Systematic Parasitology

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 199–206 | Cite as

Variability in the taxonomic characters of Black Sea gyrodactylids (Monogenea)

  • E. Dmitrieva
  • G. Dimitrov


Variability of the haptoral hard parts of four Black Sea Gyrodactylus species (G. alviga Dmitrieva & Gerasev, 2000; G. crenilabri Zaika, 1966; G. flesi Malmberg, 1957; G. sphinx Dmitrieva & Gerasev, 2000) was studied in relation to season, host and geographical variability. A discriminant analysis was carried out on the measurements of 14 characters of the haptor of all four species. The haptoral hard parts of the investigated gyrodactylids decrease in size with an increase in water temperature. It is known that life-span of gyrodactylids is negatively correlated with water temperature and they exhibit peak intensities at low temperature. At the same time, life-span is considered to be a general indicator of a favourable environment. Therefore, high water temperature is not apparently advantageous for gyrodactylids. In the case of low marine salinity, in adapted species the sizes of the haptoral hard parts are larger at lower levels of salinity and vice versa for typical marine species. Lastly, in specimens parasitising the primary host, these features are larger than in those parasitising a secondary host. It is possible to say that, in general, the more favourable the environment for gyrodactylids the larger their haptoral hard parts. Unfavourable environmental conditions reduce the time of embryogenesis, which has a dual effect on gyrodactylids: positive in relation to their reproduction (by increasing the reproduction rate) and negative in relation to their development (by decreasing the size of the haptoral hard parts).


Water Temperature High Water Discriminant Analysis Marine Species Reproduction Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Appleby, C. (1996) Variability of the haptoral hard parts of Gyroactylus callariatis Malmberg, 1957 (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. in the Oslo Fjord, Norway. Systematic Parasitology, 33, 199–207.Google Scholar
  2. Bakke, A., Harris, P.D., Jansen P.A. & Hansen L.P. (1992) Host specificity and dispersal strategy in gyrodactylid monogeneans, with particular reference to Gyrodactylus salaris (Plathelminthes, Monogenea). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 13, 63–74.Google Scholar
  3. Bauer. O.N. (1959) [The influence of environmental factors on reproduction of fish parasites.] Voprosy Ecologii, 3, 132–141. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Bray R.A. & des Clers S.A. (1992) Multivariate analyses of metrical features in the Lepidapedon elongatum (Lebour, 1908) species-complex (Digenea, Lepocreadiidae) in deep and shallow water gadiform fishes of the NE Atlantic. Systematic Parasitology, 21, 223–232.Google Scholar
  5. Bychowsky, B.E. & Poljansky. Yu.I. (1953) [Material about a study on marine monogenean flukes of the family Gyrodactylidae Cobb.] Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta AN SSSR, Leningrad, 8, 91–126. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  6. Dmitrieva, E.V. (1997) [Effect of water temperature on population growth and microniche distribution of Gyrodactylus sp. 2 Dmitrieva et Gerasev, 1997 parasitizing Black Sea blenny, Blennius sphinx.] Ecologiya Morya, 46, 35–43. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  7. Dmitrieva, E.V. & Gerasev, P.I. (1997) [On the fauna of Gyrodactylus (Gyrodactylidae, Monogenea) of Black Sea fishes.] Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 76, 979–984. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  8. Ergens, R. (1971) The variability, location and distribution of Gyrodactylus stankovici Ergens, 1970 (Gyrodactylidae: Monogenoidea). Folia Parasitologica, 18, 377–380.Google Scholar
  9. Ergens, R. (1976) Variability of hard parts of haptor of two species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogeneoidea) from Phoxinus phoxinus (L.). Folia Parasitologica, 23, 111–126.Google Scholar
  10. Ergens, R. (1981) Variability of hard parts of haptor in Gyrodactylus truttae Glaser, 1974 (Gyrodactylidae: Monogenea). Folia Parasitologica, 28, 37–42.Google Scholar
  11. Ergens, R. (1985) [Order Gyrodactylidea Bychowsky, 1937.] In: O.N. Bauer (Ed.) [Key to parasites of freshwater fish of the fauna of the USSR. Vol. 2. Parasitic metazoans.] Leningrad: Nauka, pp. 269–347. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  12. Ergens, R. (1991) Variability of the hard parts of haptor of Gyrodactylus leucisci Zitnan, 1964 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae). Folia Parasitologica, 38, 23–28.Google Scholar
  13. Ergens, R. & Gelnar, M. (1985) Experimental verification of the effect of temperature on the size of hard parts of haptor of Gyrodactylus katharineri Malmberg, 1964 (Monogenea). Folia Parasitologica, 32, 377–380.Google Scholar
  14. Gaevskaya, A.V. (1985) [Parasites of fish from the North-West Atlantic: fauna, ecology, formation.] Abstract of DSc Thesis. Leningrad, 25 pp. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  15. Geets, A., Appleby, C. & Ollevier, F. (1999) Host-dependent and seasonal variation in haptoral hard parts of Gyrodactylus cf. arcuatus from three Pomatoschistus spp. and G. arcuatus from Gasterosteus aculeatus: a multivariate approach. Parasitology, 119, 27–40.Google Scholar
  16. Gusev, A.V. (1967) [The morphological criterion and characters of freshwater monogenetic trematodes in modern taxonomy.] Parazitologiya, 1, 55–66. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  17. Gusev, A.V. (1983) [Methods of collection and processing material on monogeneans parasitizing fish.] Leningrad: Nauka, 48 pp. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  18. Harris, P.D. (1993) Interactions between reproduction and population biology in gyrodactylid monogeneans-a review. Bulletin Français de la Pêche de la Pisciculture, 328, 47–65.Google Scholar
  19. Jansen, P.A. & Bakke, T.A. (1991) Temperature-dependent reproduction and survival of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Parasitology, 102, 105–112.Google Scholar
  20. Kulemina, I.V. (1977) [Size variability of the adhesive elements in some species of Gyrodactylus.] In: Skarlato O.A. (Ed.) [Investigations of monogeneans in the USSR.] Leningrad: Zoologicheckii Instituta AN SSSR, pp. 38–41. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  21. Malmberg, G. (1970) The extrectory systems and the marginal hooks as a basis for the systematics of Gyrodactylus (Trematoda: Monogenea). Arkiv för Zoologi, Serie 2, 23, 1–235.Google Scholar
  22. Malmberg, G. (1987) Increased infraspecific divergence in Gyrodactylus salaris resulting from genetic drift in fish farm populations. Information, Åbo Akademi, 19, 33. [Proceedings of the 13th Symposium of the Scandinavian Society for Parasitology, Helsinki, Finland, June 12-14, 1987].Google Scholar
  23. Mo, T.A. (1991) Seasonal variations of haptoral hard parts of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on parr of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in the River Batnjordselva, Norway. Systematic Parasitology, 19, 231–240.Google Scholar
  24. Odum, E.P. (1983) Ecology. CBS College Publishing, Vol. 2, 328 pp. (In English: Russian translation. Moscow: “Mir”, 1986).Google Scholar
  25. Svetovidov, A.N. (1964) [The fishes of the Black Sea.] Moscow-Leningrad: Nauka, 551 pp. (In Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Dmitrieva
    • 1
  • G. Dimitrov
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Ecological ParasitologyInstitute of Biology of the Southern SeasSevastopolUkraine
  2. 2.Department of Biodiversity, Central Laboratory of General EcologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations