degree of kinship in cooperative coalitions of female red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 48: 253–267.Google Scholar
  71. Popp, J. L., and DeVore, I. (1979). Aggressive competition and social dominance theory: Synopsis. In Hamburg, D. A., and McCown, E. R. (eds.), The Great Apes, Benjamin-Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 317–338.Google Scholar
  72. Preuschoft, S., and van Schaik, C. P. (2000). Dominance and communication. In Aureli, F., and de Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 77–105.Google Scholar
  73. Pruetz, J.D., and Isbell, L. A. (2000). Correlations of food distribution and patch size with agonistic interactions in female vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in simple habitats. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 49: 38–47.Google Scholar
  74. Pusey, A. E., and Packer, C. (1997). The ecology of relationships. In Krebs, J. R., and Davies, N. B. (eds.), Behavioral Ecology. An Evolutionary Approach, 4th ed., Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 254–283.Google Scholar
  75. Radespiel, U., Cepok, S., Zietemann, V., and Zimmermann, E. (1998). Sex-specific usage patterns of sleeping sites in grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) in northwestern Madagascar. Am. J. Primatol. 46: 77–84.Google Scholar
  76. Robinson, J.G. (1981). Spatial structure in foraging groups of wedge-capped capuchin monkeys Cebus nigrivittatus. Anim. Behav. 29: 1036–1056.Google Scholar
  77. Robinson, J. G. (1988). Group size in wedge-capped capuchin monkeys Cebus olivaceus and the reproductive success of males and females. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 23: 187–197.Google Scholar
  78. Saito, C. (1996). Dominance and feeding success in female Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata: Effects of food patch size and inter-patch distance. Anim. Behav. 51: 967–980.Google Scholar
  79. Saito, C., Sato, S., Suzuki, S., Sugiura, H., Agetsuma, N., Takahata, Y., Sasaki, C., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., and Yamagiwa, J. (1998). Aggressive intergroup encounters in two populations of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Primates 39: 303–312.Google Scholar
  80. Sherman, P.W. (1988). The level of analysis. Anim. Behav. 36: 616–619.Google Scholar
  81. Silk, J. B. (1993). The evolution of social conflict among female primates. In Mason, W. A., and Mendoza, S. P. (eds.), Primate Social Conflict, State University of New York Press, New York, pp. 49–83.Google Scholar
  82. Sommer, V., and Rajpurohit, L. S. (1989). Male reproductive success in harem troops of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Int. J. Primatol. 10: 293–317.Google Scholar
  83. Stacey, P.B. (1986). Group size and foraging efficiency in yellow baboons. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18: 175–187.Google Scholar
  84. Steenbeek, R., and van Schaik, C. P. (2000). Competition and group size in Thomas's langurs (Presbytis thomasi): The folivore paradox revisited. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 49: 100–110.Google Scholar
  85. Sterck, E. H. M. (1998). Female dispersal, social organization, and infanticide in langurs: Are they linked to human disturbance. Am. J. Primatol. 44: 235–254.Google Scholar
  86. Sterck, E. H. M. (1999).Variation in langur social organization in relation to the socioecological model, human habitat alteration, and phylogenetic constraints. Primates 40: 201–215.Google Scholar
  87. Sterck, E. H. M., and Steenbeek, R. (1997). Female dominance relationships and food competition in the sympatric Thomas langur and long-tailed macaque. Behaviour 134: 749–774.Google Scholar
  88. Sterck, E. H. M., Watts, D. P., and van Schaik, C. P. (1997). The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 41: 291–309.Google Scholar
  89. Stevenson, P. R., and Castellanos, M. C. (2000). Feeding rates and daily path range of the Colombian woolly monkeys as evidence for between-and within-group competition. Folia Primatol. 71: 399–408.Google Scholar
  90. Suzuki, S., Noma, N., and Izawa, K. (1998). Inter-annual variation of reproductive parameters and fruit availability in two populations of Japanese macaques. Primates 39: 313–324.Google Scholar
  91. Strier, K. B. (1999). Why is female kin bonding so rare? Comparative sociality of neotropical primates. In Lee, P. C. (ed.), Comparative Primate Socioecology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 300–319.Google Scholar
  92. Terborgh, J., and Janson, C. H. (1986). The socioecology of primate groups. Ann. Rev. Ecol.Syst. 17: 111–135.Google Scholar
  93. Thierry, B. (1985). Patterns of agonistic interactions in three species of macaque (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. tonkeana). Aggressive Behav. 11: 223–233.Google Scholar
  94. Thierry, B. (1990). Feedback loop between kinship and dominance: The macaque model.J. Theor. Biol. 145: 511–521.Google Scholar
  95. Thierry, B. (2000). Covariation of conflict management patterns across macaque species. In Aureli, F., and DeWaal, F.B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 106–128.Google Scholar
  96. Trivers, R. L. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In Campbell, B. (ed.), Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, Aldine, Chicago, pp. 136–179.Google Scholar
  97. van Hooff, J.A.R.A. M., and van Schaik, C. P. (1992). Cooperation in competition: The ecology of primate bonds. In Harcourt, A. H., and DeWaal, F. B. M. (eds.), Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 357–389.Google Scholar
  98. van Noordwijk, M.A., and van Schaik, C.P. (1999).The effects of dominance rank and group size on female lifetime reproductive success in wild long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis.Primates 40: 105–130.Google Scholar
  99. van Schaik, C. P. (1983).Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour 87: 120–144.Google Scholar
  100. van Schaik, C. P. (1989). The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates. In Standen, V., and Foley, R. A. (eds.), Comparative Socioecology. The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and Other Mammals, Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 195–218.Google Scholar
  101. van Schaik, C. P. (1996). Social evolution in primates: The role of ecological factors and male behaviour. Proc. Brit. Acad. 88: 9–31.Google Scholar
  102. van Schaik, C. P., and Aureli, F. (2000). The natural history of valuable relationships in primates.In Aureli, F., and De Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 307–333.Google Scholar
  103. van Schaik, C. P., and Kappeler, P. M. (1996). The social systems of gregarious lemurs: Lack of convergence with anthropoids due to evolutionary disequilibrium? Ethology 102: 915–941.Google Scholar
  104. van Schaik, C. P., and van Noordwijk, M. A. (1988). Scramble and contest in feeding competition among female long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Behaviour 105: 77–98.Google Scholar
  105. Vehrencamp, S. (1983).Amodel for the evolution of despotic versus egalitarian societies. Anim.Behav. 31: 667–682.Google Scholar
  106. Waser, P. (1977). Feeding, ranging, and group size in the mangabey Cercocebus albigena. In Clutton-Brock, T. H. (ed.), Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes, Academic Press, London, pp. 183–222.Google Scholar
  107. Watts, D. P. (1990). Ecology of gorillas and its relation to female transfer in mountain gorillas.Int. J. Primatol. 11: 21–45.Google Scholar
  108. Watts, D. P. (1994). Agonistic relationships between female mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 34: 347–358.Google Scholar
  109. Watts, D. P. (1996). Comparative socio-ecology of gorillas. In McGrew, W. C., Marchant, L. F., and Nishida, T. (eds.), Great Ape Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 16–28.Google Scholar
  110. Watts, D. P., Colmenares, F., and Arnold, K. (2000). Redirection, consolation, and male policing.In Aureli, F., and De Waal, F. B. M. (eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 281–301.Google Scholar
  111. Whitten, P. L. (1983). Diet and dominance among female vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Am. J. Primatol. 5: 139–159.Google Scholar
  112. Wrangham, R.W. (1979). On the evolution of ape social systems. Soc. Sci. Inf. 18: 335–368.Google Scholar
  113. Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour 75: 262–300.Google Scholar
  114. Wright, P. C. (1999). Lemur traits and Madagascar ecology: Coping with an island environment.Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 42: 31–72.Google Scholar
  115. Zinner, D. (1999). Relationship between feeding time and food intake in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) and the value of feeding time as predictor of food intake. Zoo Biol. 18: 495–505.Google Scholar
  116. Zucker, E. L., and Clarke, M. R. (1998). Agonistic and affiliative relationships of adult female howlers (Alouatta palliata) in Costa Rica over a 4-year period. Int. J. Primatol. 19: 433–449.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Koenig
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologySUNY at Stony BrookStony Brook

Personalised recommendations