, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 15–35

Ethics of University Research, Biotechnology and Potential Military Spin-off

  • Kathryn Nixdorff
  • Wolfgang Bender

DOI: 10.1023/A:1015045127363

Cite this article as:
Nixdorff, K. & Bender, W. Minerva (2002) 40: 15. doi:10.1023/A:1015045127363


The paper provides a briefintroduction to the biotechnology revolutionand its impact upon biological researchrelevant to military uses. It describes thestatus of biological weapons today, and currentefforts to strengthen the Biological WeaponsConvention with a legally binding complianceprotocol. Specific modifications ofmicro-organisms that may be of military use arediscussed. Three examples of dual-use researchactivities are then used to highlight issuesand dilemmas in ethical decision making.

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathryn Nixdorff
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Bender
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and GeneticsDarmstadt University of TechnologyDarmstadtGermany
  2. 2.Department of Theology and Social EthicsDarmstadt University of TechnologyDarmstadtGermany

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