Architectonic and Diagnostic Significance of Hair Cuticle

  • O. F. Chernova


Guard hair and spine architectonic were studied in 345 mammalian species using scanning electron microscopy. Comparative morphological analysis of the author's and published data was performed to systematize the available information. Original terminology and classification of the main hair and spine cuticle patterns have been proposed. The hair and spine cuticle structure patterns, their adaptability, and value for taxon identification are discussed.


Electron Microscopy Scanning Electron Microscopy Morphological Analysis Mammalian Species Structure Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Appleyard, H.M. and Wildman, A.B., Fibres of Archaeological Interest: Their Examination and Identification, Science in Archaeology, Brothwell, D. and Higgs, E., Eds., 2nd ed., Bristol: Thames and Hudson, 1969, pp. 624–633.Google Scholar
  2. Balakrishnan, M., Sebum-Storing Flank Gland Hairs of the Musk Shrew, Suncus murinus viridescens, J. Zool., 1987, vol. 213, no. 2, pp. 213–220.Google Scholar
  3. Balakrishnan, M. and Alexander, K.L., Fine Structure of the Specialized Flank Gland Hair of the Indian Musk Shrew, Suncus murinus viridescens (Blyth), Proc. Indian Nat. Acad. Sci., 1985, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 326–331.Google Scholar
  4. Benedict, F.A., Hair Structure as a Generic Character in Bats, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 1957, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 285–548.Google Scholar
  5. Birbeck, M.S.C. and Mercer, E.H., The Electron Microscopy of the Human Hair Follicle. Part 2. The Hair Cuticle, Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool., 1957, vol. 3, pp. 215–223.Google Scholar
  6. Blomstedt, L., Hair Structure and Development of Fur in Young Mink, Silver Fox, Blue Silver Fox, and Blue Fox, Scientifur, 1987, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 264.Google Scholar
  7. Bonnet, R., Ñber Hypotrichosis Congenita Universalis, Anat. Hefte, 1892, vol. 1, pp. 233–273.Google Scholar
  8. Botezat, E., Phylogenese des Haares der Säugetiere, Anat. Anz., 1914, vol. 47, pp. 1–44.Google Scholar
  9. Botezat, E., Ñber die Phylogenie der Säugetierhaare, Verhandl. Gesellsch. Deutsch. Naturf. Aerzte, 1913, vol. 85, pp. 696–698.Google Scholar
  10. Bradbury, J.H. and Leeder, J.D., Keratin Fibres. 4. Structure of Cuticle, Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 1970, vol. 23, pp. 637–643.Google Scholar
  11. Brunner, H. and Coman, B., The Identification of Mammalian Hair, Australia, Victoria: Inkata Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  12. Chakraborty, R., Chakraborty, S., and De, J.K., Identification of Dorsal Guard Hairs of the Species of Indian Lesser Cats (Carnivora: Felidae), Mammal, 1999, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 93–104.Google Scholar
  13. Chakraborty, R., De, J.K., and Chakraborty, S., Identification of Dorsal Guard Hairs of Indian Species of the Genus Panthera Oken (Carnivora: Felidae), Mammal, 1996, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 473–480.Google Scholar
  14. Chapman, R.E., The Skin of Mammals. Chapter 17. Hair, Wool, Quill, Nail, Claw, Hoof, and Horn, Biol. Integument, Berlin, 1986, vol. 2, pp. 293–317.Google Scholar
  15. Chernova, O.F., Glands of Integument in Evolution of Chordata, Doctoral (Biol.) Dissertation, Moscow: IEMEZh, 1996.Google Scholar
  16. Chernova, O.F., Architectonics of Spines in Some Rodents (Rodentia: Myomorpha, Hystricomorpha), Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2000a, vol. 370, no. 3, pp. 425–429.Google Scholar
