Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 49–59 | Cite as

Interactive effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) and salt stress on growth, ion accumulation and photosynthetic capacity of two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars differing in salt tolerance

  • M. Ashraf
  • Fakhra Karim
  • E. Rasul


A sand culture experiment assessed whether gibberellic acid(GA3) could alleviate the adverse effects of salt stress on thegrowth, ion accumulation and photosynthetic capacity of two spring wheatcultivars, Barani-83 (salt sensitive) and SARC-I (salt tolerant).Three-week-oldplants of both cultivars were exposed to 0, 100 and 200 molm−3 NaCl in Hoagland's nutrient solution. Threeweeks after the initiation of salt treatments, half of the plants of eachcultivar were sprayed overall with 100 mg L−1GA3 solution. Plants were harvested 3 weeks after theapplication of GA3. Fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, plantheight and leaf area were decreased with increasing supply of salt, butgibberellic acid treatment caused a significant ameliorative effect on both thecultivars with respect to these growth attributes. However, GA3caused no significant change in grain yields but increased grain size in boththe cultivars. Saline growth medium caused a marked increase in theconcentrations of Na+ and Cl in shoots androots of both the lines. However, with the application of GA3accumulation of Na+ and Cl was enhanced inboth shoots and roots of both wheat lines, but more ions accumulated in saltsensitive Barani-83 than in salt tolerant SARC-1. Net CO2assimilation rate (A) of both wheat lines decreased consistently withincreasingsupply of NaCl, but application of GA3 alleviated the effect of saltstress on this variable in both the cultivars. However, the ameliorative effectof the hormone was more pronounced in Barani-83 than in SARC-1. Althoughwater-use efficiency (A/E = CO2assimilation/transpiration) and intrinsic water use efficiency(A/gs = CO2 assimilation/stomatalconductance) decreased significantly with increasing salt concentration of thegrowth medium in both the cultivars, GA3 was more effective inenhancing both the water-use attributes in Barani-83 than in SARC-1. Overall,GA3 treatment stimulated the vegetative growth of both cultivars ofwheat under salt stress, but it caused a slight reduction in grain yield.GA3 treatment enhanced the accumulation of Na+ andCl in both shoots and roots of wheat plants under saltstress.It also caused a significant increase in photosynthetic capacity in both linesat the vegetative stage under both saline and non-saline media.

Gibberellic acid Ion contents Photosynthesis Salt tolerance Water-use efficiency 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aldesuquy H.S. 1995. Hormones induced modifications in the response of wheat flag leaf area to NaCl. Biol. Plant 387: 605–611.Google Scholar
  2. Allen S.E., Grimshaw H.M. and Rowland A.P. 1986. Chemical analysis. In: Chapman M.P.D. (ed.), Methods in Plant Ecology. 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publisher, Oxford, pp. 285–344.Google Scholar
  3. Arnon D.T. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol 24: 1–15.Google Scholar
  4. Ashraf M. 1994. Breeding for salinity tolerance in plants. CRC. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 13: 7–42.Google Scholar
  5. Ashraf M. and O'Leary J.W. 1996. Responses of some newly developed salt-tolerant genotypes of spring wheat to salt stress:. II.Water relations and photosynthetic capacity, Acta Bot. Neerl. 45: 29–39.Google Scholar
  6. Baker N.R. 1996. Photosynthesis and the Environment. Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  7. Basalah M.O. and Mohammad S. 1999. Effect of salinity and plant growth regulators on seed germination of Medicago sativa L. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 651–653.Google Scholar
  8. Coombe B.G. 1970. Fruit set in grapevines: The mechanism of the CCC effect. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 45: 415–425.Google Scholar
  9. Danks S.M., Evans E.H. and Whittaker P.A. 1983. Photosynthetic Systems - Structure, Function and Assembly. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Guoping Z. 1997. Gibberellic acid modifies some growth and physiological effects of paclobutrazol on wheat. J. Plant Growth Regul. 16: 21–25.Google Scholar
  11. Hawkins H.J. and Lewis O.A.M. 1993. Combination effect of NaCl salinity, nitrogen form and calcium concentration on the growth and ionic content and gaseous properties of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gamtoos. New Phytol. 124: 161–170.Google Scholar
  12. Hisamatsu T., Koshioka M., Kubota S., Fujime Y., King R.W. and Mander L.N. 2000. The role of gibberellin in the control of growth and flowering in Matthiola incana. Physiol Plant 109: 97–105.Google Scholar
  13. Kingsbury R.W. and Epstein E. 1984. Selection for salt resistance in spring wheat. Crop Sci. 24: 310–315.Google Scholar
  14. Kumar B. and Singh B. 1996. Effect of plant hormones on growth and yield of wheat irrigated with saline water. Ann. Agric. Res. 17: 209–212.Google Scholar
  15. Lawlor D.W. 1987. Photosynthesis: Metabolism, Control and Physiology. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Liuling Y., Gowenshan Y., Chaunian F., Xin P.Y., Kai Z.X. and Xing Z.Z. 1995. Studies on the grain volume and degree on the filling in wheat. Acta Agron. Sinica. 21: 637–640.Google Scholar
  17. Munjal R. and Goswami C.L. 1995. Response of chloroplastic pigments to NaCl and GA3 during cotton cotyledonary leaf growth and maturity. Agric. Sci. Digest. 15: 146–150.Google Scholar
  18. Nayyar H., Walia D.P. and Kaistha B.L. 1995. Performance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed primed with growth regulators and inorganic salts. Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 65: 116–122.Google Scholar
  19. Parasher, A. and Varma S.K. 1988. Effect of pre-sowing seed soaking in gibberellic acid on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different saline conditions. Ind. J. Biol. Sci. 26: 473–475.Google Scholar
  20. Radi F., Heikal M.M., Abdel-Rahman A.M. and El-deep B.A.A. 1989. Interactive effect of salinity and phytohormones on growth and plant water relationship parameters in maize and safflower plants. Acta Agron. Hung. 38: 271–282.Google Scholar
  21. Shannon M.C. and Grieve C.M. 1999. Tolerance of vegetable crops to salinity. Scientia Hort. 78: 5–38.Google Scholar
  22. Steel R.G.D. and Torrie J.H. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2nd edn. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  23. Wyn Jones R.G. 1981. Salt tolerance. In: Johnson C.B. (ed.), Physiological Processes Limiting Plant Productivity. Butterworths, London, pp. 271–292.Google Scholar
  24. Yeo A.R., Caporn S.J.M. and Flowers T.J. 1985. The effect of salinity upon photosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.): Gas exchange by individual leaves in relation to their salt content. J. Exp. Bot. 36: 1240–1248.Google Scholar
  25. Yoshida S., Forno D.A., Cock J.H. and Gomez K.A. 1976. Laboratory Manual for Physiological Studies of Rice. IRRI, Philippines.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ashraf
    • 1
  • Fakhra Karim
    • 1
  • E. Rasul
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations