Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems

, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 15–24 | Cite as

Carbon, nutrient, and mass loss during composting

Abstract

Hoop manure (a mixture of partially decomposed pig manure and cornstalks from swine fed in hoop structures) was the subject of a nitrogen mass balance during the feeding period. The manure was then composted in windrows to investigate C, nutrient, and mass loss during the composting process. Feeding cycle mass balance results indicated that N losses from the bedded pack ranged from 24 to 36%. Composting treatments included construction with and without a manure spreader and subsequent management with and without turning. Significantly greater losses of mass, C, K, and Na were found in the turned windrow treatment. However, composting in turned windrows proceeded at a much faster rate, with temperatures dropping out of the thermophilic range within 21 days. Composting without turning was less rapid, with temperatures remaining in the thermophilic range to the end of the 42-day trial. Mass reduction and C loss was significantly higher in the turned windrows than in the unturned windrows. Nitrogen loss was between 37 and 60% of the initial N, with no significant effect from turning. It appears that the low initial C:N ratio (between 9:1 and 12:1) was the most critical factor affecting the N loss in this composting process. Phosphorus, K, and Na losses were also high during composting, which could be due to runoff and leaching from the hoop manure. These elements may be significant contributors to surface and groundwater pollution through runoff and leaching. Additional research is planned to understand the extent of losses through volatilization, runoff, and leaching during composting.

carbon composting deep litter system nitrogen loss pig manure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison LE (1965) Organic carbon. In: Black CA, Evans DD, White JL, Ensiminger LE, Clark FE and Dinauer RC (eds) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. pp. 1367–1378 Madison, Wisconsin, USA: SSSAGoogle Scholar
  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1990) Official Methods of Analysis. Volume I. Agricultural Chemicals and Contaminants, Drugs. 15th edition. AOAC Inc., Arlington, Virginia, USA, 684 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrington SF and Moreno RG (1995) Swine manure nitrogen conservation in storage using sphagnum moss. J Environ Qual 24: 603–607Google Scholar
  4. Bishop PL and Godfrey C (1983) Nitrogen transformations during sludge composting. BioCycle 24: 34–39Google Scholar
  5. Bosi P, Macchioni P and Russo V (1997) Dietary means to reduce phosphorus pollution from finishing heavy pigs. Pigs News Info 18(4): 117N-121NGoogle Scholar
  6. Brumm MC, Harmon JC, Honeyman MC and Kliebenstein JB (1997) Hoop Structures for Grow-finish Swine. Agricultural Digest. Number 4. Midwest Plan Service. Ames, Iowa, USA, 15 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Chung TK and Baker DH (1991) A chemically defined diet for maximal growth of pigs. J Nutr 121: 979–984Google Scholar
  8. Cromwell GL, Stahly TS, Coffey RD, Monegue HJ and Randolph JH (1993) Efficacy of phytase in improving the bioavailability of phosphorus in soybean meal and corn-soybean meal diets for pigs. J Anim Sci 71: 1831–1840Google Scholar
  9. Czepiel P, Douglas E, Harriss R and Call P (1996) Measurements of N2O from Composted Organic Wastes. Environ Sci Technol 30: 2519–2525Google Scholar
  10. Dewes T (1996) Effect of pH, temperature, amount of litter, and storage diversity on ammonia emission from stable manure. Agric Sci Cambridge 127: 501–509Google Scholar
  11. Eghball B, Power JF, Gilley JE and Doran JW (1997) Nutrient, carbon and mass loss during composting of beef cattle feedlot manure. J Environ Qual 26: 189–193Google Scholar
  12. Eghball B and Lesoing GW (2000) Viability of weed seeds following manure windrow composting. Compost Sci Util 8: 46–53Google Scholar
  13. Elwell DL, Keener HM and Hansen RC (1996) Controlled, high rate composting of mixture of food residuals, yard trimmings and chicken manure. Compost Sci Util 4: 6–15Google Scholar
  14. Epstein E (1997) The Science of Composting. Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA: Technomic Publishing Company. 487 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Ewan RC (1998) Personal communication. Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. Farrell JB (1993) Fecal pathogen control during composting. In: Hoitink HAJ and Keener HM (eds) Science and Engineering of composting: Design, Environmental, Microbiological and Utilization Aspects, pp 282–300. Worthington, Ohio, USA: Renaissance PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  17. Fleming RA, Babcock BA and Wang E (1998) Resource or waste? The economics of swine manure storage and management. Rev Agric Econ 20: 96–113Google Scholar
  18. Fischer JL, Beffa T, Lyon PF and Aragno M (1998) Aspergillus fumigatus in windrow composting: effect of turning frequency. Waste Manage Res 16: 320–390Google Scholar
  19. Flynn RP and Wood CW (1996) Temperature and chemical changes during composting of broiler litter. Compost Sci Util 4: 62–70Google Scholar
  20. Golueke CG (1972) Composting: A Study of the Process and Its Principles. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania, USA, 110 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Groenestein CM and Van Faassen HG (1996) Volatilization of ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in deep-litter systems for fattening pigs. J Agric Eng Res 65: 269–274Google Scholar
  22. Halstead RL (1983) Farm Animal Manures in the Canadian Environment. Publication No. NRCC 18976. National Research Council of Canada. Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  23. Hamelers HVM (1993) A theoretical model of composting kinetics. In: Hoitink HAJ and Keener H (eds). Science and Engineering of composting: Design, Environmental, Microbiological and Utilization Aspects, pp. 36–58. Worthington, Ohio, USA: Renaissance PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  24. Honeyman MS (1993) Environment-friendly feed formulation for swine. Am J Alter Agric 8(3): 128–132Google Scholar
  25. Honeyman MS, Koenig FW, Harmon JD, Lay DC Jr, Kliebenstein JB, Richard TL and Brumm MC (1999) Managing market pigs in hoop structures. PIH-138. Pork Industry Handbook. Purdue University, West Layfayette, Indiana, USA, 8 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Jongbloed AW, Mroz Z and Kemme PA (1992) The effect of supplementary Aspergillus niger phytase in diets for pigs on concentration and apparent digestibility of dry matter, total phosphorus, and phytic acid in different sections of the alimentary tract. J Anim Sci 70: 1159–1168Google Scholar
  27. Kerr BJ and Easter RA (1995) Effect of feeding reduced protein, amino acid-supplemented diets on nitrogen and energy balance in grower pigs. J Anim Sci 73: 3000–3008Google Scholar
  28. Kornegay ET and Harper AF (1997) Environmental nutrition: Nutrient management strategies to reduce nutrient excretion of swine. The Professional Animal Scientist 13: 99–111Google Scholar
  29. Körner I, Schlegelmilch M and Rainer S (1999) Regulation of nitrogen contents of composts during composting — first experimental results. In: Bidlingmaier W, de Bertoldi M, Diaz LF and Papadimitriou EK (eds). Proceedings of the International Conference on Biological Treatment of Waste and the Environment (ORBIT 99), pp 123–129. Berlin. Germany: Rhombos-Verl.Google Scholar
  30. Lopez-Real J and Baptista M (1996) A preliminary comparative study of three manure composting systems and their influence on process parameters and methane emissions. Compost Sci Util 4(3): 71–82Google Scholar
  31. Lynch NJ and Cherry RS (1996) Winter composting using the passively aerated windrow system. Compost Sci Util 4: 44–52Google Scholar
