In vitro fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum
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The in vitro antifungal activity of clove oil was studied against four test fungi namely Alternaria alternata, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Helminthosporum oryzae and Rhizoctonia bataticola by the agar well diffusion method. These test fungi were found to be highly sensitive to clove oil at a concentration of 100 μl/well. The inhibition zone diameter was found to be in the range of 55–65 mm. The toxicity of clove oil on the germination and growth of A. alternata was further examined in liquid medium. Concentration- and time-dependent toxicity was recorded from 0.05 to 20% (v/v) concentration. The minimum fungistatic concentration was found to be 0.05%. Above this concentration, lysis of conidia and inhibition of mycelial growth were detected. Microscopic analysis showed 20–40% lysis of conidia after 72 h of incubation at 5% concentration. However at higher clove oil concentration (10%), up to 20% of conidia were lysed within 24 h of incubation. Similar concentration- and time-dependent toxicity was observed at different concentrations and time intervals. The findings indicated that clove oil possesses fungicidal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. Further study is required to determine whether it could have value in the management of plant infectious diseases.
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