Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 48, Issue 5–6, pp 667–681 | Cite as

Molecular genetics of heat tolerance and heat shock proteins in cereals

  • Elena Maestri
  • Natalya Klueva
  • Carla Perrotta
  • Mariolina Gulli
  • Henry T. Nguyen
  • Nelson Marmiroli


Heat stress is common in most cereal-growing areas of the world. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular and genetic basis of thermotolerance in vegetative and reproductive tissues of cereals. Significance of heat stress response and expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in thermotolerance of cereal yield and quality is discussed. Major avenues for increasing thermotolerance in cereals via conventional breeding or genetic modification are outlined.

abiotic stress gene cloning gene mapping heat shock proteins heat tolerance 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abernethy, R.H., Thiel, D.S., Petersen, N.S. and Helm, K. 1989. Thermotolerance is developmentally dependent in germinating wheat seed. Plant Physiol. 89: 596-576.Google Scholar
  2. Adamska, I. and Kloppstech, K. 1991. Evidence for the localization of the nuclear-coded 22-kDa heat shock protein in a subfraction of thylakoid membranes. Eur. J. Biochem. 198: 375-381.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Khatib, K. and Paulsen, G.M. 1999. High-temperature effects on photosynthetic processes in temperate and tropical cereals. Crop Sci. 39: 119-125.Google Scholar
  4. Alia, Hayashi, H., Sakamoto, A. and Murata, N. 1998. Enhancement of the tolerance of Arabidopsis to high temperatures by genetic engineering of the synthesis of glycinebetaine. Plant J. 16: 155-161.Google Scholar
  5. Almoguera, C. and Jordano, J. 1992. Developmental and environmental concurrent expression of sunflower dry-seed-stored low-molecular-weight heat-shock protein and Lea mRNAs. Plant Mol. Biol. 19: 781-792.Google Scholar
  6. Almoguera, C., Coca, M.A. and Jordano, J. 1995. Differential accumulation of sunflower tetraubiquitin mRNAs during zygotic embryogenesis and developmental regulation of their heat-shock response. Plant Physiol. 107: 765-773.Google Scholar
  7. Almoguera, C., Prieto-Dapena, P. and Jordano, J. 1998. Dual regulation of heat shock promoter during embryogenesis: stagedependent role of heat shock elements. Plant J. 13: 437-446.Google Scholar
  8. Bagga, A.K. and Rawson, H.M. 1977. Contrasting responses of morphologically similar wheat cultivars to temperatures appropriate to warm climates with hot summers: a study in controlled environment. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 4: 877-887.Google Scholar
  9. Banzet, N., Richaud, C., Deveaux, Y., Kazmaier, M., Gagnon, J. and Triantaphylides, C. 1998. Accumulation of small heat shock proteins, including mitochondrial HSP22, induced by oxidative stress and adaptive response in tomato cells. Plant J. 13: 519-527.Google Scholar
  10. Basha, E.M., Waters, E.R. and Vierling, E. 1999. Triticum aestivum cDNAs homologous to nuclear-encoded mitochondrionlocalized small heat shock proteins. Plant Sci. 141: 93-103.Google Scholar
  11. Behl, R.K., Heise, K.P. and Moawad, A.M. 1996. High temperature tolerance in relation to changes in lipids in mutant wheat. Tropenlandwirt 97: 131-135.Google Scholar
  12. Bhadula, S.K., Elthon, T.E., Habben, T.J., Helentjaris, T.G., Jiao, S. and Ristic, Z. 2001. Heat-stress induced synthesis of chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor (EF-Tu) in a heat-tolerant maize line. Planta 212: 359-366.Google Scholar
  13. Blum, A. 1988. Plant Breeding for Stress Environments, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  14. Blum, A., Klueva, N. and Nguyen, H.T. 2001.Wheat cellular thermotolerance is related to yield under heat stress. Euphytica 117: 117-123.Google Scholar
  15. Blumenthal, C.S., Batey, I.L., Bekes, F., Wrigley, C.W. and Barlow, E.W.R. 1990. Gliadin genes contain heat shock elements: possible relevance to heat induced changes in grain quality. J. Cereal Sci. 11: 185-187.Google Scholar
  16. Blumenthal, C.S., Barlow, E.W.R. and Wrigley, C.W. 1993a. Growth environment and wheat quality: the effect of heat stress on dough properties and gluten proteins. J. Cereal Sci. 18: 3-12.Google Scholar
  17. Blumenthal, C.S., Wrigley, C.W., Batey, I.L. and Barlow, E.W.R. 1993b. Heat stress and high CO2: changes in grain quality and composition (protein and starch). In: C.W. Wrigley (Ed.) Proceedings of the 43rd Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, pp. 150-152.Google Scholar
  18. Blumenthal, C.S., Stone, P.J., Gras, P.W., Bekes, F., Clarke, B., Barlow, E.W.R., Appels, R. and Wrigley, C.W. 1998. Heat shock protein 70 and dough quality changes resulting from heat stress during grain filling in wheat. Cereal Chem. 75: 43-50.Google Scholar
  19. Bose, A., Tiwari, B.S., Chattopadhyay, M.K., Gupta, S. and Ghosh, B. 1999. Thermal stress induces differential degradation of Rubisco in heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant rice. Physiol. Plant. 105: 89-94.Google Scholar
  20. Boston, R.S., Viitanene, P.V. and Vierling, E. 1996. Molecular chaperones and protein folding in plants. Plant Mol. Biol. 32: 191-222.Google Scholar
  21. Burke, J.J. 2001. Identification of genetic diversity and mutations in higher plant acquired thermotolerance. Physiol. Plant. 112: 167-170.Google Scholar
  22. Burke, J.J., Mahan, J.R. and Hatfield, J.L. 1988. Crop-specific thermal kinetic windows in relation to wheat and cotton biomass production. Agron. J. 80: 553-556.Google Scholar
  23. Burke, J.J., O'Mahony, P.J. and Oliver, M.J. 2000. Isolation of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking components of acquired thermotolerance. Plant Physiol. 123: 575-588.Google Scholar
  24. Campbell, J.L., Klueva, N.Y., Zheng, H., Nieto-Sotelo, J., Ho, T.-H.D. and Nguyen, H.T. 2001. Cloning of new members of heat shock protein HSP101 gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum (L.) Moench) inducible by heat, dehydration, and ABA. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Gene Struct. Expr. 1517: 270-277.Google Scholar
  25. Cardon, L.R. and Bell, J.I. 2001. Association study designs for complex diseases. Nature Rev. Genet. 2: 91-99.Google Scholar
  26. Celis, J.E., Kruhøffer, M., Gromova, I., Frederiksen, C., Østergaard, M., Thykjaer, T., Gromoy, P., Yu, J., Pálsdóttir, H., Magnusson, N. and Ørntoft, T.F. 2000. Gene expression profiling: monitoring transcription and translation products using DNA microarrays and proteomics. FEBS Lett. 480: 2-16.Google Scholar
  27. Cheikh, N. and Jones, R.J. 1995. Heat stress effects on sink activity of developing maize kernels grown in vitro. Physiol Plant. 95: 59-66.Google Scholar
  28. Ciaffi, M., Margiotta, B., Colaprico, G., De Stefanis, E., Sgrulletta, D. and Lafiandra, D. 1995. Effect of high temperatures during grain filling on the amount of insoluble proteins in durum wheat. J. Genet. Breed. 49: 285-296.Google Scholar
  29. Ciaffi, M., Tozzi, L., Borghi, B., Corbellini, M. and Lafiandra, D. 1996. Effect of heat shock during grain filling on the gluten protein composition of bread wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 24: 91-100.Google Scholar
  30. Coca, M.A., Almoguera, C. and Jordano, J. 1994. Expression of sunflower low-molecular-weight heat-shock proteins during embryogenesis and persistence after germination: localization and possible functional implications. Plant Mol. Biol. 25: 479-492.Google Scholar
  31. Cooper, P., Ho, T.-D.H. and Hauptmann, R.M. 1984. Tissue speci-ficity of the heat shock response in maize. Plant Physiol. 75: 431-441.Google Scholar
  32. Cronje, M.J. and Bornman, L. 1999. Salicylic acid influences Hsp70/Hsc70 expression in Lycopersicon esculentum: dose-and time-dependent induction or potentiation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 265: 422-427.Google Scholar
  33. Dat, J.F., Lopez Delgado, H., Foyer, C.H. and Scott, I.M. 1998. Parallel changes in H2O2 and catalase during thermotolerance induced by salicylic acid or heat acclimation in mustard seedlings. Plant Physiol. 116: 1351-1357.Google Scholar
  34. Davenport, R.J. 2001. Rice genome: syngenta finishes, consortium goes on. Science 291: 807.Google Scholar
  35. Davies, W.J. and Jones, H.G. 1991. Abscisic Acid: Physiology and Biochemistry. BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  36. Debel, K., Eberhard, D. and Kloppstech, K. 1995. Light-stress: its effect on the expression of small organellar heat-shock proteins in plants. Clues to their function? In: R.A. Leigh and M.M.A.M.Google Scholar
  37. Blake-Kalff (Eds.) STRESSNET: Proceedings of the second STRESSNET Conference, European Commission, Directorate General VI, pp. 29-34.Google Scholar
  38. DeRocher, A. E. and Vierling, E. 1994. Developmental control of small heat shock protein expression during pea seed maturation. Plant J. 5: 93-102.Google Scholar
  39. Dhaubhadel, S., Chaudhary, S., Dobinson, K.F. and Krishna, P. 1999. Treatment with 24-epibrassinolide, a brassinosteroid, increases the basic thermotolerance of Brassica napus and tomato seedlings. Plant Mol. Biol. 40: 333-342.Google Scholar
  40. D'Ovidio, R., Marchitelli, C., Ercoli Cardelli, L. and Porceddu, E. 1999. Sequence similarity between allelic Glu-B3 genes related to quality properties of durum wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 98: 455-461.Google Scholar
  41. Downs, C.A. and Heckathorn, S.A. 1998. The mitochondrial small heat-shock protein protects NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the electron transport chain during heat stress in plants. FEBS Lett. 430: 246-250.Google Scholar
  42. Dubcovsky, J., Luo, M.-C. and Dvorak, J. 1995. Linkage relationships among stress-induced genes in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91: 795-801.Google Scholar
  43. Dupuis, I. and Dumas, C. 1990. Influence of temperature stress on in vitro fertilization and heat shock protein synthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) reproductive tissues. Plant Physiol. 94: 665-670.Google Scholar
  44. Ellis, R.J. 1990. The molecular chaperone concept. Semin. Cell Biol. 1: 1-9.Google Scholar
  45. Feller, U., Crafts-Brandner, S.J. and Salvucci, M.J. 1998. Moderately high temperatures inhibit ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (Rubisco) activase-mediated activation of Rubisco. Plant Physiol. 116: 539-546.Google Scholar
  46. Fitter, A.H. and Hay, R.K.M. 1987. Environmental Physiology of Plants. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  47. Fokar, M., Nguyen, H.T. and Blum, A. 1998. Heat tolerance in spring wheat. I. Estimating cellular thermotolerance and its heritability. Euphytica 104: 1-8.Google Scholar
  48. Frova, C. 1996. Genetic dissection of thermotolerance in maize. In: S. Grillo and A. Leone (Eds.) Physical Stresses in Plants: Genes and Their Products for Tolerance, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 31-38.Google Scholar
  49. Frova, C. and Sari-Gorla, M. 1993. Quantitative expression of maize HSPs: genetic dissection and association with thermotolerance. Theor. Appl. Genet. 86: 213-220.Google Scholar
  50. Gagliardi, D., Breton, C., Chaboud, A., Vergne, P. and Dumas, C. 1995. Expression of heat shock factor and heat shock protein 70 genes during maize pollen development. Plant Mol. Biol. 29: 841-856.Google Scholar
  51. Gallie, D.R. 2001. Control of the heat shock response in crop plants. In: A.S. Basra (Ed.) Crop Responses and Adaptations to Temperature Stress, Food Products Press, Binghamton, NY, pp. 219-241.Google Scholar
  52. Gallie, D.R., Caldwell, C. and Pitto, L. 1995. Heat shock disrupts cap and poly(A) tail function during translation and increases mRNA stability of introduced reporter mRNA. Plant Physiol. 108: 1703-1713.Google Scholar
  53. Gong, M., Chen, S.N., Song, Y.Q. and Li, Z.G. 1997. Effect of calcium and calmodulin on intrinsic heat tolerance in relation to antioxidant systems in maize seedlings. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 24: 371-379.Google Scholar
  54. Gong, M., Li, Y.J. and Chen, S.Z. 1998. Abscisic acid-induced thermotolerance in maize seedlings is mediated by calcium and associated with antioxidant systems. J. Plant Physiol. 153: 488-496.Google Scholar
  55. Grass, L. and Burris, J.S. 1995. Effect of heat stress during seed development and maturation on wheat (Triticum durum) seed quality. I. Seed germination and seedling vigor. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75: 821-829.Google Scholar
  56. Hawker, J.S. and Jenner, C.F. 1993. High temperature affects the activity of enzymes in the committed pathway of starch synthesis in developing wheat endosperm. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 20: 197-209.Google Scholar
  57. Heckathorn, S.A., Downs, C.A., Sharkey, T.D. and Coleman, J.S. 1998. The small, methionine-rich chloroplast heat-shock protein protects photosystem II electron transport during heat stress. Plant Physiol. 116: 439-444.Google Scholar
  58. Hede, A.R., Skovmand, B., Reynolds, M.P., Crossa, J., Vilhelmsen, A.L. and Stolen, O. 1999. Evaluating genetic diversity for heat tolerance traits in Mexican wheat landraces. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 46: 37-45.Google Scholar
  59. Helm, K. and Abernethy, R.H. 1990. Heat shock proteins and their mRNAs in dry and early imbibing embryos of wheat. Plant Physiol. 93: 1626-1633.Google Scholar
  60. Helm, K., Petersen, N.S. and Abernethy, R.H. 1989. Heat shock response of germinating embryos of wheat. Effect of imbibition time and seed vigor. Plant Physiol. 90: 598-605.Google Scholar
  61. Hoffmann, A.A. and Parsons, P.A. 1991. Evolutionary Genetics and Environmental Stress. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  62. Holden, J., Peacock, J. and Williams T. 1993. Genes, Crops and the Environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  63. Hong, S.W. and Vierling, E. 2000. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana defective in the acquisition of tolerance to high temperature stress. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 4392-4397.Google Scholar
  64. Howarth, C.J. 1989. Heat shock proteins in Sorghum bicolor and Pennisetum americanum. I. genotypic and developmental variation during seed germination. Plant Cell Envir. 12: 471-477.Google Scholar
  65. Howarth, C.J., Pollock, C.J. and Peacock, J.M. 1997. Development of laboratory-based methods for assessing seedling thermotolerance in pearl millet. New Phytol. 137: 129-139.Google Scholar
  66. Inaba, K. and Sato, K. 1976. High temperature injury of ripening in rice plant. VI. Enzyme activities of kernel as influenced by high temperature. Proc. Crop Sci. Soc. Jpn. 45: 162-167.Google Scholar
  67. Jagtap, V., Bhargava, S., Streb, P. and Feierabend, J. 1998. Comparative effect of water, heat and light stresses on photosynthetic reactions in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. J. Exp. Bot. 49: 1715-1721.Google Scholar
  68. Jenner, C.F. 1991a. Effects of exposure of wheat ears to high temperature on dry matter accumulation and carbohydrate metabolism in the grain of two cultivars. I. Immediate responses. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 18: 165-177.Google Scholar
  69. Jenner, C.F. 1991b. Effects of exposure of wheat ears to high temperature on dry matter accumulation and carbohydrate metabolism in the grain of two cultivars. II. Carry-over effects. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 18: 179-190.Google Scholar
  70. Jeon, J.-S., Lee, S., Jung, K.-H., Jun, S.-H., Jeong, D.-H., Lee, J., Kim, C., Jang, S., Lee, S., Yang, K., Nam, J., An, K., Han, M.-J., Sung, R.-J., Choi, H.-S., Yu, J.-H., Choi, J.-H., Cho, S.-Y., Cha, S.-S., Kim, S.-I. and An, G. 2000. T-DNA insertional mutagenesis for functional genomics in rice. Plant J. 22: 561-570.Google Scholar
  71. Johnson, B. and Waines, J.G. 1997. Use of wild-wheat resources. Calif. Agric. 31: 8-9.Google Scholar
  72. Jorgenson, J.A. and Nguyen, H.T. 1995. Genetic analysis of heat shock proteins in maize. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91: 38-46.Google Scholar
  73. Joshi, C.P., Klueva, N.Y., Morrow, K.J. and Nguyen, H.T. 1997. Expression of a unique plastid-localized heat-shock protein is genetically linked to acquired thermotolerance in wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 95: 834-841.Google Scholar
  74. Kaukinen, K.H., Tranbarger, T.J. and Misra, S. 1996. Postgermination-induced and hormonally dependent expression of low-molecular-weight heat shock protein genes in Douglas fir. Plant Mol. Biol. 30: 1115-1128.Google Scholar
  75. Klueva, N.Y., Maestri, E., Marmiroli, N. and Nguyen, H.T. 2001. Mechanisms of thermotolerance in crops. In: A.S. Basra (Ed.) Crop Responses and Adaptations to Temperature Stress, Food Products Press, Binghamton, NY, pp. 177-217.Google Scholar
  76. Kruse, E., Liu, Z. and Kloppstech, K. 1993. Expression of heat shock proteins during development of barley. Plant Mol. Biol. 23: 111-122.Google Scholar
  77. Lanciloti, D.F., Cwik, C. and Brodl, M.R. 1996. Heat shock proteins do not provide thermoprotection to normal cellular protein synthesis, α-amylase mRNA and endoplasmic reticulum lamellae in barley aleurone layers. Physiol. Plant. 97: 513-523.Google Scholar
  78. Laurie, D.A., Pratchett, N., Bezant, J.H. and Snape, J.W. 1995. RFLP mapping of five major genes and eight quantitative trait loci controlling flowering time in a winter × spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cross. Genome 38: 575-585.Google Scholar
  79. Lee, J.H. and Schöffl, F. 1996. An Hsp70 antisense gene affects the expression of HSP70/HSC70, the regulation of HSF, and the acquisition of thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol. Gen. Genet. 252: 11-19.Google Scholar
  80. Lee, J.H., Hübel, A. and Schöffl, F. 1995. Derepression of the activity of genetically engineered heat shock factor causes constitutive synthesis of heat shock proteins and increased thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plant J. 8: 603-612.Google Scholar
  81. Lopez Delgado, H., Dat, J.F., Foyer, C.H. and Scott, I.M. 1998. Induction of thermotolerance in potato microplants by acetylsalicylic acid and H2O2. J. Exp. Bot. 49: 713-720.Google Scholar
  82. Lu, C.M. and Zhang, J.H. 1998. Thermostability of photosystem II is increased in salt-stressed sorghum. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 25: 317-324.Google Scholar
  83. Lund, A.A., Blum, P.H., Bhattramakki, D. and Elthon, T.E. 1998. Heat-stress response of maize mitochondria. Plant Physiol. 116: 1097-1110.Google Scholar
  84. MacRitchie, F. 1984. Baking quality of wheat flours. Adv. Food Res. 29: 201-277.Google Scholar
  85. Magnard, J.L., Vergne, P. and Dumas, C. 1996. Complexity and genetic variability of heat-shock protein expression in isolated maize microspores. Plant Physiol. 111: 1085-1096.Google Scholar
  86. Malik, M.K., Slovin, J.P., Hwang, C.H. and Zimmerman, J.L. 1999. Modified expression of a carrot small heat shock protein gene, Hsp17.7, results in increased or decreased thermotolerance. Plant J. 20: 89-99.Google Scholar
  87. Marmiroli, N., Di Cola, G., Komjanc, M., Terzi, V., Stanca, A.M., Martiniello, P. and Lorenzoni, C. 1989a. Molecular and physiological parameters as aids in selection for temperature tolerance. In: R. Cavalloro and V. Delucchi (Eds.) Parasistis 88, Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal 17, pp. 49-55.Google Scholar
  88. Marmiroli, N., Lorenzoni, C., Cattivelli, L., Stanca, A.M. and Terzi, V. 1989b. Induction of heat shock proteins and acquisition of thermotolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Variations associated with growth habit and plant development. J. Plant Physiol. 135: 267-273.Google Scholar
  89. Marmiroli, N., Lorenzoni, C., Stanca, A.M. and Terzi, V. 1989c. Preliminary study of the inheritance of temperature stress proteins in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plant Sci. 62: 147-156.Google Scholar
  90. Marmiroli, N., Pavesi, A., Di Cola, G., Hartings, H., Raho, G., Conte, M.R. and Perrotta, C. 1993. Identification, characterization and analysis of cDNA and genomic sequences encoding two different small heat shock proteins in Hordeum vulgare L. Genome 36: 1111-1119.Google Scholar
  91. Marmiroli, N., Maestri, E., Terzi, V., Gulli, M., Pavesi, A., Raho, G., Lupotto, E., Di Cola, G., Sinibaldi, R. and Perrotta, C. 1994. Genetic and molecular evidences of the regulation of gene expression during heat shock in plants. In: J.H. Cherry (Ed.)Biochemical and Cellular Mechanisms of Stress Tolerance in Plants, NATO ASI Series H: Cell Biology, vol. 86, Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 157-190.Google Scholar
  92. Marmiroli, N., Malcevschi, A. and Maestri, E. 1998. Application of stress responsive genes RFLP analysis to the evaluation of genetic diversity in plants. In: A. Karp, P.G. Isaac and D.S. Ingram (Eds.) Molecular Tools for Screening Biodiversity: Plants and Animals, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 464-470.Google Scholar
  93. Mascarenhas, J.P. and Crone, D.E. 1996. Pollen and the heat shock response. Sex. Plant Reprod. 9: 370-374.Google Scholar
  94. Mullarkey, M. and Jones, P. 2000. Isolation and analysis of thermotolerant mutants of wheat. J. Exp. Bot. 51: 139-146.Google Scholar
  95. Nevo, E., Apelbaum-Elkaher, I., Garty, J. and Beiles, A. 1997. Natural selection causes microscale allozyme diversity in wild barley and in lichen at 'Evolution Canyon', Mt. Carmel, Israel. Heredity 78: 373-382.Google Scholar
  96. O'Mahony, P. and Burke, J. 2000. A ditelosomic line of 'Chinese Spring' wheat with augmented acquired thermotolerance. Plant Sci. 158: 147-154.Google Scholar
  97. O'Mahony, P., Burke, J.J. and Oliver, M.J. 2000. Identification of acquired thermotolerance deficiency within the ditelosomic series of 'Chinese Spring' wheat. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 38: 243-252.Google Scholar
  98. Osborne, D.J. 1983. Biochemical control systems operating in the early hours of germination. Can. J. Bot. 61: 3568-3577.Google Scholar
  99. Osteryoung, K.W., Sundberg, H. and Vierling, E. 1993. Poly(A) tail length of a heat shock protein RNA is increased by severe heat stress, but intron splicing is unaffected. Mol. Gen. Genet. 239: 323-333.Google Scholar
  100. Ottaviano, E., Sari-Gorla, M., Pé, E. and Frova, C. 1991. Molecular markers (RFLPs and HSPs) for the genetic dissection of thermotolerance in maize. Theor. Appl. Genet. 81: 713-719.Google Scholar
  101. Pareek, A., Singla, S.L. and Grover, A. 1998. Proteins alterations associated with salinity, desiccation, high and low temperature stresses and abscisic acid application in seedlings of Pusa 169, a high-yielding rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar. Curr. Sci. 75: 1023-1035.Google Scholar
  102. Park, S.-Y., Shivaji, R., Krans, J.V. and Luthe, D.S. 1996. Heatshock response in heat-tolerant and nontolerant variants of Agrostis palustris Huds. Plant Physiol. 111: 515-524.Google Scholar
  103. Pechan, P.M. and Smykal, P. 2001. Androgenesis: affecting the fate of the male gametophyte. Physiol. Plant. 111: 1-8.Google Scholar
  104. Pennisi, E. 2000. Stealth genome rocks rice researchers. Science 288: 239-241.Google Scholar
  105. Perrotta, C., Treglia, A.S., Mita, G., Giangrande, E., Rampino, P., Ronga, G., Spano, G. and Marmiroli, N. 1998. Analysis of mRNAs from ripening wheat seeds: the effect of high temperature. J. Cereal Sci. 27: 127-132.Google Scholar
  106. Pingali, P.L. and Heisey, P.W. 1996. Cereal crop productivity in developing countries: past trend and future prospects. In: Global Agriculture Science Policy for the 21st Century, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Melbourne, pp. 26-28.Google Scholar
  107. Prandl, R., Hinderhofer, K., Eggers Schumacher, G. and Schöffl, F. 1998. HSF3, a new heat shock factor from Arabidopsis thaliana, derepresses the heat shock response and confers thermotolerance when overexpressed in transgenic plants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 258: 269-278.Google Scholar
  108. Prasad, T.K. and Stewart, C.R. 1992. cDNA clones encoding Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays mitochondrial chaperonin HSP60 and gene expression during seed germination and heat shock. Plant Mol. Biol. 18: 873-885.Google Scholar
  109. Preczewski, P.J., Heckathorn, S.A., Downs, C.A. and Coleman, J.S. 2000. Photosynthetic thermotolerance is quantitatively and positively correlated with production of specific heat-shock proteins among nine genotypes of Lycopersicon (tomato). Photosynthetica 38: 127-134.Google Scholar
  110. Quarrie, S.A., Gulli, M., Calestani, C., Steed, A. and Marmiroli, N. 1994. Location of a gene regulating drought-induced abscisic acid production on the long arm of chromosome 5A of wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 89: 794-800.Google Scholar
  111. Queitsch, C., Hong, S.W., Vierling, E. and Lindquist, S. 2000. Heat shock protein 101 plays a crucial role in thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 12: 479-492.Google Scholar
  112. Randall, P.J. and Moss, H.J. 1990. Some effects of temperature regime during grain filling on wheat quality. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 41: 603-617.Google Scholar
  113. Rekika, D., Monneveux, P. and Havaux, M. 1997. The in vivo tolerance of photosynthetic membranes to high and low temperatures in cultivated and wild wheats of the Triticum and Aegilops genera. J. Plant Physiol. 150: 734-738.Google Scholar
  114. Restivo, F.M., Tassi, F., Maestri, E., Lorenzoni, C., Puglisi, P.P. and Marmiroli, N. 1986. Identification of chloroplast associated heatshock proteins in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts. Curr. Genet. 11: 145-149.Google Scholar
  115. Rijven, A.H.G.C. 1986. Heat inactivation of starch synthase in wheat endosperm tissue. Plant Physiol. 81: 448-453.Google Scholar
  116. Ristic, Z., Yang, G.P., Martin, B. and Fullerton, S. 1998. Evidence of association between specific heat-shock protein(s) and the drought and heat tolerance phenotype in maize. J. Plant Physiol. 153: 497-505.Google Scholar
  117. Saini, H.S. and Aspinall, D. 1982. Abnormal sporogenesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) induced by short periods of high temperature. Ann. Bot. 49: 835-846.Google Scholar
  118. Sairam, R.K., Srivastava, G.C. and Saxena, D.C. 2000. Increased antioxidant activity under elevated temperatures: a mechanism of heat stress tolerance in wheat genotypes. Biol. Plant. 43: 245-251.Google Scholar
  119. Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. 1992. Plant Physiology, 4th ed. Wadsworth, Belmont, CA.Google Scholar
  120. Sato, K. and Inaba, K. 1976. High temperature injury of ripening in rice plant. V. On the early decline of assimilate storing ability of grains at high temperature. Proc. Crop. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 45: 156-161.Google Scholar
  121. Shi, Y.-C., Seib, P.A. and Bernardin, J.E. 1994. Effects of temperature during grain-filling on starches from six wheat cultivars. Cereal Chem. 71: 369-383.Google Scholar
  122. Singla, S.L., Pareek, A., Kush, A.K. and Grover, A. 1998. Distribution patterns of 104 kDa stress-associated protein in rice. Plant Mol. Biol. 37: 911-919.Google Scholar
  123. Singletary, G.W., Banisadr, R. and Keeling, P.L. 1994. Heat stress during grain filling in maize: effects on carbohydrate storage and metabolism. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 21: 829-841.Google Scholar
  124. Sinibaldi, R.M. and Mettler, J.J. 1992. Intron splicing and intronmediated enhanced expression in monocots. Prog. Nucl. Acids Res. 42: 229-257.Google Scholar
  125. Southworth, J., Randolph, J.C., Habeck, M., Doering, O.C., Pfeifer, R.A., Rao, D.G. and Johnston, J.J. 2000. Consequences of future climate change and changing climate variability on maize yields in the midwestern United States. Agric. Ecosyst. Envir. 82 (SI): 139-158.Google Scholar
  126. Stone, P. 2001. The effects of heat stress on cereal yield and quality. In: A.S. Basra (Ed.) Crop Responses and Adaptations to Temperature Stress, Food Products Press, Binghamton, NY, pp. 243-291.Google Scholar
  127. Stone, P.J. and Nicolas, M.E. 1994. Wheat cultivars vary widely in their responses of grain yield and quality to short periods of post-anthesis heat stress. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 21: 887-900.Google Scholar
  128. Stone, P.J. and Nicolas, M.E. 1995a. Effect of timing of heat stress during grain filling on two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance. I. Grain growth. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22: 927-934.Google Scholar
  129. Stone, P.J. and Nicholas, M.E. 1995b. Comparison of sudden heat stress with gradual exposure to high-temperature during grain filling in two wheat varieties differing in heat tolerance. 1. Grain growth. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22: 935-944.Google Scholar
  130. Stuber, C.W., Polacco, M. and Lynn, M. 1999. Synergy of empirical breeding, marker-assisted selection, and genomics to increase crop yield potential. Crop Sci. 39: 1571-1583.Google Scholar
  131. Tester, R.F., Morrison, W.R., Ellis, R.H., Piggot, J.R., Batts, G.R., Wheeler, T.R., Morison, J.I.L., Hadkey, P. and Ledward, D.A. 1995. Effects of elevated growth temperature and carbon dioxide levels on some physicochemical properties of wheat starch. J. Cereal Sci. 22: 63-71.Google Scholar
  132. Thiellement, H., Bahrman, N., Damerval, C., Plomion, C., Rossignol, M., Santoni, V., de Vienne, D. and Zivy, M. 1999. Proteomics for genetic and physiological studies in plants. Electrophoresis 20: 2013-2026.Google Scholar
  133. Treglia, A.S., Spano, G., Rampino, P., Giangrande, E., Nocco, G., Mita, G., Di Fonzo, N. and Perrotta, C. 1999. Identification by in vitro translation and Northern blot analysis of heat shock mRNAs isolated from wheat seeds exposed to different temperatures during ripening. J. Cereal Sci. 30: 33-38.Google Scholar
  134. van Zee, K., Qiang Chen, F., Hayes, P.M., Close, T.J. and Chen, T.H.H. 1995. Cold-specific induction of a dehydrin gene family member in barley. Plant Physiol. 108: 1233-1239.Google Scholar
  135. Vasil, I.K. and Anderson, O.D. 1997. Genetic engineering of wheat gluten. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 2: 292-297.Google Scholar
  136. Vettakkorumakankav, N.N., Falk, D., Saxena, P. and Fletcher, R.A. 1999. A crucial role for gibberellins in stress protection of plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 40: 542-548.Google Scholar
  137. Vierling, E. 1991. The roles of heat shock proteins in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 42: 579-620.Google Scholar
  138. Visioli, G., Maestri, E. and Marmiroli, N. 1997. Differential display-mediated isolation of a genomic sequence for a putative mitochondrial LMWHSP specifically expressed in condition of induced thermotolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (L) Heynh. Plant Mol. Biol. 34: 517-527.Google Scholar
  139. Wardlaw, I.F. and Wrigley, C.W. 1994. Heat tolerance in temperate cereals: an overview. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 21: 695-703.Google Scholar
  140. Waters, E. 1995. The molecular evolution of the small heat-shock proteins in plants. Genetics 141: 785-795.Google Scholar
  141. Waters, E.R., Lee, G.J. and Vierling, E. 1996. Evolution, structure and function of the small heat shock proteins in plants. J. Exp. Bot. 47: 325-338.Google Scholar
  142. Weegels, P.L., Hamer, R.J. and Schofield, J.D. 1996. Functional properties of wheat glutenin. J. Cereal Sci. 23: 1-18.Google Scholar
  143. Wehmeyer, N., Hernandez, L.D., Finkelstein, R.R. and Vierling, E. 1996. Synthesis of small heat-shock proteins is part of the developmental program of late seed maturation. Plant Physiol. 112: 747-757.Google Scholar
  144. Wells, D.R., Tanguay, R.L., Le, H. and Gallie, D.R. 1998. HSP101 functions as a specific translational regulatory protein whose activity is regulated by nutrient status. Genes Dev. 12: 3236-3251.Google Scholar
  145. Williams, M., Shewry, P.R. and Harwood, J.L. 1994. The influence of the 'greenhouse effect' on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain lipids. J. Exp. Bot. 45: 1379-1385.Google Scholar
  146. Xiao, C.-M. and Mascarenhas, J.P. 1985. High temperature-induced thermotolerance in pollen tubes of Tradescantia and heat shock proteins. Plant Physiol. 78: 887-890.Google Scholar
  147. Yost, H.J. and Lindquist, S. 1988. Translation of unspliced transcripts after heat shock. Science 242: 1544-1548.Google Scholar
  148. Zhao, F.J., Salmon, S.E., Withers, P.J.A., Monaghan, J.M., Evans, E.J., Shewry, P.R. and McGrath, S.P. 1999. Variation in the breadmaking quality and rheological properties of wheat in relation to sulphur nutrition under field conditions. J. Cereal Sci. 30: 19-31.Google Scholar
  149. zur Nieden, U., Neumann, D., Bucka, A. and Nover, L. 1995. Tissue-specific localization of heat-stress proteins during embryo development. Planta 196: 530-538.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena Maestri
    • 1
  • Natalya Klueva
    • 2
  • Carla Perrotta
    • 1
  • Mariolina Gulli
    • 1
  • Henry T. Nguyen
    • 2
  • Nelson Marmiroli
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Genetics and Environmental Biotechnology, Dept. of Environmental SciencesUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Plant Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Dept. of Plant and Soil Science and Center for Biotechnology and GenomicsTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations