Salvage Chemotherapy with CPT-11 for Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme
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Background: A prospective Phase II study of CPT-11 in adult patients with recurrent supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).
Methods: Forty patients (25 men, 15 women) ages 32–71 years (median 59), with recurrent GBM were treated. All patients had previously been treated with surgery and involved field radiotherapy (median dose 60 Gy; range 59–60). Additionally, all patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (BCNU in 20, PCV in 18, Procarbazine in 2). Twenty-five patients (62%) were on anticonvulsants (phenytoin in 15, carbamazepine in 10) and 26 patients (65%) were on dexamethasone. Recurrent disease was defined by neuroradiographic disease progression (>25% increase in tumor dimensions) using gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. The starting dose of CPT-11 was 400 mg/m2 followed in three weeks by 500 mg/m2, operationally defined as one cycle. At week 6, all patients were evaluated with MRI and neurological examination.
Results: All patients were evaluable. Two doses (one cycle) of CPT-11 were administered to all patients. CPT-11-related toxicity included: diarrhea (16 patients, 40%); thrombocytopenia (9 patients, 23%); and neutropenia (6 patients, 15%). No patient required transfusion nor was treatment for neutropenic fever required. No treatment-related deaths were observed. All patients demonstrated progressive disease following one cycle of CPT-11.
Conclusions: The lack of response to CPT-11 in this patient group with recurrent GBM suggests either CPT-11 has minimal activity or CPT-11 doses/schedule utilized in this study were sub-optimal. The latter is supported by the modest toxicity seen in this study and the previously documented enhanced clearance of CPT-11 in patients on anticonvulsants and dexamethasone.
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