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Plant and Soil

, Volume 218, Issue 1–2, pp 257–272 | Cite as

The fate of nitrogen from winter-frozen rapeseed leaves: mineralization, fluxes to the environment and uptake by rapeseed crop in spring

  • Jean-François Dejoux
  • Sylvie Recous
  • Jean-Marc Meynard
  • Isabelle Trinsoutrot
  • Philippe Leterme
Article

Abstract

For environmental purposes, very early sowing of winter rapeseed may reduce winter nitrate leaching thanks to the high N uptake capacities of rapeseed in autumn. However, freezing could lead to high losses of leaf nitrogen, amounting to more than 100 kg N ha-1 (Dejoux et al., 1999). Here we investigated the agronomic and environmental consequences of the decomposition of fallen leaves, based on field and laboratory studies with 15N labeled leaves (C:N=9). The potential kinetics of decomposition of leaves were measured by incubation in the laboratory. In the field, all leaves were removed at beginning of winter and replaced by labeled leaves, artificially frozen at −15°C , which were laid on the soil surface. Compared on a thermal time basis, decomposition proceeded as quickly in the field as in the incubations and was complete after 116 normalized days at 15 °C. The proportion of 15N derived from labeled leaves, absorbed again by the rape plants, was 28% at flowering and 24% at harvest. This high N recovery is assumed to result from the synchronization of leaves decomposition and active N absorption by rape in spring. Leaf N mineralization did not increase soil N mineral content at flowering or at harvest, but we observed a 40% loss of 15N. As no leaching was simulated, this loss was supposed to be gaseous. Such a high percentage could be explained by the fact that the decomposing leaves lay on the soil surface, and by climatic conditions conducive to such emissions. For environmental purposes, the quantity and nature of these gaseous N emissions have to be studied for other climatic conditions and types of leaves. As a proportion of N is reabsorbed, N fertilizer application rates could be reduced accordingly.

biochemical quality Brassica napus L. decomposition incubation leaf fall N recovery 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-François Dejoux
    • 1
  • Sylvie Recous
    • 2
  • Jean-Marc Meynard
    • 1
  • Isabelle Trinsoutrot
    • 3
  • Philippe Leterme
    • 4
  1. 1.Unité d'Agronomie INRA-INAPGThiverval-GrignonFrance
  2. 2.Unité d'agronomie, INRALaonFrance
  3. 3.Unité d'Agronomie INRACentre de Recherche AgronomiqueReims cedex 2France
  4. 4.Unité de recherche Sol-Agronomie INRARennes CedexFrance

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