  32. Martins O and Dewes T (1992) Loss of nitrogenous compounds during composting animal wastes. Biores Technol 42: 103–111Google Scholar
  33. Michel Jr FC, Forney LJ, Huang AJF, Drew S, Czuprenski M, Lindeberg JD and Reddy CA (1996) Effects of turning frequency, leaves to grass mix ratio, and windrows vs. pile configurations on the composting of yard trimmings. Compost Sci Util 4: 26–43Google Scholar
  34. Michel Jr FC and Reddy CA (1998) Effect of oxygenation level on yard trimmings composting rate, odor production, and compost quality in bench-scale reactors. Compost Sci Util 6: 6–14Google Scholar
  35. Morisaki N, Phae CG, Nakasaki K, Shoda M and Kubota H (1989) Nitrogen transformation during thermophilic composting. J Ferment Bioeng 67: 57–61Google Scholar
  36. National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) (1999) Fat-free lean prediction equations. Des Moines, Iowa, USA, 26 pGoogle Scholar
  37. National Research Council (NRC) (1998) Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. USA, 189 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Pare T, Dinel H, Schnitzer M and Dumontet S (1998) Transformations of carbon and nitrogen during composting of animal manure and shredded paper. Biol Fertil Soils 26: 173–178Google Scholar
  39. Rao Bhamidimarri SM and Pandey SP (1996) Aerobic thermophilic composting of pigerry solid wastes. Water Sci Technol 33(8): 89–94Google Scholar
  40. Richard TL and Choi HL (1999) Eliminating Waste: Strategies for Sustainable Manure Management. Asian-Aus J Anim Sci 12: 1162–1169Google Scholar
  41. Richard TL and Walker LP (1999) Oxygen and temperature kinetics of aerobic solid-state biodegradation. In: Bidlingmaier W, de Bertoldi M, Diaz LF and Papadimitriou EK (eds) Proceedings of the International Conference on Biological Treatment of Waste and the Environment (ORBIT 99), Berlin. Germany: Rhombos-Verl pp 85–91Google Scholar
  42. Rynk R, van de Kamp M, Willson GB, Singley ME, Richard TL, Kolega JJ, Gouin FR, Laliberty Jr L, Day K, Murphy DW, Hoitink HAJ and Brinton WF (1992) On-Farm Composting Handbook. NRAES, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA, 186 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. Rynk R and Richard TL (2000) Commercial composting production systems. In: Stoffella PJ and Kahn BA (eds) Compost Utilization in Horticultural Cropping Systems. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, (in press)Google Scholar
  44. Suler DJ and Finstein MS (1977) Effect of temperature, aeration, and moisture on CO2 formation in bench-scale, continuously thermophilic composting of solid waste. Appl Environ Microbiol 33: 345–350Google Scholar
  45. Tam NFY and Tiquia SM (1999) Nitrogen transformation during co-composting of spent pig manure, sawdust litter, and sludge in forced-aerated system. Environ Technol 20: 259–267Google Scholar
  46. Tam NFY, Tiquia SM and Vrijmoed LLP (1996) Nutrient transformation of pig manure under pig-on-litter system. In: De Bertoldi M, Sequi P, Lemmes B, Papi T (eds). pp 96–105. London, UK: Chapman and HallGoogle Scholar
  47. Thelosen JGM, Heitlager BP and Voermans JAM (1993) Nitrogen balances of two deep litter systems for finishing pigs. In: Verstegen MWA, den Hartog LA, van Kempen GJM and Metz JHM (eds) Nitrogen Flow in Pig Production and Environmental Consequences, pp 318–323. Wageningen, The Netherlands: EAAP Publication No. 69Google Scholar
  48. Tiquia SM (1996) Further Composting of Pig-Manure Disposed from the Pig-on-litter (POL) System in Hong Kong. Ph.D. Thesis. The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. 475 ppGoogle Scholar
  49. Tiquia SM (2000) Evaluating toxicity of pig manure from the pig-on-litter system. In: Warman PR and Taylor BR (eds) Proceedings of the International Composting Symposium (ICS 1999), Volume II, pp 625–647. Nova Scotia, Canada: CBA Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  50. Tiquia SM and Tam NFY (2000a) Fate of nitrogen during composting of chicken litter. Environ Pollut (in press)Google Scholar
  51. Tiquia SM and Tam NFY (2000b) Microbiological and chemical parameters for compost maturity evaluation of spent pig litter disposed from the pig-on-litter system. In: Warman PR and Taylor BR (eds) Proceedings of the International Composting Symposium (ICS 1999). Volume II, pp 648–669. Nova Scotia, Canada: CBA Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  52. Tiquia SM, Tam NFY and Hodgkiss IJ (1997) Effects of turning frequency on composting of spent pig-manure sawdust litter. Biores Technol 62: 37–42Google Scholar
  53. Tiquia SM, Tam NFY and Hodgkiss IJ (1998a) Composting spent pig litter in turned and forced-aerated piles. Environ Pollut 99: 329–337Google Scholar
  54. Tiquia SM, Tam NFY and Hodgkiss IJ (1998b) Changes in chemical properties during composting of spent litter at different moisture contents. Agric Ecosys Environ 67: 79–89Google Scholar
  55. Tiquia SM, Tam NFY and Hodgkiss IJ (1998c) Salmonella elimination during composting of spent pig litter. Biores Technol 63: 193–196Google Scholar
  56. Tiquia SM, Richard TL and Honeyman MS (2000) Effect of windrow turning and seasonal temperatures on composting of pig manure from hoop structures. Environ Technol (in press)Google Scholar
  57. Vuorinen AH and Saharinen MH (1999) Cattle and pig manure and peat cocomposting in a drum composting system: Microbiological and chemical parameters. Compost Sci Util 7: 54–65Google Scholar
  58. Walker JM (1993) Control of composting odors. In: Hoitink HAJ and Keener HM (eds) Science and Engineering of Composting: Design, Environmental, Microbiological and Utilization Aspects, Worthington, Ohio, USA: Renaissance Publications pp 185–218.Google Scholar
  59. Zar JH (1999) Biostatistical Analysis. Fourth edition. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall, 929 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological EngineeringThe Ohio State University – Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC)WoosterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringIowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  3. 3.Department of Animal ScienceIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations