In vitro fungitoxicity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum

  • Arina Zafar Beg
  • Iqbal Ahmad


The in vitro antifungal activity of clove oil was studied against four test fungi namely Alternaria alternata, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Helminthosporum oryzae and Rhizoctonia bataticola by the agar well diffusion method. These test fungi were found to be highly sensitive to clove oil at a concentration of 100 μl/well. The inhibition zone diameter was found to be in the range of 55–65 mm. The toxicity of clove oil on the germination and growth of A. alternata was further examined in liquid medium. Concentration- and time-dependent toxicity was recorded from 0.05 to 20% (v/v) concentration. The minimum fungistatic concentration was found to be 0.05%. Above this concentration, lysis of conidia and inhibition of mycelial growth were detected. Microscopic analysis showed 20–40% lysis of conidia after 72 h of incubation at 5% concentration. However at higher clove oil concentration (10%), up to 20% of conidia were lysed within 24 h of incubation. Similar concentration- and time-dependent toxicity was observed at different concentrations and time intervals. The findings indicated that clove oil possesses fungicidal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. Further study is required to determine whether it could have value in the management of plant infectious diseases.

Antifungal activity clove oil S. aromaticum 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmad, I. & Beg, A.Z. 2001 Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 74, 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badei, A.Z.M., El-Akel, A.T.M., Morsi, H.H., Baruah, P., Sharma, R.K., Singh, R.S. & Ghosh, A. 1996 Fungicidal activityof some naturally occurring essential oils against Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Essential Oil Research 8, 411–412.Google Scholar
  3. Bishop, C.D. & Thornton, I.B. 1997 Evaluation of the antifungal activity of the essential oils of Monarda citriodora var. citriodora and Melaleuca alternifolia on post harvest pathogens. Journal of Essential Oil Research 9, 77–82.Google Scholar
  4. Bruneton, J. 1995 Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry of Medicinal plants, pp. 450–451. Lavoisier Publishing Co., France. ISBN-1-898298-13-0.Google Scholar
  5. Fyfe, L., Armstrong, F. & Stewart, J. 1997 Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritidis by combinations of plant oils and derivatives of benzoic acid: the development of synergistic antimicrobial combinations. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 9, 195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kedzia, B., Aikiawicz, A.K., Amex, J. & Segut-Kujawa, E. 1996 Investigations of the effect of other oil preparations on upper respiratory tract microorganisms. Herba Polonica 42, 322–327.Google Scholar
  7. Lis-Balchin, M. & Deans, S.G. 1998 Studies in the potential usage of mixtures of plant essential oils as synergistic antimicrobial agents in food. Phytotherapy Research 12, 472–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mehmood, Z., Ahmad, S. & Mohammad, F. 1997 Antifungal activity of some essential oils and their major constituents. Indian Journal of Natural Products 13, 10–13.Google Scholar
  9. Perez, C., Pauli, M. & Bazerque, P. 1990 An antibiotic assay by well diffusion method. Acta Biologiae et Medicae Experimentalis 15, 113–115.Google Scholar
  10. Rao, S. 1990 Pesticides from biological origin are the key to better pesticides. National Academy of Science Letters 13, 18–25.Google Scholar
  11. Roy, N.K. & Dureja, P. 1998 New ecofriendly pesticides for Integrated Pest Management. Pesticides World 3, 16–21.Google Scholar
  12. Saikia, D., Khanuja, S.P.S., Kahol, A.P., Gupta, C.S. and Kumar, S. 2001 Comparative antifungal activity of essential oils and constituents form three distinct genotypes of Cympogon spp. Current Science 80, 1264–1266.Google Scholar
  13. Tewari, S.N. 1990 Toxic effect of few botanicals on three fungal pathogens of rice. In Proc. Symposium Botanical Pesticides in IPM, eds. Chari, M.S. & Ramprasad, G. pp. 397–403, Rajahmundry, India.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arina Zafar Beg
    • 1
  • Iqbal Ahmad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Microbiology, RAK Institute of Agricultural SciencesAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations