, Volume 466, Issue 1–3, pp 133–143 | Cite as

International study on Artemia LXIII. Field study of the Artemia urmiana (Günther, 1890) population in Lake Urmiah, Iran

  • Gilbert Van Stappen
  • Gholamreza Fayazi
  • Patrick Sorgeloos


Lake Urmiah is a large (total surface 4750–6100 km2 in recent times) thalassohaline hypersaline lake (150–180 g l−1 in the period 1994–1996), located in northwestern Iran. It is the habitat of the endemic Artemia urmiana. Over the period July 1994–January 1996 a sampling campaign was organized: 36 fixed sampling stations, distributed over the entire lake's area, were sampled weekly to determine water temperature, salinity and transparency. At each occasion a filter net was dragged over a distance of 400 m in the superficial water layer to assess the density and composition of the Artemia population. A more limited sampling campaign focused on the annual fluctuations in chlorophyll concentration and on the reproductive behaviour of the brine shrimp population. Several stages of brine shrimp survived during winter months (water temperature 3°C) at low densities. Compared to available data for the Great Salt Lake, USA, Lake Urmiah shows a low algal biomass and overall low Artemia density. The increasing grazing pressure of the developing brine shrimp population in spring seems to prevent the phytoplankton from reaching high blooming concentrations, and oviparity is the dominant reproductive mode throughout the reproductive season.

Artemia population assessment Lake Urmiah Iran 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abreu-Grobois, F. A. & J. A. Beardmore, 1991. Genetic characterization and intrageneric relationships of Artemia monica Verrill and A. urmiana Günther. Hydrobiologia 212: 151–168.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmadi, M. R. M., H. Leibovitz & K. Simpson, 1990. Characterisation of Uromiah Lake Artemia (Artemia uromiana) by electrofocusing of isozyme patterns. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 95: 115–118.Google Scholar
  3. Amat, D. F., 1983. Zygogenetic and parthenogenetic Artemia in Cadiz sea-side salterns. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 13: 291–293.Google Scholar
  4. Azari Takami, G., 1987. The use of Artemia from Ormia Lake (Iran) as food for sturgeon. In Sorgeloos, P., D. A. Bengtson, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds), Artemia Research and its Applications, 3. Ecology, Culturing, Use in Aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium: 467–468.Google Scholar
  5. Azari Takami, G., 1989. Two strains of Artemia in Urmia Lake (Iran). Artemia Newslett. 13: 5.Google Scholar
  6. Azari Takami, G., 1993. Urmiah lake as a valuable source of Artemia for feeding sturgeon fry. J. Vet. Fac. Univ. Tehran 47: 2–14.Google Scholar
  7. Barigozzi, C., 1989. The problem of Artemia urmiana. Artemia Newslett. 14: 14.Google Scholar
  8. Barigozzi, C., V. Varotto, L. Baratelli & R. Giarizo, 1987. The Artemia of Urmia Lake (Iran): mode of reproduction and chromosome numbers. Atti. Acc. Lincei. Rend. Fis. 8(LXXXI): 87–90.Google Scholar
  9. Belovsky, G. E., 1996. Brine shrimp population dynamics and sustainable harvesting in the Great Salt Lake Utah. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and Ecology center Utah State University, Logan, Utah. 1996 Progress Report to the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, L. S. & S. T. Bowen, 1976. The genetics of Artemia salina. VII. Reproductive isolation. J. Hered. 67: 385–388.Google Scholar
  11. Ghaheri, M., M. H. Baghal-Vayjooee & J. Naziri, 1999. Lake Urmia, Iran: a summary review. Int. J. Salt Lake Res. 8: 19–22.Google Scholar
  12. Gillespie, D. M. & D.W. Stephens, 1977. Some aspects of plankton dynamics in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. In Greer, D. C. (ed.), Desertic Terminal Lakes. Proc. Int. Conf. Desertic Terminal Lakes. Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA: 401–409.Google Scholar
  13. Gliwicz, Z. M., W.A. Wurtsbaugh & A. Ward, 1995. Brine shrimp ecology in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. June 1994-May 1995 Performance Report to the Utah Division ofWildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT: 83 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Günther, R. T., 1890. Contributions to the natural history of Lake Urmi, N. W. Persia and its neighbourhood. J. linn. Soc. London 27: 394–398.Google Scholar
  15. Lavens, P. & P. Sorgeloos, 2000. The history, present status and prospects of the availability of Artemia cysts for aquaculture. Aquaculture 181: 397–403.Google Scholar
  16. Lenz, P. H., 1980. Ecology of an alkali-adapted variety of Artemia from Mono Lake, California, USA. In Persoone, G., P. Sorgeloos, O. Roels & E. Jaspers (eds), The Brine Shrimp Artemia, 3. Ecology, Culturing, Use in Aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium: 79–96.Google Scholar
  17. Lenz, P. H., 1984. Life-history analysis of an Artemia population in a changing environment. J. Plankton Res. 6: 967–983.Google Scholar
  18. Lenz, P. H., 1987. Ecological studies on Artemia: a review. In Sorgeloos, P., D. A. Bengtson, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds), Artemia Research and its Applications, 3. Ecology, Culturing, Use in Aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium: 5–18.Google Scholar
  19. Lenz, P. H. & R. A. Browne, 1991. Ecology of Artemia. In Browne, R. A., P. Sorgeloos & C. N. A. Trotman (eds), Artemia Biology. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA: 237–253.Google Scholar
  20. Löffler, H., 1961. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Iranischen Binnengewasser. II. Regional-Limnologische Studie mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Crustaceeenfauna. Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. Hydrogr. 46: 309–406.Google Scholar
  21. Mason, D. T., 1967. Limnology of Mono Lake, California. U. Calif. Public. Zoology 83: 1–110.Google Scholar
  22. Melack, J. M. & R. Jellison, 1998. Limnological conditions in Mono Lake: contrasting monomixis and meromixis in the 1990s. Hydrobiologia 384: 21–39.Google Scholar
  23. Pador, E., 1995. Characterisation of the Artemia urmiana Gunther 1900 from Lake Urmia, Iran. M.Sc. Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Laboratory of Aquaculture - Artemia Reference Center, University of Ghent, Belgium, 61 pp.Google Scholar
  24. Perez, R., 1987. Cyst production of Artemia in salt ponds in southeastern Spain. In Sorgeloos, P., D. A. Bengston, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds), Artemia Research and its Applications, 3. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium: 215.Google Scholar
  25. Persoone, G. & P. Sorgeloos, 1980. General aspects of the ecology and biogeography of Artemia. In Persoone, G., P. Sorgeloos, O. Roels & E. Jaspers (eds), The Brine Shrimp Artemia, 3. Ecology, Culturing, Use in Aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium, 3–24.Google Scholar
  26. Pilla, E. J., 1992. Genetic differentiation and speciation in old world Artemia. Ph.D. thesis. Department of Genetics, University College of Swansea, UK, 356 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Pilla, E. J. & J. A. Beardmore, 1994. Genetic and morphometric differentiation in Old World bisexual species of the brine shrimp (Artemia). Heredity 73: 47–56.Google Scholar
  28. Reeve, M. R., 1963. Growth efficiency in Artemia under laboratory conditions. Biol. Bull. 125: 133–145.Google Scholar
  29. Sorgeloos, P. & G. Persoone, 1975. Technological improvements for the cultivation of invertebrates as food for fishes and crustaceans. II. Hatching and culture of the brine shrimp Artemia salina L. Aquaculture 6: 303–317.Google Scholar
  30. Stephens, D. W., 1974. A summary of biological investigations concerning the Great Salt Lake, Utah (1861-1973). Great Basin Naturalist 34: 221–229.Google Scholar
  31. Stephens, D.W., 1997. Salinity-induced changes in the aquatic ecosystem of Great Salt Lake, Utah. In Pitman, J. & A. Carroll (eds), Modern and Ancient Lake Systems: New Problems and Perspectives, Utah Geological Association Guidebook 26, 1–7.Google Scholar
  32. Stephens, D. W. & D. M. Gillespie, 1972. Community structure and ecosystem analysis of the Great Salt Lake. In Riley, J. P. (ed.), The Great Lake and Utah's Water Resources. Utah Water Res. Lab., Utah State University, USA: 66–72.Google Scholar
  33. Strickland, J. D. & T. R. Parsons, 1972. A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis, 2nd edn. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 167, 310 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Triantaphyllidis, G. V., G. R. J. Criel, T. J. Abatzopoulos & P. Sorgeloos, 1997. International Study on Artemia. LIII. Morphological study of Artemia with emphasis to Old World strains. I. Bisexual populations. Hydrobiologia, 357: 139–153.Google Scholar
  35. Vanhaecke, P. & P. Sorgeloos, 1989. International Study on Artemia. XLVII. The effect of temperature on cyst hatching, larval survival and biomass production for different geographical strains of brine shrimp Artemia spp. Ann. Soc. r. zool. Belg. 119(1): 7–23.Google Scholar
  36. Vanhaecke, P., S. E. Siddal & P. Sorgeloos, 1984. International Study on Artemia. XXXII. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival of Artemia of various geographical origin. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 80: 259–275.Google Scholar
  37. Von Hentig, R., 1971. Einfluss von Salzgehalt und Temperatur auf Entwicklung, Wachstum, Fortpflanzung und Energiebilanz von Artemia salina. Mar. Biol. 9: 145–182.Google Scholar
  38. Wirick, C. D., 1972. Dunaliella-Artemia plankton community of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Thesis. University of Utah. USA, 44 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Wurtsbaugh, W. A. & T. Smith Berry, 1990. Cascading effects of decreased salinity on the plankton, chemistry and physics of the Great Salt Lake (Utah). Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci., 47: 100–109.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilbert Van Stappen
    • 1
  • Gholamreza Fayazi
    • 2
  • Patrick Sorgeloos
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference CenterUniversity of GhentGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Aquaculture DepartmentIran Fisheries Company (Shilat)TehranIran

Personalised recommendations