Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 41–47 | Cite as

Changes in ammonium ion content and glutamine synthetase activity in rice leaves caused by excess cadmium are a consequence of oxidative damage

  • Hsiu-Fang Chien
  • Chuan Chi Lin
  • Jen-Wu Wang
  • Chien Teh Chen
  • Ching Huei Kao


Ammonium ion accumulation and the decrease in glutamine synthetase (GS)activity induced by CdCl2 were investigated in relation to lipidperoxidation in detached rice leaves. CdCl2 was effective inincreasing ammonium ion content, decreasing GS activity and increasing lipidperoxidation. Free radical scavengers (glutathione, thiourea, sodium benzoate)and an iron chelator (2,2′-bipyridine) were able to inhibit the decreasein GS activity and ammonium ion accumulation caused by CdCl2 and atthe same time inhibit CdCl2-induced lipid peroxidation. Paraquat,which is known to produce oxygen radicals, decreased GS activity, increasedammonium ion content, and increased lipid peroxidation. GS1 appears to be thepredominant isoform present. Excess Cd caused a decrease in GS1 but not in GS2in detached rice leaves. An increase in lipid peroxidation preceded ammoniumionaccumulation and the decrease in GS1 activity. These results suggest that thedecrease in GS activity and the accumulation of ammonium ions in detached riceleaves are a consequence of oxidative damage caused by excess Cd.

Ammonium ion Cadmium Glutamine synthetase Lipid peroxidation Oryza sativa 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hsiu-Fang Chien
    • 1
  • Chuan Chi Lin
    • 1
  • Jen-Wu Wang
    • 1
  • Chien Teh Chen
    • 1
  • Ching Huei Kao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiRepublic of China

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