Advertisement

Journal of Archaeological Research

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 65–117 | Cite as

Recent Research on Chaco: Changing Views on Economy, Ritual, and Society

  • Barbara J. Mills
Article

Abstract

Current research on Chaco Canyon and its surrounding outlier communities is at an important juncture. Rather than trying to argue for the presence or absence of complexity, archaeologists working in the area are asking different questions, especially how Chacoan political, economic, ritual, and social organization were structured. These lines of inquiry do not attempt to pigeonhole Chaco into traditional neoevolutionary types, but instead seek to understand the historical trajectory that led to the construction of monumental architecture in Chaco Canyon and a large part of the northern Southwest in the 10th through 12th centuries. This review discusses the conclusions of current research at Chaco including definitions of the Chaco region, recent fieldwork, histories of Chaco archaeology, chronology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction, demography, political organization, outlier communities, economic organization, social organization, ritual, violence, and the post-Chacoan reorganization. Although many issues are hotly debated, there is a growing concensus that power was not based in a centralized political organization and that ritual organization was a key factor in the replication of Chacoan architecture across a vast regional landscape. Exactly how ritual, social, and political organization intersected is a central question for Chaco scholars. The resolution of this problem will prove to be of interest to all archaeologists working with intermediate societies across the globe.

Chaco Canyon complexity political organization ritual social organization economy Southwest archaeology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES CITED

  1. Adler, M. (1996). Fathoming the scale of Anasazi communities. In Fish, P. R., and Reid, J. J. (eds.), Interpreting Southwestern Diversity: Underlying Principles and Overarching Patterns, Anthropological Research Papers, No. 48, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 97-105.Google Scholar
  2. Akins, N. J. (1984). Temporal variability in faunal assemblages from Chaco Canyon. In Judge, W. J., and Schelberg, J. D. (eds.), Recent Research on Chaco Prehistory, Reports of the Chaco Center 8, National Park Service, Santa Fe, pp. 225-235.Google Scholar
  3. Akins, N. J. (1986). A Biocultural Approach to Human Burials From Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Reports of the Chaco Center 9, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  4. Akins, N. J. (1987). Faunal remains from Pueblo Alto. In Mathien, F. J., and Windes, T. C. (eds.), Investigations at the Pueblo Alto Complex, Chaco Canyon, Vol. III, Part 2, Publications in Archaeology 18F, National Park Service, Santa Fe, pp. 445-650.Google Scholar
  5. Akins, N. J., and Schelberg, J. D. (1984). Evidence for organizational complexity as seen from the mortuary practices at Chaco Canyon. In Judge, W. J., and Schelberg, J. D. (eds.), Recent Research on Chaco Prehistory, Reports of the Chaco Center 8, National Park Service, Santa Fe, pp. 89-102.Google Scholar
  6. Berlin, G. L., Ferguson, T. J., and Hart, E. R. (1993). Photointerpretation of Native American trails in the Zuni Salt Lake region of New Mexico and Arizona. In Hart, E. R., and Ferguson, T. J. (eds.), Traditional Cultural Properties of Four Tribes: The Fence Lake Mine Project, Prepared for the Salt River Project by the Institute of the North American West, Ms. on file, Salt River Project, Phoenix, pp. 1-103.Google Scholar
  7. Bernardini, W. (1999). Reassessing the scale of social action at Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Kiva 64: 447-470.Google Scholar
  8. Betancourt, J. L., Dean, J. S., and Hull, H. M. (1986). Prehistoric long-distance transport of construction beams, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. American Antiquity 51: 370-375.Google Scholar
  9. Betancourt, J. L., and VanDevender, T. R. (1981). Holocene vegetation in Chaco Canyon, NewMexico. Science 214: 658.Google Scholar
  10. Billman, B. R., Lambert, P. M., and Leonard, B. L. (2000). Cannibalism, warfare, and drought in the Mesa Verde region during the twelfth century A.D. American Antiquity 65: 145-178.Google Scholar
  11. Billman, B., and Ruppé, P. (1996). Phase I and II Data Recovery at Four Sites Near the Sanders Rural Community High School, Sanders, Arizona, Zuni Cultural Resource Enterprise Report 442, Pueblo of Zuni.Google Scholar
  12. Blanton, R. E. (1998). Beyond centralization: Steps toward a theory of egalitarian behavior in archaic states. In Feinman, G. M., and Marcus, J. (eds.), Archaic States, School of American Research, Santa Fe, pp. 135-177.Google Scholar
  13. Blanton, R. E, Feinman, G. M., Kowalewski, S. A., and Peregrine, P. N. (1996). A dual-processual theory for the evolution of Mesoamerican civilization. Current Anthropology 37: 1-14.Google Scholar
  14. Bradley, R. J. (1993). Marine shell exchange in Northwest Mexico and the Southwest. In Ericson, J. E., and Baugh, T. G. (eds.), The American Southwest and Mesoamerica: Systems of Prehistoric Exchange, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 121-152.Google Scholar
  15. Brandt, E. A. (1994). Egalitarianism, hierarchy, and centralization in the Pueblos. In Wills, W. H., and Leonard, R. D. (eds.), The Ancient Southwestern Community: Models and Methods for the Study of Prehistoric Social Organization, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 9-23.Google Scholar
  16. Bryan, K. (1954). The Geology of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in Relation to the Life and Remains of the Prehistoric Peoples of Pueblo Bonito, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 122, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  17. Bubemyre, T., and Mills, B. J. (1993). Clay oxidation analysis. In Mills, B. J., Goetze, C. E., and Zedeño, M. N., Across the Colorado Plateau: Anthropological Studies for the Transwestern Pipeline Expansion Project, Vol. XVI, Office of Contract Archeology and Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 235-277.Google Scholar
  18. Bullock, P. Y. (1991). A reappraisal of Anasazi cannibalism. Kiva 57: 5-16.Google Scholar
  19. Bullock, P. Y. (1992). A return to the question of cannibalism. Kiva 58: 203-206.Google Scholar
  20. Bullock, P. Y. (1998). Does the reality of Anasazi violence prove the myth of Anasazi cannibalism? In Bullock, P. Y. (ed), Deciphering Anasazi Violence, With Regional Comparisons to Mesoamerican and Woodland Cultures, HRM Books, Santa Fe, pp. 35-51.Google Scholar
  21. Bustard, W. (1996). Space as Place: Small and Great House Spatial Organization in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, A.D. 1000-1150, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  22. Bustard, W. (2000). Chaco at the new millennium: Nasty and brutish? Paper presented at the 65 th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  23. Cameron, C. M. (1995). Migration and the movement of Southwestern peoples. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14: 104-124.Google Scholar
  24. Cameron, C. M. (1997). The chipped stone of Chaco Canyon. In Mathien, F. J. (ed.), Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon, Vol. II, Publications in Archaeology 18G, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe, pp. 531-658.Google Scholar
  25. Cameron, C. M. (2001). Pink chert, projectile points, and the Chacoan regional system. American Antiquity 66: 79-101.Google Scholar
  26. Cameron, C. M., and Toll, H. W. (2000). Organization of production. Archaeology Southwest 14:8-9.Google Scholar
  27. Cameron, C. M., and Toll, H.W. (2001). Deciphering the organization of production in Chaco Canyon. American Antiquity 66: 5-13.Google Scholar
  28. Cooper, L.M. (1995). Space Syntax Analysis of Chacoan Great Houses, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  29. Cordell, L. S. (1996). Big sites, big questions: Pueblos in transition. In Adler, M.A. (ed.), The Prehistoric Pueblo World A.D. 1150-1350, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 228-240.Google Scholar
  30. Cordell, L. S., and Durand, S. R. (2000). Better living through chemistry in Pueblo archaeology. Paper presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  31. Cordell, L. S., Durand, S. R., Antweiler, R. C., and Taylor, H. E. (in press). Toward linking maize chemistry to archaeological agricultural sites in the North American Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Science.Google Scholar
  32. Cordell, L. S., and Judge, W. J. (2000). Society and polity. Archaeology Southwest 14(1): 18-19.Google Scholar
  33. Cordell, L. S., and Judge, W. J. (2001). Perspectives on Chaco society and polity. In Cordell, L. S., Judge, W. J., and Piper, J. (eds.), Chaco Society and Polity: Papers From the 1999 Conference, Special Publication, No. 4, New Mexico Archaeological Society, Albuquerque, pp. 1-12.Google Scholar
  34. Cordell, L. S., Judge, W. J., and Piper, J. (eds.). (2001). Chaco Society and Polity: Papers From the 1999 Conference, Special Publication, No. 4, NewMexico Archaeological Society, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  35. Crown, P. L. (ed.). (2000). Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  36. Crown, P. L., and Judge, W. J. (eds.). (1991). Chaco & Hohokam: Prehistoric Regional Systems in the American Southwest, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  37. Damp, J. E. (1999). Chuska Chronologies, Houses, and Hogans: Archaeological and Ethnographic Inquiry along N30-N31 between Mexican Springs and Navajo, McKinley County, New Mexico, Vols. I-IV, Zuni Cultural Resource Enterprise Report 466, Research Series 10, Pueblo of Zuni.Google Scholar
  38. Darling, J. A. (1999a). From Hobbes to Rousseau and back again. Science 285: 537-536.Google Scholar
  39. Darling, J. A. (1999b). Mass inhumation and the execution of witches in the American Southwest. American Anthropologist 100: 732-752.Google Scholar
  40. Dean, J. S. (1992). Environmental factors in the evolution of the Chacoan sociopolitical system. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 35-43.Google Scholar
  41. Dean, J. S. (1996). Kayenta Anasazi settlement transformations in northeastern Arizona, A.D. 1150 to 1350. In Adler, M. A. (ed.), The Prehistoric PuebloWorld A.D. 1150-1350, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 29-47.Google Scholar
  42. Dean, J. S., Doelle, W. H., and Orcutt, J. D. (1994). Adaptive stress, environment, and demography. In Gumerman, G. J. (ed.), Themes in Southwest Prehistory, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 53-86.Google Scholar
  43. Dean, J. S., and Warren, R. L. (1983). Dendrochronology. In Lekson, S. H. (ed.)The Architecture and Dendrochronology of Chetro Ketl, Reports of the Chaco Center 6, Division of Cultural Research, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Albuquerque, pp. 105-240.Google Scholar
  44. Dietler, M., and Hayden, B. (eds.). (2001). Feasts: Archaeological and Ethnographic Perspectives on Food, Politics, and Power, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  45. Dongoske, K. E., Martin, D. L., and Ferguson, T. J. (2000). Critique of the claim of cannibalism at Cowboy Wash. American Antiquity 65: 179-190.Google Scholar
  46. Doyel, D. E. (ed.). (1992a). Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  47. Doyel, D. E., Breternitz, C. D., and Marshall, M. P. (1984). Chacoan community structure, Bis sa'ani Pueblo and the Chaco Halo. In Judge, W. J., and Shelberg, J. D. (eds.), Recent Research on Chaco Prehistory, Reports of the Chaco Center 8, Division of Cultural Research, National Park Service, Albuquerque, pp. 37-54.Google Scholar
  48. Doyel, D. E., and Eighmy, J. L. (1994). Archaeomagnetic dating and the Bonito phase chronology. Journal of Archaeological Science 21: 651-658.Google Scholar
  49. Doyel, D. E., and Lekson, S. H. (1992). Regional organization in the American Southwest. In Doyel, D. E., (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 15-22.Google Scholar
  50. Drennan, R. D. (1984). Long-distance transport cost in Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica. American Anthropologist 86: 105-112.Google Scholar
  51. Drennan, R. D. (1999). Analytical scales, building blocks, and comparisons. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Great Towns and Regional Polities in the Prehistoric American Southwest and Southeast, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 255-259.Google Scholar
  52. Duff, A. I. (1998). The process of migration in the late prehistoric Southwest. In Spielmann, K. A. (ed.), Migration and Reorganization: The Pueblo IV Period in the American Southwest, Anthropological Research Papers, No. 51, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 31-52.Google Scholar
  53. Durand, S. R. (1992). Architectural Change and Chaco Prehistory, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  54. Durand, S. R., and Durand, K. R. (2000). Notes from the edge: Settlement pattern changes at the Guadelupe Community. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 101-109.Google Scholar
  55. Durand, S. R., Shelley, P. H., Antweiler, R. C., and Taylor, H. E. (1999). Trees, chemistry, and prehistory in the American Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 185-203.Google Scholar
  56. Earle, T. (2001). Economic support of Chaco Canyon society. American Antiquity 66: 26-46.Google Scholar
  57. Eggan, F. (1991). Review of The Sociopolitical Structure of Prehistoric Southwestern Societies (edited by S. Upham, K. G. Lightfoot, and R. A. Jewett). Ethnohistory 38: 106-108.Google Scholar
  58. Elliott, M. (1995). Great Excavations: Tales of Early Southwestern Archaeology, 1888-1939, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  59. English, N. M., Betancourt, J. L., Dean, J. S., and Quade, J. (2001). Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98: 11891-11896.Google Scholar
  60. Feinman, G. M. (1992). An outside perspective on Chaco Canyon. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 177-182.Google Scholar
  61. Feinman, G. M. (1995). The emergence of inequality. In Price, T. D., and Feinman, G. M. (eds.), Foundations of Social Inequality, Plenum, New York, pp. 255-279.Google Scholar
  62. Feinman, G. M. (2000). Dual-processual theory and social formations in the Southwest. In Mills, B. J. (ed.), Alternative Leadership Strategies in the Prehispanic Southwest, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 207-224.Google Scholar
  63. Feinman, G. M., Lightfoot, K. G., and Upham, S. (2000). Political hierarchies and organizational strategies in the Puebloan Southwest. American Antiquity 65: 449-470.Google Scholar
  64. Feinman, G. M., and Neitzel, J. (1984). Too many types: An overview of sedentary prestate societies in the Americas. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 7: 39-102.Google Scholar
  65. Fletcher, T. F. (ed.). (1994). Archaeological Data Recovery Excavations at the Sanders Great House and Six Other Sites along US Highway 191 South of Sanders, Apache County, Arizona, Zuni Archaeology Program Report 471, Research Series 9, Pueblo of Zuni.Google Scholar
  66. Force, E. R., Vivian, R. G., Windes, T. C., and Dean, J. S. (2002). The relation of “Bonito” Paleochannels and base-level variations to Anasazi, occupation in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Archaeological Series No. 194, Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  67. Fowler, A. P., and Stein, J. R. (1992). The Anasazi great house in space, time, and paradigm. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 102-122.Google Scholar
  68. Fowler, A. P., Stein, J. R., and Anyon, R. (eds.). (1987). An archaeological reconnaissance of westcentral NewMexico: The Anasazi monuments project, Report prepared for the New Mexico State Historic Preservation Division, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  69. Fowler, D. D. (1999). Harvard vs. Hewett: The contest for control of Southwestern archaeology, 1904-1930. In Kehoe, A. B., and Emmerichs, M. B. (eds.), Assembling the Past: Studies in the Professionalization of Archaeology, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 165-211.Google Scholar
  70. Fowler, D. D. (2000). A Laboratory for Anthropology: Science and Romanticism in the American Southwest, 1846-1930, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  71. Gabriel, K. (1992). Marietta Wetherill: Life With the Navajos in Chaco Canyon, Johnson Books, Boulder, CO. Reprinted, 1997, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  72. Gillespie, W. B. (1985). Holocene climate and environment of Chaco Canyon. In Mathien, F. J. (ed.), Environment and Subsistence of Chaco Canyon, Publications in Archeology 18E, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Albuquerque, pp. 13-45.Google Scholar
  73. Gilpin, D., and Purcell, D. E. (2000). Peach Springs revisited: Surface recording and excavation on the south Chaco Slope, New Mexico. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 28-38.Google Scholar
  74. Goetze, C. E., and Mills, B. J. (1993). Ceramic chronometry. In Mills, B. J., Goetze, C. E., and Zedeño, M. N. (eds.), Across the Colorado Plateau: Anthropological Studies for the Transwestern Pipeline Expansion Project, Interpretation of Ceramic Artifacts, Vol. XVI, Office of Contract Archeology and Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 87-150.Google Scholar
  75. Hagstrum, M. B. (1995). Creativity and craft: Household pottery traditions in the Southwest. In Mills, B. J., and Crown, P. L. (eds.), Ceramic Production in the American Southwest, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 281-299.Google Scholar
  76. Hagstrum, M. (2001). Household production in Chaco Canyon society. American Antiquity 66: 47-55.Google Scholar
  77. Hart, E. R., and Othole, A. L. (1993). The Zuni Salt Lake area: Potential impacts to Zuni traditional cultural properties by the proposed Fence Lake Mine. In Hart, E. R., and Ferguson, T. J. (eds.), Traditional Cultural Properties of Four Tribes: The Fence Lake Mine Project, prepared for the Salt River Project by the Institute of the North American West, Ms. on file, Salt River Project, Phoenix, pp. 1-185.Google Scholar
  78. Hatch, S. K. (1994). A Wood Sourcing Study at the Chimney Rock Archaeological Area, Southwest Colorado, MA Thesis, Department of Anthropology, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.Google Scholar
  79. Hayden, B. (1995). Pathways to power: Principles for creating socioeconomic inequalities. In Price, T. D., and Feinman, G. M. (eds.), Foundations of Social Inequality, Plenum, New York, pp. 15-86.Google Scholar
  80. Hayes, A. C., Brugge, D. M., and Judge, W. J. (1981). Archaeological Surveys of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Publications in Archeology 18A, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  81. Hays-Gilpin, K. (2000). Gender ideology and ritual activities. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 91-135.Google Scholar
  82. Hegmon, M., Ortman, S. G., and Mobley-Tanaka, J. L. (2000). Women, men, and the organization of space. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 43-90.Google Scholar
  83. Herr, S. A. (1999). The Organization of Migrant Communities on a Pueblo Frontier, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  84. Herr, S. A., and Clark, J. J. (1997). Patterns in the pathways: Early historic migrations in the Rio Grande Pueblos. Kiva 62: 365-389.Google Scholar
  85. Jalbert, J. P., and Cameron, C. (2000). Chacoan and local influences in three great house communities in the northern San Juan region. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 79-90.Google Scholar
  86. Johnson, G. (1989). Dynamics of Southwestern prehistory, far outside-looking in. In Cordell, L., and Gumerman, G. (eds.), Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. pp. 371-389.Google Scholar
  87. Joiner, C. (1992). The boys and girls of summer: The University of New Mexico Archaeological Field School in Chaco Canyon. Journal of Anthropological Research 48: 49-66.Google Scholar
  88. Judge, W. J. (1979). The development of a complex cultural ecosystem in the Chaco Basin, New Mexico. In Linn, R. M. (ed.), Proceedings of the First Conference on Scientific Research in the National Parks, 3, National Park Service Transactions and Proceedings Series 5, pp. 901-906.Google Scholar
  89. Judge, W. J. (1989). Chaco Canyon - San Juan Basin. In Cordell, L., and Gumerman, G. (eds.), Dynamics of Southwest Prehistory, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 209-261.Google Scholar
  90. Kantner, J. (1996). Political competition among the Chaco Anasazi of the American Southwest. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 15: 41-105.Google Scholar
  91. Kantner, J. (1997). Ancient roads, modern mapping: Evaluating Chaco Anasazi roadways using GIS Technology. Expedition 393): 49-61.Google Scholar
  92. Kantner, J. (1999). The Influence of Self-Interested Behavior on Sociopolitical Change: The Evolution of the Chaco Anasazi in the Prehistoric American Southwest, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  93. Kantner, J., Bower, N., Ladwig, J., Perlitz, J., Hata, S., and Greve, D. (2000). Interaction among great house communities: An elemental analysis of Cibolan ceramics. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arrizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 130-146.Google Scholar
  94. Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.). (2000). Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  95. Kearns, T. M., and McVickar, J. L. (compilers). (1996). Time, Place, and Society: Project Synthesis. Pipeline Archaeology 1990-1993: The El Paso Natural Gas North System Expansion Project, New Mexico and Arizona, Vol. XIII, Ms. on file, Western Cultural Resource Management, Inc., Farmington, NM.Google Scholar
  96. Kendrick, J.W., and Judge, J. (2000). Household economic autonomy and great house development in the Lowry area. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 111-129.Google Scholar
  97. Kievit, K. A. (1998). Seeing and reading the architecture of the Chaco Anasazi at A.D. 1100, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  98. Kincaid, C. (ed.). (1983). Chaco Roads Project, Phase I: A Reappraisal of Prehistoric Roads in the San Juan Basin, United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  99. Kintigh, K. W. (2000). Leadership strategies in historic Zuni towns. In Mills, B. J. (ed.), Alternative Leadership Strategies in the Prehispanic Southwest, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 95-116.Google Scholar
  100. Kintigh, K.W., Howell, T., and Duff, A. I. (1996). Post-Chacoan social integration at the Hinkson Site, New Mexico. Kiva 61: 257-274.Google Scholar
  101. Kosse, K. (1990). Group size and societal complexity: Thresholds in the long-term memory. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9: 275-303.Google Scholar
  102. Kosse, K. (1994). The evolution of large complex groups: A hypothesis. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 13: 35-50.Google Scholar
  103. Kosse, K. (1996). Middle-range societies from a scalar perspective. In Fish, P. R., and Reid, J. J. (eds.), Interpreting Southwestern Diversity: Underlying Principles and Overarching Patterns, Anthropological Research Papers, No. 48, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 87-96.Google Scholar
  104. Kovacik, J. J. (1996). A Social/Contextual Archaeology of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico: Collective Memory and Material Culture amongst the Chaco Anasazi, PhD Dissertation, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  105. Kovacik, J. J. (1999). Memory and pueblo space. In Brück, J., and Goodman, M. (eds.), Making Places in the PrehistoricWorld: Themes in Settlement Archaeology, UCL Press, London, pp. 160-177.Google Scholar
  106. Kowalewski, S. A., Blanton, R. E., Feinman, G., and Finsten, L. (1983). Boundaries, scale, and internal organization. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 2: 32-56.Google Scholar
  107. Lamphere, L. (2000). Gender models in the Southwest: A sociocultural perspective. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 379-401.Google Scholar
  108. LeBlanc, S. A. (1999). Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  109. Lekson, S. H. (ed.). (1983). The Architecture and Dendrochronology of Chetro Ketl. Reports of the Chaco Center 6, Division of Cultural Research, National Park Service, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  110. Lekson, S. H. (1984). Great Pueblo Architecture of Chaco Canyon, Publications in Archaeology 18B, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Albuquerque. Reprinted in 1986 by the University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  111. Lekson, S. H. (1985). Largest settlement size and socio-political complexity at Chaco Canyon. In Haliksa'i: UNM Contributions to Anthropology, Vol. 4, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerue, pp. 68-75.Google Scholar
  112. Lekson, S. H. (1990). Cross-cultural perspectives on the community. In Turan, M. (ed.), Vernacular Architecture: Paradigms of Environmental Response, Aldershot, Avebury, pp. 122-145.Google Scholar
  113. Lekson, S. H. (1991). Settlement patterns and the Chaco region. In Crown, P. L., and Judge, W. J. (eds.), Chaco & Hohokam: Prehistoric Regional Systems in the American Southwest, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 31-55.Google Scholar
  114. Lekson, S. H. (1992). Salado of the east. In Lange, R. C., and Germick, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the Second Salado Conference, Occasional Paper of the Arizona Archaeological Society, Phoenix, pp. 17-21.Google Scholar
  115. Lekson, S. H. (1996a). Scale and process in the American Southwest. In Fish, P. R., and Reid, J. J. (eds.), Interpreting Southwestern Diversity: Underlying Principles and Overarching Patterns, Anthropological Research Papers, No. 48, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 81-86.Google Scholar
  116. Lekson, S. H. (1999a). The Chaco Meridian: Centers of Political Power in the Ancient Southwest, Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
  117. Lekson, S. H. (2000a). Ancient Chaco's new history. Archaeology Southwest 14(1): 1-4.Google Scholar
  118. Lekson, S. H. (2000b). Architecture. Archaeology Southwest 14(1): 12-14.Google Scholar
  119. Lekson, S. H., and Cameron, C. M. (1995). The abandonment of Chaco Canyon, the Mesa Verde migrations, and the reorganization of the Pueblo world. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14: 184-202.Google Scholar
  120. Lekson, S. H., Windes, T. C., Stein, J. R., and Judge, W. J. (1988). The Chaco Canyon community. Scientific American 256(7): 100-109.Google Scholar
  121. Levy, J. E. (1992). Orayvi Revisited: Social Stratification in an “Egalitarian” Society, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  122. Lister, F. C. (1997). Pot Luck: Adventures in Archaeology, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  123. Mahoney, N. (2000a). Chaco World. Archaeology Southwest 14(1): 15-17.Google Scholar
  124. Mahoney, N. M. (2000b). Redefining the scale of Chacoan communities. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 19-27.Google Scholar
  125. Mahoney, N. M. (2001). Monumental architecture as conspicuous display in Chaco Canyon. In Cordell, L. S., Judge, W. J., and Piper, J. (eds.), Chaco Society and Polity: Papers From the 1999 Conference, Special Publication, No. 4, New Mexico Archaeological Society, Albuquerque, pp. 13-29.Google Scholar
  126. Mahoney, N. M., and Kantner, J. (2000). Chacoan archaeology and great house communities. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 1-15.Google Scholar
  127. Marlar, R. A., Leonard, B. L., Billman, B. R., Lambert, P. M., and Marlar, J. E. (2000). Biochemical evidence of cannibalism at a prehistoric Puebloan site in southwestern Colorado. Nature 407: 74-78.Google Scholar
  128. Marshall, M. P. (1997). The Chacoan roads - A cosmological interpretation. In Morrow, B. H., and Price, V. B. (eds.), Anasazi Architecture and American Design, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 62-74.Google Scholar
  129. Marshall, M. P., Stein, J. R., Loose, R. W., and Novotny, J. E. (eds.). (1979). Anasazi Communities of the San Juan Basin, Public Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque and New Mexico Historic Preservation Bureau, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  130. Martin, D. L. (1997). Violence against women in the La Plata River Valley (A.D. 1000-1300). In Martin, D. L., and Frayer, D.W. (eds.), Troubled Times: Violence andWarfare in the Past, Gordon and Breach Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 45-76.Google Scholar
  131. Martin, D. L. (2000). Bodies and lives: Biological indicators of health differentials and division of labor by sex. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 267-300.Google Scholar
  132. Martin, D. L., Akins, N. J., Goodman, A. H., and Swedlund, A. C. (in press). Harmony and Discord: Bioarchaeology of the La Plata Valley, Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  133. Mathien, F. J. (ed.). (1991a). Excavations at 29SJ 633: The Eleventh Hour Site, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Reports of the Chaco Center 10, Branch of Cultural Research, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  134. Mathien, F. J. (ed.). (1992a). Excavations at 29SJ 627, Chaco Canyon, NewMexico, Vol. II: The Artifact Analyses, Reports of the Chaco Center 11, Branch of Cultural Research, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  135. Mathien, F. J. (1992b). Women of Chaco: Then and now. In Reyman, J. E. (ed.), Rediscovering our Past: Essays on the History of American Archaeology, Aldershot, Avebury, pp. 103-130.Google Scholar
  136. Mathien, F. J. (1992c). Exchange systems and social stratification among the Chaco Anasazi. In Ericson, J. E., and Baugh, T. G. (eds.), The American Southwest and Mesoamerica: Systems of Prehistory Exchange, Plenum, New York, pp. 27-63.Google Scholar
  137. Mathien, F. J. (ed.). (1997). Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon: Analyses of Artifacts From the Chaco Project, 1971-1978, Chaco Canyon Studies, Publications in Archeology 18G, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  138. Mathien, F. J. (2001). The organization of turquoise production and consumption by the prehistoric Chacoans. American Antiquity 66: 103-118.Google Scholar
  139. Mathien, F. J., and Windes, T. C. (eds.). (1987). Investigations at the Pueblo Alto Complex, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, 1975-1979, Vol. III: Artifactual and Biological Analyses, Publications in Archeology 18F, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  140. Matson, R. G., and Dohm, K. M. (1994). Anasazi origins: Recent research on the Basketmaker II (Introduction). Kiva 60: 159-163.Google Scholar
  141. McGuire, R. H., and Saitta, D. J. (1996). Although they have petty captains they obey them badly: The dialectics of Prehispanic Western Pueblo social organization. American Antiquity 61: 197-216.Google Scholar
  142. McIntosh, S. K. (1999a). Pathways to complexity: An African perspective. In McIntosh, S. K. (ed.), Beyond Chiefdoms: Pathways to Complexity in Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-30.Google Scholar
  143. McIntosh, S. K. (1999b). Modeling political organization in large-scale settlement clusters: A case study from the Inland Niger Delta. In McIntosh, S. K. (ed.), Beyond Chiefdoms: Pathways to Complexity in Africa, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 66-79.Google Scholar
  144. McKenna, P. J. (1984). The Architecture and Material Culture of 29SJ1360, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Reports of the Chaco Center 7, Division of Cultural Research, National Park Service, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  145. McKenna, P. J., and Stein, J. R. (1989). An Archaeological Reconnaissance of a Late Bonito Phase Occupation near Aztec Ruins National Monument, NewMexico, Division of Anthropology, Branch of Cultural Resources Management, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  146. McKenna, P. J., and Toll, H. W. (1992). Regional patterns of great house development among the Totah Anasazi, NewMexico. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 133-143.Google Scholar
  147. McKenna, P. J., and Truell, M. L. (1986). Small Site Architecture of Chaco Canyon, Publications in Archeology 18D, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe, NM.Google Scholar
  148. Meyer, D. (1999). Masonry and Social Variability in the Chaco System, PhD Dissertation, Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Calgary.Google Scholar
  149. Mills, B. J. (2000a). Alternative models, alternative strategies: Leadership in the Prehispanic Southwest. In Mills, B. J. (ed.), Alternative Leadership Strategies in the Prehispanic Southwest, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 3-18.Google Scholar
  150. Mills, B. J. (2000b). Gender, craft production, and inequality. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 301-343.Google Scholar
  151. Mills, B. J. (in press). Analysis of ceramics from the Chaco Additions Survey. In Van Dyke, R. M. (ed.), An Archaeological Survey of the Additions to Chaco Culture National Historic Park, Publications in Archaeology, Chaco Center, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  152. Mills, B. J. (2001). The archaeology of inalienable possessions: Social valuables and the formation ofcollective prestige structures in the Greater Southwest. Paper presented at the 66th annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  153. Mills, B. J., Carpenter, A., and Grimm, W. (1997). Sourcing Chuskan ceramic production: Petrographic and experimental approaches. Kiva 62: 261-282.Google Scholar
  154. Mills, B. J., and Crown, P. L. (eds.). (1995). Ceramic Production in the American Southwest, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  155. Naranjo, T. (1995). Thoughts on migration by Santa Clara Pueblo. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14: 247-250Google Scholar
  156. Neitzel, J. E. (1995). Elite styles in hierarchically organized societies: The Chacoan regional system. In Carr, C., and Neitzel, J. (eds.), Style, Society, and Person: Archaeological and Ethnological Perspectives, Plenum, New York, pp. 393-417.Google Scholar
  157. Neitzel, J. E. (2000). Gender hierarchies: A comparative analysis of mortuary data. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 137-168Google Scholar
  158. Neitzel, J. E., (ed.). (in press-a). Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  159. Neitzel, J. E., and Bishop, R. L. (1990). Neutron activation of Dogoszhi style ceramics: Production and exchange in the Chacoan regional system. Kiva 56: 67-85.Google Scholar
  160. Nelson, B. A. (1995). Complexity, hierarchy, and scale: A controlled comparison between Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, and La Quemada, Zacatecas. American Antiquity 60: 597-618.Google Scholar
  161. Nelson, B. A., Martin, D. L., Swedlund, A. C., Fish, P. R., and Armelagos, G. J. (1994). Studies in disruption: Demograpy and health in the prehistoric American Southwest. In Gumerman, G., and Gell-Mann, M. (eds.), Understanding Complexity in the Prehistoric Southwest, Addison,Wesley, New York, pp. 59-112.Google Scholar
  162. Nelson, M. C. (1999). Mimbres During the Twelfth Century, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  163. Nelson, M. C. (2000). Abandonment: Conceptualization, representation, and social change. In Schiffer, M. B. (ed.), Social Theory in Archaeology, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp. 52-62.Google Scholar
  164. Nials, F. L., Stein, J. R., and Roney, J. R. (1987). Chacoan Roads in the Southern Periphery: Results of Phase II of the BLM Chaco Roads Project, Cultural Resources Series, No. 1, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  165. Peregrine, P. N. (2001). Matrilocality, corporate strategy, and the organization of production in the Chacoan world. American Antiquity 66: 36-46.Google Scholar
  166. Phillips, D. A. (1996). Rethinking Chaco. In Meyer, D. A., Dawson, P. C., and Hanna, D. T. (eds.), Debating Complexity: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Chacmool Conference, The Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, Calgary, pp. 333-338.Google Scholar
  167. Phillips, D. A. (2000). The Chaco Meridian: A skeptical analysis. Poster presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Philadelphia, on file at http://www.unm.edu/»dap.Google Scholar
  168. Plog, S. (1995). Equality and hierarchy: Holistic approaches to understanding social dynamics in the Pueblo Southwest. In Price, T. D., and Feinman, G. M. (eds.), Foundations of Social Inequality, Plenum, New York, pp. 189-206.Google Scholar
  169. Potter, J. (2000). Pots, parties, and politics: Communal feasting in the American Southwest. American Antiquity 65: 471-492.Google Scholar
  170. Powers, R. P., Gillespie, W. B., and Lekson, S. H. (1983). The Outlier Survey: A Regional View of Settlement in the San Juan Basin, Reports of the Chaco Center 3, Division of Cultural Research, National Park Service, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  171. Preston, D. (1998). Cannibals of the Canyon. The New Yorker, Nov. 30, pp. 76-89.Google Scholar
  172. Price, T. D., and Feinman, G. M. (eds.). (1995). Foundations of Social Inequality, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  173. Reed, P. F. (ed.). (2000). Foundations of Anasazi Culture: The Basketmaker-Pueblo Transition, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  174. Reed, L. S., Goff, J., and Hensler, K. N. (1998). Exploring Ceramic Production, Distribution, and Exchange in the Southern Chuska Valley: Analytical Results From the El Paso Natural Gas North System Expansion Project, Vol. XI, Pipeline Archaeology 1990-1993: The El Paso Natural Gas North System Expansion Project, New Mexico and Arizona, Western Cultural Resource Management, Inc., Farmington, NM.Google Scholar
  175. Renfrew, C. (1974). Beyond a subsistence economy: The evolution of social organization in prehistoric Europe. In C. B. Moore (ed.), Reconstructing Complex Societies: An Archaeological Colloquium, Supplement to the American Schools of Oriental Research 20, Cambridge, MA, pp. 69-84.Google Scholar
  176. Renfrew, C. (2001). Production and consumption in a sacred economy: The material correlates of high devotational expression at Chaco Canyon. American Antiquity 66: 14-25.Google Scholar
  177. Roler, K. L. (1999). The Chaco Phenomenon: A Faunal Perspective From the Peripheries, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
  178. Roney, J. R. (1992). Prehistoric roads and regional integration in the Chacoan system. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 123-131.Google Scholar
  179. Roney, J. R. (1996). The Pueblo III period in the eastern San Juan Basin and Acoma-Laguna areas. In Adler, M. A. (ed.), The Prehistoric Pueblo World, A.D. 1150-1350, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 145-169.Google Scholar
  180. Saitta, D. J. (1997). Power, labor, and the dynamics of change in Chacoan political economy. American Antiquity 62: 7-26.Google Scholar
  181. Saitta, D. J. (1999). Prestige, agency, and change in middle-range societies. In Robb, J. E. (ed.), Material Symbols: Culture and Economy in Prehistory, Occasional Paper, No. 26, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 135-149.Google Scholar
  182. Saitta, D. J. (2000). Theorizing the political economy of Southwestern exchange. In Hegmon, M. (ed.), The Archaeology of Regional Interaction: Religion, Warfare, and Exchange Across the American Southwest, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 151-166.Google Scholar
  183. Schelberg, J. D. (1992). Hierarchical organization as a short-term buffering strategy in Chaco Canyon. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 59-74.Google Scholar
  184. Schillaci, M. A., Ozolins, E. G., and Windes, T. C. (in press). A multivariate assessment of biological relationships among prehistoric Southwest Amerindian populations. In Wiseman, R., Snow, C., and O'Laughlin, T. (eds.), Collected Papers in Honor of Phyllis S. Davis, Papers No. 27, Archaeological Society of New Mexico, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  185. Schillaci, M. A., and Stojanowksi, C. M. (2000). Postmarital residence and biological variation at Pueblo Bonito, Ms. in possession of the authors, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  186. Sebastian, L. (1991). Sociopolitical complexity and the Chaco system. In Crown, P. L., and Judge, W. J. (eds.), Chaco and Hohokam: Prehistoric Regional Systems in the American Southwest, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 109-134.Google Scholar
  187. Sebastian, L. (1992a). The Chaco Anasazi: Sociopolitical Evolution in the Prehistoric Southwest, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  188. Sebastian, L. (1992b). Chaco Canyon and the Anasazi Southwest: Changing views of sociopolitical organization. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp.23-31.Google Scholar
  189. Shepard, A. O. (1939). Technology of La Plata pottery. In Morris, E. H., Archaeological Studies in the La Plata District, Publication No. 519, Carnegie Institution ofWashington, Washington, DC, pp. 249-287.Google Scholar
  190. Snead, J. E. (1999). Science, commerce, and control: Patronage and the development of anthropological archaeology in the Americas. American Anthropologist 101: 256-271.Google Scholar
  191. Snead, J. E. (2001). Ruins and Rivals: The Making of Southwest Archaeology, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  192. Snygg, J., and Windes, T. C. (1998). Long, wide roads and great kiva roofs. Kiva 64: 7-25.Google Scholar
  193. Sofaer, A. (1997). The primary architecture of the Chacoan culture: A cosmological expression. In Morrow, B. H., and Price, V. B. (eds.), Anasazi Architecture and American Design, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 88-132.Google Scholar
  194. Sofaer, A., Marshall, M. P., and Sinclair, R. M. (1989). The Great North Road: A cosmographic expression of the Chaco Culture of New Mexico. In Aveni, A. F. (ed.), World Archaeoastronomy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 365-376.Google Scholar
  195. Spielmann, K. A. (ed.) (1998). Migration and Reorganization: The Pueblo IV Period in the American Southwest, Anthropological Research Papers No. 51, Arizona State University, Tempe.Google Scholar
  196. Spielmann, K. A. (2000). Gender and exchange. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 345-377.Google Scholar
  197. Stein, J. R., and Fowler, A. P. (1996). Looking beyond Chaco in the San Juan Basin and its peripheries. In Adler, M. A. (ed.), The Prehistoric PuebloWorld A.D. 1150-1350, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 114-130.Google Scholar
  198. Stein, J. R., and Lekson, S. H. (1992). Anasazi ritual landscapes. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 87-100.Google Scholar
  199. Stein, J. R., Suiter, J. E., and Ford, D. (1997). High noon at old Bonito: Sun, shadow, and geometry in the Chaco complex. In Morrow, B. H., and Price, V. B. (eds.), Anasazi Architecture and American Design, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 133-148.Google Scholar
  200. Stoltman, J. (1999). The Chaco-Chuska connection: In defense of Anna Shepard. In Skibo, J. M., and Feinman, G. M. (eds.), Pottery and People: A Dynamic Interaction, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp. 9-24.Google Scholar
  201. Szuter, C. R. (2000). Gender and animals: Hunting technology, ritual, and subsistence in the Greater Southwest. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 197-220.Google Scholar
  202. Tainter, J. A., and Plog, F. (1994). Strong and weak patterning in Southwestern prehistory: The formation of Puebloan archaeology. In Gumerman, G. J. (ed.), Themes in Southwestern Prehistory, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 165-181.Google Scholar
  203. Toll, H. W. (1985). Pottery, Production, Public Architecture, and the Chaco Anasazi System, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  204. Toll, H.W. (1990).A reassessment of Chaco cylinder jars. In Duran, M. S., and Kirkpatrick, D. T. (eds.), Clues to the Past: Papers in Honor of William M. Sundt, Papers of the Archaeological Society of New Mexico, No. 16, Albuquerque Archaeological Society, Albuquerque, pp. 273-305.Google Scholar
  205. Toll, H. W. (1991). Material distributions and exchange in the Chaco system. In Crown, P. L., and Judge, J. (eds.), Chaco & Hohokam: Prehistoric Regional Systems in the American Southwest, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 77-107.Google Scholar
  206. Toll, H. W. (2001). Making and breaking pots in the Chaco world. American Antiquity 66: 56-78.Google Scholar
  207. Toll, H. W., and McKenna, P. J. (1997). Chaco ceramics. In Mathien, F. J. (ed.), Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon: Analyses of Artifacts from the Chaco Project 1971-1978, Publications in Archeology 18G, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe, pp. 17-530.Google Scholar
  208. Toll, H. W., Windes, T. C., and McKenna, P. J. (1980). Late ceramic patterns in Chaco Canyon: The pragmatics of modeling ceramic exchange. In Fry, R. E. (ed.), Models and Methods in Regional Exchange, Society for American Archaeology Papers, No. 1, Washington, DC, pp. 95-117.Google Scholar
  209. Truell, M. L. (1992). Excavations at 29SJ 627, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Vol. I: The Architecture and Stratigraphy, Reports of the Chaco Center 11, Branch of Cultural Research, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  210. Turner, C. G., II, and Turner, J. A. (1995). Cannibalism in the prehistoric American Southwest: Occurrence, taphonomy, explanation, and suggestions for standardizedworld definition. Anthropological Science (Tokyo) 103: 1-22.Google Scholar
  211. Turner, C. G., II, and Turner, J. A. (1999). Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  212. Tuwaletstiwa, P. J. (2000). A critique on extending the 107° 57′ 25″ meridian from Chaco Canyon to Aztec to Paquime. Paper presented at the Chaco Synthesis Project's Chaco Architecture conference, Ms. on file with the author,Kykotsmovi, AZ.Google Scholar
  213. Upham, S. (1982). Polities and Power: An Economic and Political History of the Western Pueblo, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  214. Van Dyke, R. M. (1997). The Andrews Great House community: A ceramic chronometric perspective. Kiva 63: 137-154.Google Scholar
  215. Van Dyke, R. M. (1998). The Chaco Connection: Bonito Style Architecture in Outlier Communities, PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson.Google Scholar
  216. Van Dyke, R. M. (1999a). The Chaco connection: Evaluating Bonito style architecture in outlier communities. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 18: 471-506.Google Scholar
  217. Van Dyke, R. M. (1999b). Space syntax analysis at the Chacoan outlier of Guadalupe. American Antiquity 64: 461-473.Google Scholar
  218. Van Dyke, R. M. (1999c). The Andrews community: A Chacoan outlier in the Red Mesa Valley, New Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 26: 55-67.Google Scholar
  219. Van Dyke, R. M. (2000). Chacoan ritual landscapes: The view from the Red Mesa Valley. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 91-100.Google Scholar
  220. Van Dyke, R. M. (ed.). (in press). An Archaeological Survey of the Additions to Chaco Culture National Historic Park Publications in Archaeology Chaco Center, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  221. Varien, M. (2001). We have learned a lot, but we still have more to learn. In Cordell, L. S., Judge, W. J., and Piper, J. (eds.), Chaco Society and Polity: Papers From the 1999 Conference, Special Publication, No. 4, New Mexico Archaeological Society, Albuquerque, pp. 47-61.Google Scholar
  222. Vivian, R. G. (1989). Kluckhohn reappraised: The Chacoan system as egalitarian enterprise. Journal of Anthropological Research 45: 101-113.Google Scholar
  223. Vivian, R. G. (1990). The Chacoan Prehistory of the San Juan Basin. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  224. Vivian, R. G. (1991). Chacoan subsistence. In Crown, P. L., and Judge, J. (eds.), Chaco&Hohokam: Prehistoric Regional Systems in the American Southwest, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 57-75.Google Scholar
  225. Vivian, R. G. (1992). Chacoan water use and managerial decision making. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 45-57.Google Scholar
  226. Vivian, R. G. (1996). “Chaco” as a regional system. In Fish, P. R., and Reid, J. J. (eds.), Interpreting Southwest Diversity: Underlying Principles and Overarching Patterns, Anthropological Research Papers, No. 48, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 45-53.Google Scholar
  227. Vivian, R. G. (1997a). Chacoan roads: Morphology. Kiva 63: 7-34.Google Scholar
  228. Vivian, R. G. (1997b). Chacoan roads: Function. Kiva 63: 35-67.Google Scholar
  229. Vivian, R. G. (2000a). Economy and ecology. Archaeology Southwest 14(1): 5-7.Google Scholar
  230. Vivian, R. G. (2000b). Basketmaker archaeology at the millennium: New answers to old questions. In Reed, P. F. (ed.), Foundations of Anasazi Culture: The Basketmaker-Pueblo Transition, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp. 251-257.Google Scholar
  231. Vivian, R. G. (in press). Review of The Chaco Meridian: Centers of Political Power in the Ancient Southwest, by Stephen H. Lekson. Cambridge Archaeological Journal.Google Scholar
  232. Vivian, R. G., Dodgen, D. N., and Hartmann, G. H. (1978). Wooden Ritual Artifacts From Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 32, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  233. Walker, W. H. (1995). Ceremonial trash? In Skibo, J. M., Walker, W. H., and Nielsen, A. E. (eds.), Expanding Archaeology, University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, pp. 67-79.Google Scholar
  234. Walker, W. H. (1998). Where are the witches in prehistory? Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 5(3): 245-308.Google Scholar
  235. Walker, W. H., LaMotta, V. M., and Adams, E. C. (2000). Katsinas and kiva abandonment at Homol'ovi: A deposit-oriented perspective on religion in Southwest prehistory. In Hegmon, M. (ed.), The Archaeology of Regional Interaction: Religion, Warfare, and Exchange Across the American Southwest and Beyond, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 341-360.Google Scholar
  236. Walker, W. H., and Lucero, L. (2000). The depositional history of ritual and power. In Dobres, M., and Robb, J. (ed.), Agency in Archaeology, Routledge, London, pp. 139-147.Google Scholar
  237. Ware, J. A. (2001a). Why is a kiva? Paper presented at the 66th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  238. Ware, J. A. (2001b). Chaco social organization: A peripheral view. In Cordell, L. S., Judge, W. J., and Piper, J. (eds.), Chaco Society and Polity: Papers From the 1999 Conference, Special Publication, No. 4, New Mexico Archaeological Society, Albuquerque, pp. 79-93.Google Scholar
  239. Weiner, A. B. (1992). Inalienable Possessions: The Paradox of Keeping-While-Giving, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  240. White, T. D. (1992). Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346, Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  241. Whiteley, P. M. (1988). Deliberate Acts: Changing Hopi Culture Through the Oraibi Split, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  242. Wilcox, D. R. (1981). Changing perspectives on the Protohistoric Pueblos, A.D. 1450-1700. InWilcox, D. R., and Masse, W. B. (eds.), The Protohistoric Period in the North American Southwest, A.D. 1450-1750, Anthropological Research Papers, No. 24, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 378-409.Google Scholar
  243. Wilcox, D. R. (1993). The evolution of the Chacoan polity. In Malville, J. M., and Matlock, G. (eds.), The Chimney Rock Archaeological Symposium, General Technical Report No. RM-227, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO, pp. 76-90.Google Scholar
  244. Wilcox, D. R. (1996a). Pueblo III people and polity in relational context. In Adler, M. A. (ed.), The Prehistoric Pueblo World, A.D. 1150-1350, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 241-254.Google Scholar
  245. Wilcox, D. R. (1999). A peregrine view of macroregional systems in the North American Southwest, A.D. 750-1250. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Great Towns and Regional Polities in the American Southwest and Southeast, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 115-141.Google Scholar
  246. Wilcox, D. R., and Haas, J. (1994). The scream of the butterfly: Competition and conflict in the prehistoric Southwest. In Gumerman, G. J. (ed.), Themes in Southwest Prehistory, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 211-238.Google Scholar
  247. Wills, W. H. (2000). Political leadership at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, AD 1020-1140. In Mills, B. J. (ed.), Alternative Leadership Strategies in the Prehispanic Southwest, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 19-44.Google Scholar
  248. Wills, W. H. (2001). Mound building in Chaco Canyon. American Antiquity 66: 433-451.Google Scholar
  249. Wilshusen, R. H., and Ortman, S. G. (1999). Rethinking the Pueblo I period in the San Juan drainage:Aggregation, migration, and cultural diversity. Kiva 64: 369-399.Google Scholar
  250. Windes, T. C. (1984). A new look at population in Chaco Canyon. In Judge, W. J., and Schelberg, J. D. (eds.), Recent Research on Chaco Prehistory, Reports of the Chaco Center No. 8, Division of Cultural Research, National Park Service, Albuquerque, pp. 75-87.Google Scholar
  251. Windes, T. C. (1987a). Investigations at the Pueblo Alto Complex, Chaco Canyon, NewMexico, 1975-1979, Vol. I: Summary of Tests and Excavations at the Pueblo Alto Community, Publications in Archeology 18F, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  252. Windes, T. C. (1987b). Investigations at the Pueblo Alto Complex, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, 1975-1979, Vol. II: Architecture and Stratigraphy, Publications in Archeology 18F, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  253. Windes, T. C. (1992). Blue notes: The Chacoan turquoise industry in the San Juan Basin. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 159-168.Google Scholar
  254. Windes, T. C. (1993a). The Spadefoot Toad Site: Investigations at 29SJ 629 in Marcia's Rincon and the Fajada Gap Pueblo II Community, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, Vol. I, Reports of the Chaco Center No. 12, Branch of Cultural Research, Division of Anthropology, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  255. Windes, T. C. (ed.). (1993b). The Spadefoot Toad Site: Investigations at 29SJ 629, Vol. II: Artifactual and Biological Analyses, Reports of the Chaco Center No. 12, Branch of Cultural Research, Division of Anthropology, National Park Service, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  256. Windes, T. C. (2001). Pueblo II-III house location patterns in the Chaco Canyon area: A short description. In Cordell, L. S., Judge, W. J., and Piper, J. (eds.), Chaco Society and Polity: Papers From the 1999 Conference, Special Publication, No. 4, New Mexico Archaeological Society, Albuquerque, pp. 31-45.Google Scholar
  257. Windes, T. C., Anderson, R. M., Johnson, B. K., and Ford, C. A. (2000). Sunrise, sunset: Sedentism and mobility in the Chaco East Community. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of The University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 39-59.Google Scholar
  258. Windes, T. C., and Ford, D. (1996). The ChacoWood Project: The chronometric reappraisal of Pueblo Bonito. American Antiquity 61: 295-310.Google Scholar
  259. Windes, T. C., and McKenna, P. J. (2001). Going against the grain: Wood production in Chacoan society. American Antiquity 66: 119-140.Google Scholar
  260. Winter, J. C. (1994). Across the Colorado Plateau, Anthropological Studies for the Transwestern Pipeline Expansion Project, Vol. 20: Conclusions and Synthesis: Communities, Boundaries, and Cultural Variation, Office of Contract Archeology and Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  261. Yoffee, N. (1993). Too many chiefs? Or, safe texts for the 90s. In Yoffee, N., and Sherratt, A. (eds.), Arcaheological Theory, Who Sets the Agenda? Cambridge University Press, NewYork, pp. 60-78.Google Scholar
  262. Yoffee, N. (2001). The Chaco “rituality” revisited. In Cordell, L. S., Judge, W. J., and Piper, J. (eds.), Chaco Society and Polity: Papers from the 1999 Conference. Special Publication 4, New Mexico Archaeological Council, Albuquerque, pp. 63-78.Google Scholar
  263. Yoffee, N., Fish, S. K., and Milner, G. R. (1999). Comunidades, ritualities, chiefdoms: Social evolution in the American Southwest and Southeast. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Great Towns and Regional Polities in the Prehistoric American Southwest and Southeast, Amerind Foundation and University of New MexicoPress, Albuquerque, pp. 261-271.Google Scholar
  264. Zedeño, M. N., and Mills, B. J. (1993). Ceramic production and distribution: Introduction and problem definition. In Mills, B. J., Goetze, C. E., and Zedeño, M.N. (eds.), Across the Colorado Plateau: Anthropological Studies for the Transwestern Pipeline Expansion Project, Interpretation of Ceramic Artifacts, Vol. XVI, Office of Contract Archeology and Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 175-185.Google Scholar
  265. Akins, N. J. (in press). The burials of Pueblo Bonito. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  266. Bradley, B. (1996). Pitchers to mugs: Chacoan revival at Sand Canyon Pueblo. Kiva 61: 241-255.Google Scholar
  267. Bradley, B. A. (1997). General observations of flaked stone technology. In Mathien, F. J. (ed.), Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon, Vol. II, Publications in Archaeology 18G, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe, pp. 698-699.Google Scholar
  268. Brugge, D. M., and Gilpin, D. (2000). Navajo ritual histories, organization, and architecture. In Hegmon, M. (ed.), The Archaeology of Regional Interaction: Religion, Warfare, and Exchange Across the American Southwest, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 361-379.Google Scholar
  269. Bullock, P. Y. (ed.). (1998). Deciphering Anasazi Violence, With Regional Comparisons to Mesoamerican and Woodland Cultures, HRM Books, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  270. Bustard, W. (in press). When a house is not a home. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  271. Cordell, L. S. (1997). Archaeology of the Southwest, 2nd ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  272. Cordell, L. A. (1999). How were Precolumbian Southwestern polities organized? In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Great Towns and Regional Polities in the Prehistoric American Southwest and Southeast, Amerind Foundation and University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 81-93.Google Scholar
  273. Doxtater, D. (1991). Reflections of the Anasazi cosmos. In Gron, O., Engelstad, E., and Linblom, I. (eds), Social Space: Human Spatial Behavior in Dwellings and Settlements - Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Conference, Odense University Press, Odense, Denmark, pp. 155-184.Google Scholar
  274. Doyel, D. E. (1992b). Exploring Chaco. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 3-14.Google Scholar
  275. Farmer, J. (in press). Astronomy and ritual in Chaco Canyon. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito:Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  276. Finn, C. (1997). 'Leaving more than footprints': Modern votive offerings at Chaco Canyon prehistoric site. Antiquity 71(271): 169-178.Google Scholar
  277. Fish, S. K. (1999). How complex were the Southwestern great towns' polities? In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Great Towns and Regional Polities in the Prehistoric American Southwest and Southeast, Amerind Foundation and University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 45-58.Google Scholar
  278. Fish, S. K., and Scarry, J. F. (1999). How great were the polities of the Southwest and Southeast? In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Great Towns and Regional Polities in the Prehistoric American Southwest and Southeast, Amerind Foundation and University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 75-80.Google Scholar
  279. Gilpin, D. (1998). Archaeological Investigations in the Peach Springs Chacoan Community: Data Recovery on Navajo Route 9, Segment 5-1, McKinley County, New Mexico, Report 98-15, SWCA Environmental Consultants, Inc., Flagstaff.Google Scholar
  280. Hegmon, M., and Plog, S. (1996). Regional social interaction in the northern Southwest: Evidence and issues. In Fish, P. R., and Reid, J. J. (eds.), Interpreting Southwestern Diversity: Underlying Principles and Overarching Patterns, Anthropological Research Papers, No. 48, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 23-34.Google Scholar
  281. Hurst, W. B. (2000). Chaco outlier or backwoods pretender? A provincial great house at Edge of the Cedars Ruin, Utah. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 61-78.Google Scholar
  282. Irwin-Williams, C., and Baker, L. L. (eds.). (1991). Anasazi Puebloan Adaptation in Response to Climatic Stress, Prehistory of the Middle Rio Puerco Valley, Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  283. Judge, W. J. (1991). Chaco: Current views of prehistory and the regional system. In Crown, P. L., and Judge, W. J. (eds.), Chaco & Hohokam: Prehistoric Regional Systems in the American Southwest, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 11-30.Google Scholar
  284. Judge, W. J. (1993). Resource distribution and the Chaco phenomenon. In Malville, J. M., and Matlock, G. (eds.), The Chimney Rock Archaeological Symposium, Forest Service General Technical Report RM-227, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, pp. 35-36.Google Scholar
  285. Kintigh, K. W. (1994). Chaco, communal architecture, and Cibolan aggregation. In Wills, W. H., and Leonard, R. D. (eds.), The Ancient Southwestern Community: Models and Methods for the Study of Prehistoric Social Organization, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 131-140.Google Scholar
  286. Kohler, T. A., and Sebastian, L. (1996). Population aggregation in the prehistoric North American Southwest. American Antiquity 61: 597-602.Google Scholar
  287. LeBlanc, S. A. (2000). Regional interaction and warfare in the late prehistoric Southwest. In Hegmon, M. (ed.), The Archaeology of Regional Interaction: Religion, Warfare, and Exchange Across the American Southwest, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 41-70.Google Scholar
  288. Lekson, S. H. (1996b). The Pueblo Southwest after A.D. 1150. In Fish, P. R., and Reid, J. J. (eds.), Interpreting Southwestern Diversity: Underlying Principles and Overarching Patterns, Anthropological Research Papers, No. 48, Arizona State University, Tempe, pp. 41-44.Google Scholar
  289. Lekson, S. H. (1997a). Anasazi communities in context. In Morrow, B. H., and Price, V. B. (eds.), Anasazi Architecture and American Design, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 27-35.Google Scholar
  290. Lekson, S. H. (1997b). Rewriting Southwestern prehistory. Archaeology 50: 52-55.Google Scholar
  291. Lekson, S. H. (1997c). Points, knives and drills of Chaco Canyon. In Mathien, F. J. (ed.), Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon, Vol. II, Publications in Archaeology 18G, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe, pp. 659-700.Google Scholar
  292. Lekson, S. H. (1999b). Great towns in the Southwest. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Great Towns and Regional Polities in the Prehistoric American Southwest and Southeast, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 2-22.Google Scholar
  293. Lekson, S. H. (2000c). Great! In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 157-163.Google Scholar
  294. Leonard, R. D., and Reed, H. E. (1993). Population aggregation in the prehistoric American Southwest. American Antiquity 58: 648-661.Google Scholar
  295. Love, D.W. (1997). Petrographic description and sources of chipped stone artifacts in Chaco Canyon.In Mathien, F. J. (ed.), Ceramics, Lithics, and Ornaments of Chaco Canyon, Vol. II, Publications in Archaeology 18G, Chaco Canyon Studies, National Park Service, Santa Fe, pp. 610-642.Google Scholar
  296. Malville, J. M. (1999). The calendars of Chimney Rock and the origins of Chacoan astronomy. Southwestern Lore 65: 4-18.Google Scholar
  297. Malville, J. M., and Malville, N. J. (2000). Pilgrimage and astronomy in Chaco Canyon. In Dupey, D. P. (ed.), Pilgrimage Studies: The Power of Sacred Places, The Society for Pilgrimage Studies, Allahabad, pp. 206-241.Google Scholar
  298. Malville, J. M., and Malville, N. J. (2001). Pilgrimage and periodical festivals as processes of social integration in Chaco Canyon. Kiva 66: 327-344.Google Scholar
  299. Malville, N. J. (in press). Long-distance transport of bulk goods in the Pre-Hispanic American Southwest. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology.Google Scholar
  300. Marshall, A. L. (in press). The siting of Pueblo Bonito. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  301. Martin, D. L. (2000). Bodies and lives: Biological indicators of health differentials and division of labor by sex. In Crown, P. L. (ed.), Women and Men in the Prehispanic Southwest: Labor, Power, and Prestige, School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 267-300.Google Scholar
  302. Mathien, F. J. (1991b). Political, economic, and demographic implications of the Chaco road network. In Trombold, C. D. (ed.), Ancient Road Networks and Settlement Hierarchies in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 99-110.Google Scholar
  303. Mathien, F. J. (in press). Artifacts from Pueblo Bonito: 100 years of interpretation. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  304. McGuire, R. H., and Saitta, D. J. (1996). “Although they have petty captains, they obey them badly”: The dialectics of prehispanic Western Pueblo social organization. American Antiquity 61: 197-216.Google Scholar
  305. Metcalf, M. P. (in press). Construction labor at Pueblo Bonito. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito:Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  306. Mills, B. J., Goetze, C. E., and Zedeño, M. N. (eds.). (1993). Across the Colorado Plateau: Anthropological Studies for the Transwestern Pipeline Expansion Project, Interpretation of Ceramic Artifacts, Vol. XVI, Office of Contract Archeology and Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  307. Morrow, B. H., and Price, V. B. (eds.). (1997). Anasazi Architecture and American Design, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  308. Neitzel, J. E. (1994). Boundary dynamics in the Chacoan regional system. In Wills, W. H., and Leonard, R. D. (eds.), The Ancient Southwestern Community:Models and Methods for the Study of Prehistoric Social Organization, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 209-240.Google Scholar
  309. Neitzel, J. E. (ed.). (1999). Great Towns and Regional Polities in the Prehistoric American Southwest and Southeast, Amerind Foundation and University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  310. Neitzel, J. E. (2000). What is a regional system? Issues of scale and interaction in the prehistoric Southwest. In Hegmon, M. (ed.), The Archaeology of Regional Interaction: Religion, Warfare, and Exchange Across the American Southwest, University Press of Colorado, Boulder, pp. 25-40.Google Scholar
  311. Neitzel, J. E. (in press-b). Introduction. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  312. Neitzel, J. E. (in press-c). Artifact distributions at Pueblo Bonito. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito:Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  313. Neitzel, J. E. (in press-d). The organization, function, and population of Pueblo Bonito. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  314. Obenauf, M. S. (1991). Photointerpretation of Chacoan roads. In Trombold, C. D. (ed.), Ancient Road Networks and Settlement Hierarchies in the NewWorld, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 34-41.Google Scholar
  315. Plog, S. (1997). Ancient Peoples of the American Southwest, Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  316. Potter, J. M. (1992). Power and negotiation through material culture: The case of the Chaco regional system. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers 73/74: 26-39.Google Scholar
  317. Prouty, G. L. (1997). Archaeological Nature and Extent Testing, HAER Documentation of One Bridge Site, and Identification and Assessment of a Chacoan Linear Feature, Along Navajo Route N5001(1), Toadlena to Newcomb, San Juan County, New Mexico, Zuni Cultural Resource Enterprise Report 512, Pueblo of Zuni.Google Scholar
  318. Roney, J. R. (1995). Mesa Verdean manifestations south of the San Juan River. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 14: 170-183.Google Scholar
  319. Sebastian, L. (1996). Taking charge in Chaco: The evolution of political structure. In Meyer, D. A., Dawson, P. C., and Hanna, D. T. (eds.), Debating Complexity: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Chacmool Conference, Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, Calgary, pp. 339-344.Google Scholar
  320. Sever, T. L., and Wagner, D. W. (1991). Analysis of prehistoric roadways in Chaco Canyon using remotely sensed digital data. In Trombold, C. D. (ed.), Ancient Road Networks and Settlement Hierarchies in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 42-52.Google Scholar
  321. Severance, O. (1999). Prehistoric roads in southeastern Utah. In Duran, M. S., and Kirkpatrick, D. T. (eds.), La Frontera:Papers in Honor of PatrickH. Beckett, Archaeological Society of NewMexico, No. 25, Albuquerque, pp. 185-195.Google Scholar
  322. Stein, J. R., Ford, D., and Friedman, R. (in press). Reconstructing Pueblo Bonito. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.) Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  323. Stuart, D. E. (2000). Anasazi America: Seventeen Centuries on the Road From Center Place, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.Google Scholar
  324. Toll, H.W., Wilson, D. C., and Blinman, E. (1992). Chaco in the context of ceramic regional systems. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 147-157.Google Scholar
  325. Turner, C. G., II (1992). Anasazi cannibalism: Review of Tim D. White's prehistoric cannibalism at Mancos 5MTUMR-2346. Review of Archaeology 13: 7-13.Google Scholar
  326. Turner, C. G., II (1993). Cannibalism in Chaco Canyon: The charnel pit excavated in 1926 at Small House Ruin by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 91: 421-439.Google Scholar
  327. Turner, C. G., II, Regan, M. H., and Irish, J. D. (1992). On Peter Y. Bullock's “A reappraisal of Anasazi cannibalism.” Kiva 58: 189-201.Google Scholar
  328. Varien, M. D. (2000). Communities and the Chacoan regional system. In Kantner, J., and Mahoney, N. M. (eds.), Great House Communities Across the Chacoan Landscape, Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 64, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 149-156.Google Scholar
  329. Warburton, M. (1991). Flaked Stone from the Navajo Springs Great House, Arizona. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 13: 230-241.Google Scholar
  330. Warburton, M., and Graves, D. K. (1992). Navajo Springs, Arizona: Frontier outlier or autonomous great house? Journal of Field Archaeology 19: 51-69.Google Scholar
  331. Weigand, P. C. (1992). The macroeconomic role of turquoise within the Chaco Canyon system. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 169-173.Google Scholar
  332. Weigand, P. C., and Harbottle, G. (1993). The role of turquoises in the ancient Mesoamerican trade structure. In Ericson, J. E., and Baugh, T. G. (ed.), The American Southwest and Mesoamerica:Systems of Prehistoric Exchange, Plenum, New York, pp. 159-177.Google Scholar
  333. Wilcox, D. R. (1996b). The diversity of regional and macroregional systems in the American Southwest. In Meyer, D. A., Dawson, P. C., and Hanna, D. T. (eds.), Debating Complexity: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Chacmool Conference, Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, Calgary, pp. 375-390.Google Scholar
  334. Wilson, C. D. (1996). Ceramic pigment distributions and regional interaction: A re-examination of interpretations in Shepard's “Technology of La Plata pottery.”Kiva 62: 83-102Google Scholar
  335. Windes, T. C. (1991). The prehistoric road network at Pueblo Alto, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. In Trombold, C. D. (ed.), Ancient Road Networks and Settlement Hierarchies in the New World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 111-131.Google Scholar
  336. Windes, T. C. (in press). This old house: Construction and abandonment at Pueblo Bonito. In Neitzel, J. E. (ed.), Pueblo Bonito: Center of the Chacoan World, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  337. Windes, T. C., and Ford, D. (1992). The nature of the Early Bonito phase. In Doyel, D. E. (ed.), Anasazi Regional Organization and the Chaco System, Anthropological Papers, No. 5, Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, pp. 75-86.Google Scholar
  338. Young, S. M., Phillips, D. D., Jr., and Mathien, F. J. (1996). Lead isotope analysis of turquoise sources in the southwestern U. S. A. and Mesoamerica:A preliminary report. In Demirci, S., Ozer, A. M., and Summers, G. D. (eds.), Archaeometry 94: The Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Ankara, 9-14 May, 1994, Tubitak, Ankara, pp. 147-150.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara J. Mills
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of ArizonaTucson

Personalised recommendations