Natural Computing

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 3–52

Evolution strategies – A comprehensive introduction

  • Hans-Georg Beyer
  • Hans-Paul Schwefel

DOI: 10.1023/A:1015059928466

Cite this article as:
Beyer, HG. & Schwefel, HP. Natural Computing (2002) 1: 3. doi:10.1023/A:1015059928466


This article gives a comprehensive introduction into one of the main branches of evolutionary computation – the evolution strategies (ES) the history of which dates back to the 1960s in Germany. Starting from a survey of history the philosophical background is explained in order to make understandable why ES are realized in the way they are. Basic ES algorithms and design principles for variation and selection operators as well as theoretical issues are presented, and future branches of ES research are discussed.

computational intelligence Darwinian evolution design principles for genetic operators evolutionary computation evolution strategies optimization 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Georg Beyer
    • 1
  • Hans-Paul Schwefel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science XIUniversity of DortmundDortmundGermany

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