  17. Chernova, O.F., The Hair Structure of Sloths (Edentata: Bradypodidae) Unusuals for Mammals, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk., 2000b, vol. 373, no. 2, pp. 281–285.Google Scholar
  18. Chernova, O.F. and Kuznetsov, G.V., Specific Features of Spine Structure in Some Rodents (Rodentia: Myomorpha, Hystricomorpha), Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk. Ser. Biol., 2001, no. 4, pp. 442–454.Google Scholar
  19. Dathe, H. and Schöps, P., Pelztieratlas, Jena: VEB Gustav Fisher, 1986.Google Scholar
  20. Day, M.G., Hair and Feather Remains in Stoats and Weasels, J. Zool., 1966, vol. 148, pp. 201–217.Google Scholar
  21. De Meijere, J.C.H., Ñber die Haare der Säugetiere, besonders Ñber ihre Anordnung, Morphol. Jahrb, 1894, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 312–424.Google Scholar
  22. Dearborn, N., Sections Aid in Identifying Hair, J. Mammal., 1939, vol. 20, pp. 346–348.Google Scholar
  23. Dry, F., The Coat of the Mouse (Mus musculus) and the Rat (Mus norvegicus), J. Genet., 1926, vol. 16, pp. 287–340.Google Scholar
  24. Dziurdzik, B., Key to the Identification of Hairs of Mammals From Poland, Acta Zool. Cracoviensia, 1973, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 73–92.Google Scholar
  25. Fraser, R.D.B. and MacRae, T.P., Keratins, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol, 1980, vol. 34, pp. 211–246.Google Scholar
  26. Fraser, R.D.B., MacRae, T.P., and Rogers, G.E., Structure of β-Keratin, Nature, 1959, vol. 183, pp. 592–594.Google Scholar
  27. Friedenthal, H., Tierhaaratlas, Jena: Gustav Fischer, 1911.Google Scholar
  28. Hausman, L.A., Mammal Fur Under the Microscope, J. Am. Mag. Nat. Hist., 1920a, vol. 20, pp. 434–444.Google Scholar
  29. Hausman, L.A., Structural Characteristics of the Hair of Mammals, Am. Nat., 1920b, vol. 54, no. 635, pp. 496–523.Google Scholar
  30. Hausman, L.A., Further Studies in the Relationships of the Structural Characteristics of Mammalian Hair, Am. Nat, 1924, vol. 58, pp. 544–557.Google Scholar
  31. Hausman, L.A., Recent Studies of Hair Structure Relationships, Sci. Monthly, 1930, vol. 30, pp. 258–277.Google Scholar
  32. Hausman, L.A., Applied Microscopy of Hair, Sci. Monthly, 1944, vol. 59, pp. 195–202.Google Scholar
  33. Hausman, L.A., Histological Variability of Human Hair, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 1934, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 415–429.Google Scholar
  34. Hickey, M.B.C. and Fenton, M.B., Scent-Dispersing Hairs (Osmetrichia) In Some Pteropodidae and Molossidae (Chiroptera), J. Mammal., 1987, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 381–384.Google Scholar
  35. Howan, A. and Genoways, H.H., An Analysis of Hair Structure and Its Phylogenetic Implications Among Heteromyid Rodents, J. Mammal., 1978, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 740–760.Google Scholar
  36. Hutterer, R. and Hürter, T., Adaptive Haar Strukturen bei Wasserspitzmäusen (Insectivora, Soricinae), Z. Säugetierk, 1981, vol. 46, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  37. Kapischke, H.-J. and Mühle, H.-J., Zur Morphologie der Seitendrüsenhaare bei der Waldspitzmaus (Sorex araneus), Staatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden, 1988, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 71–74.Google Scholar
  38. Kassenbeck, P., Morphology and Fine Structure of Hair, Hair Research, Orfanos, C.E., Montagna, W., and Stüttgen, G., Eds., Berlin: Springer, 1981, pp. 52–65.Google Scholar
  39. Keller, A., Détermination des mammiféres de la Suisse par leur pelage: 1. Talpidae et Soricidae, Revue Suisse Zool, 1978, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 758–761.Google Scholar
  40. Keller, A., Détermination des mammiféres de la Suisse par leur pelage: 2. Diagnose des familles. 3. Lagomorpha, Rodentia (partim), Revue Suisse Zool, 1980a, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 781–796.Google Scholar
  41. Keller, A., Détermination des mammiféres de la Suisse par leur pelage: 4. Cricetidae. 5. Muridae, Revue Suisse Zool, 1980b, vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 463–473.Google Scholar
  42. Keller, A., Détermination des mammiféres de la Suisse par leur pelage: 5. Carnivora, 6. Artiodactyla, Revue Suisse Zool, 1981, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 803–820.Google Scholar
  43. Keller, A., Etude de la structure fine des jarres doesaux de quelques Canidés sauvages et domestiques du genre Canis (Mammalia: Canidae), Revue Suisse Zool, 1984, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 973–992.Google Scholar
  44. Keller, A., Note sur la structure fine des piquants et des poils de jarres chez Erinaceus europaeus L. et Erinaceus algirus Lerebouller (Insectivora: Erinaceidae), Revue Suisse Zool, 1983, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 501–508.Google Scholar
  45. Keller, A., Note sur une étude comparative des jarres primeires de trois espéces d'Equidae: Equus asinus, E. przewalskii, et E. caballus, Revue Suisse Zool, 1992, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 735–739.Google Scholar
  46. Khmelevskaya, N.V., Structure of the Cuticle of Hair in Rodents, Its variability and Significance for Taxonomy, Zool. Zh., 1965, vol. 40, pp. 1064–1074.Google Scholar
  47. Kisin, M.V. and Golovin, A.V., Differentiation of Morphologically Similar Hair in Animals Using Electron Microscopy, Aktual'nye problemy sudebnoi ekspertizy i kriminalistiki. Tez. nauchn.-prakt. Konf. (Current Problems of Forensic Expertise and Criminalistics. Abstracts of Conference), Kiev, 1993, pp. 185–186.Google Scholar
  48. Kisin, M.V. and Golovin, A.V., The Use of the SEM for the Investigation of Hairs Having Similar Structure, J. Microsc., 1992, vol. 40, pp. 259–264.Google Scholar
  49. Koppikar, B.R. and Sabnis, J.H., Identification of Hairs of Some Indian Mammals, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 1976, vol. 73, pp. 5–20.Google Scholar
  50. Koppikar, B.R. and Sabnis, J.H., Further Studies on the Identification of Hairs of Some Indian Mammals, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 1977, vol. 74, pp. 50–59.Google Scholar
  51. Kubiak, H. and Dziurdzik, B., Histological Characters of Hairs in Extant and Fossil Rhinoceroses, Acta Biol. Cracov. Ser. Zoologia, 1973, vol. 16, pp. 56–61.Google Scholar
  52. Lochte, Th., Untersuchungen Ñber die Unterscheidungsmerkmale der Deckhaare der Haustiere, Deutche Zeitschr. Ges. Genchtl. Med, 1934, vol. 23, pp. 267–280.Google Scholar
  53. Lochte, Th., Atlas der menschlichen und tierischen Haare, Leipzig: Paul Schops, 1938.Google Scholar
  54. Lochte, Th., Tafeln zur Haarkunde, Beitrage Zur Haut,-Haar und Fellkunde, Leipzig, 1954, vol. 6.Google Scholar
  55. Müller-Schwarze, D., Volkman, N.J., and Zemanek, K.F., Osmetrichia: Specialized Scent Hair in Black-Tailed Deer, J. Ultrastruct. Res., 1977, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 223–230.Google Scholar
  56. Mamotyuk, M.L., Metodika issledovaniya volos zhivotnykh (Method of Studying Hair in Animals), Kiev: Nauchn.-issl. in-t sudebnoi ekspertizy, 1968.Google Scholar
  57. Matoltsy, A.G., A Study of the Medullary Cells of the Hair, Exp. Cell Res., 1953, vol. 5, pp. 98–110.Google Scholar
  58. Matveev, B.S., On the Origin of Squamate Cover and Hair in Mammals, Zool. Zh., 1949, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 59–70.Google Scholar
  59. Meyer, W., Seger, H., and Hülmann, G., Remarks on Specific Adaptive Scale Structure of the Hair Cuticle in Some European Bats, Europ. J. Morphol., 1995, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 509–513.Google Scholar
  60. Müller-Schwarze, D., Volkman, N.J., and Zemanek, K.F., Osmetrichia: Specialized Scent Hair in Black-Tailed Deer, J. Ultrastr. Res., 1977, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 223–230.Google Scholar
  61. Noback, C.R., Morphology and Phylogeny of Hair, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1951, vol. 53, pp. 476–491.Google Scholar
  62. Oli, M.K., A Key for Identification of the Hair of Mammals of a Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) Habitat in Nepal, J. Zool., 1993, vol. 231, pp. 71–93.Google Scholar
  63. Rajaram, A. and Menon, R.K., A Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Hair Keratins of Some Animals of the Indian Subcontinent—a Preliminary Report, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 1986, vol. 83, pp. 427–429.Google Scholar
  64. Raphael, K.A., The Genetic Control of Hair Growth in Mice, Scientifur, 1987, vol. 11, no. 3, p. 265.Google Scholar
  65. Rogers, G.E., Electron Microscope Studies of Hair and Wool, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1959a, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 378–399.Google Scholar
  66. Rogers, G.E., Electron Microscopy of Wool, J. Ultrastruct. Res, 1959b, vol. 2, pp. 309–330.Google Scholar
  67. Roze, U., Locke, D., and Chapman, D., Osmetrichial Properties of Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) Rosette Quills, Chem. Signals in Vertebrates. IV. Philadelphia, Penn. June 16–22, 1991, Program and Abstr., 1991, p. 27.Google Scholar
  68. Rudall, K.M., The Structure of the Hair Cuticle, Proc. Leeds Phil. Soc., 1941, vol. 4, pp. 13–18.Google Scholar
  69. Sabnis, J.H., Studies on the Characteristics of Hair in Some Indian Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera), J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 1980, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 413–424.Google Scholar
  70. Schmidt, F., Ñber den Haarwechsel der Pelztiere, Pelzgewerbe, 1951, vol. 21, no. 6, part 11/12, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  71. Schneider, F., Ñber die Untersuchung von Haaren mit dem Rasterelektronenmikroskop, Rechtsmed, 1972, vol. 71, pp.94–103.Google Scholar
  72. Schneider, V., The Role of Hair in Forensic Investigation, Hair Research, Orfanos, C.E., Montagna, W., and Stüttgen, G., Eds., Berlin: Springer, 1981, pp. 459–468.Google Scholar
  73. Short, H.L., Analysis of Cuticular Scales on Hairs Using the Scanning Electron Microscope, J. Mammal., 1978, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 261–268.Google Scholar
  74. Smith, H.H., The Relationships of the Medulla and Cuticular Scales of the Hair Shaft of the Soricidae, J. Morph, 1933, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 137–149.Google Scholar
  75. Sokolov, I.A., Teoreticheskie problemy geneticheskogo pochvovedeniya (Theoretical Problems of Genetic Soil Science), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1993, pp. 111–140.Google Scholar
  76. Sokolov, V.E., Kozhnyi pokrov mlekopitayushchikh (Skin Cover of Mammals), Moscow: Nauka, 1973.Google Scholar
  77. Sokolov, V.E. and Chernova, O.F., New Data on the Structure of Spines in Porcupines, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1998a, vol. 363, no. 3, pp. 429–432.Google Scholar
  78. Sokolov, V.E. and Chernova, O.F., New Data on the Architectonics of Hair in Shrews and Moles (Insectivora: Soricidae, Talpidae), Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1998b, vol. 360, no. 5, pp. 717–720.Google Scholar
  79. Sokolov, V.E. and Chernova, O.F., Structure of Skin Cover in Porcupines, Mammals of Peru Amasonia, Moscow: Nauka, 1994, pp. 136–193.Google Scholar
  80. Sokolov, V.E., Skurat, L.N., Stepanova, L.V., et al., Rukovodstvo po izucheniyu kozhnogo pokrova mlekopitayushchikh (A Manual for Studying Skin Cover in Mammals), Moscow: Nauka, 1988.Google Scholar
  81. Sokolov, V.E., Chernova, O.F., Evgen'eva. T.P., and Manokhina, N.V., Structure of Skin-Hair Cover of Cuban Hutia, Isledovaniya fauny Kuby (Studies of Cuban Fauna), Moscow: Nauka, 1993, pp. 111–140.Google Scholar
  82. Sokolov, V.E., Ushakova, N.A., and Koltovoi, N.A., Possible Identification of Mammals Using Mathematical Indices of Hair Surface Structure, Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1997, vol. 356, no. 6, pp. 846–848.Google Scholar
  83. Spearman, R.I.C., The Structure and Function of the Fully Developed Follicle, The Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Skin, vol. 4. The Hair Follicle, Jarrett, A., Ed., London: Academic, 1977, pp. 1294–1350.Google Scholar
  84. Stains, H.J., Field Quide to Guard Hairs of Middle-Western Furbearers, J. Wildlife Mgmt, 1958, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 95–97.Google Scholar
  85. Swift, J.A., The Hair Surface, Hair Research. Status and Future Aspects, Orfanos, C.E., Montagna, W., and Stüttgen, G., Eds., Berlin: Springer, 1981, pp. 65–72.Google Scholar
  86. Swift, J.A., Fine Details on the Surface of Human Hair, Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., 1991, vol. 13, pp. 143–159.Google Scholar
  87. Toftegaard, C.L. and Bradley, A.J., Structure of Specialized Osmetrichia in the Brown Antechinus Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae), J. Zool., 1999, vol. 248, pp. 27-30.Google Scholar
  88. Toldt, K., Jr., Aufbau und natürliche Färbung des Haarkleides der Wildsäugetiere, Leipzig: Dtsch. Ges. f. Kleintierund Pelztierzucht, 1935.Google Scholar
  89. Uhr, G., Investigation in the Skin of the Wild Housemouse (Mus musculus domesticus Rutty, 1772) and wild Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769). 2. Hair Coat, Zool. Jb. Anat, 1987, vol. 115, pp. 197–253.Google Scholar
  90. Valente, A. and Woolley, P.A., Hair Structure of Some Western Australian Mammals, J. Royal. Soc. West. Austral., 1982, vol. 64, pp. 101–132.Google Scholar
  91. Verhoeven, L.E., The Advantages of the Scanning Electron Microscope in the Investigative Studies of Hair, J. Crimin. Law. Criminol. Police Sci., 1972, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 125–128.Google Scholar
  92. Volzhina, N.S., Variability of Hair Cover in Kalongs and Some Insectivorous Chiroptera, Byull. Mosk. Ob–va Ispyt. Prir., Ser. Biol., 1951, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 21–30.Google Scholar
  93. Waldeyer, W. and Grimm, J., Atlas der Menschlichen und Tierischen Haare, sowie der Ähnlichen Fasergebilde. Für die Bedürfnisse der Staatsarzneikunde, des Handels, der Technik und der Landwirtschaft, Schauenburg: Druck und Verlag von Moritz, 1884.Google Scholar
  94. Wallis, R.L., A Key for the Identification of Guard Hairs of Some Ontario Mammals, Can. J. Zool., 1993, vol. 71, pp.587–591.Google Scholar
  95. Wyatt, E.H. and Riggott, J.M., The Significance of Mean Scale Number of the Cuticular Scale Pattern as a Means of Identification in Mammalian Hair, Hair Research, Orfanos, C.E., Montagna, W., and Stüttgen, G., Eds., Berlin: Springer, 1981, pp. 456–458.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK “Nauka/Interperiodica” 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. F. Chernova
    • 1
  1. 1.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and EvolutionRussian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 33MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations