Biological Invasions

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 113–118 | Cite as

Comparison of the Genetic Structure of North and South American Populations of a Clonal Aquatic Plant



The dioecious plant Egeria densa Planchon (Hydrocharitaceae), indigenous to fresh water habitats in Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina, has been introduced to many temperate habitats throughout the world where it propagates clonally and often becomes a serious weed. Representatives from populations in Oregon (USA) and southern Chile were tested for genetic variability by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. Little genetic variability among samples was found despite the extreme geographical distance between the two introduced populations. These results suggest that similar bottlenecking events impacted both introductions or that there is low genetic diversity within the native source populations. Surveys of the genetic diversity of plants within the native range and more widespread and descriptive surveys of introduced populations are necessary to clarify the significance of the genetic similarity of these two widely separated populations.

bottleneck Brazilian elodea clones dioecious invasive PCR-RAPD 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alstrom-Rapaport C,Lascoux M and U Gullberg (1997) Sex determination and sex ratio in the dioecious shrub Salix viminalis L. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 94: 493-497Google Scholar
  2. Carpenter SR andLodge DM (1986) Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem processes. Aquatic Botany 26: 341-370Google Scholar
  3. Carter MCA,Robertson JL,Haack RA,Lawrence RK andHayes JL (1996) Genetic relatedness of North American populations of Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 89: 1345-1353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cook CDK (1987) Dispersion in aquatic and amphibious vascular plants. In: Crawford RMM, (ed) Plant Life in Aquatic and Amphibious Habitats, Special Publication of the British Ecological Society, pp 179-190 Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Cook CDK andUrmi-Konig K (1984) A revision of the genus Egeria (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquatic Botany 19: 73-96Google Scholar
  6. Daehler CC andStrong DR (1997) Reduced herbivore resistance in introduced smooth cordgrass (S. alternifora) after a century of herbivore-free growth. Oecologia 110: 99-108Google Scholar
  7. Dellaporta SL andCalderon-Urrea A (1993) Sex determination in flowering plants. Plant Cell 5: 1241-1251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Doyle JJ andDoyle JL (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin 19: 11-15Google Scholar
  9. Edwards H (1947) Brazilian weed threatens. The Oregonian, Portland, Oregon, 19 January.Google Scholar
  10. Eriksson O andBremer B (1993) Genet dynamics of the clonal plant Rubus saxatilis. Journal of Ecology 81: 533-542Google Scholar
  11. Freeman DC andVitale JJ (1985) The influence of the environment on the sex ratio and fitness of spinach. Botanical Gazette 146: 137-142Google Scholar
  12. Getsinger KD andDillon CR (1984) Quiescence, growth and senescence of Egeria densa in Lake Marion. Aquatic Botany 20: 329-338Google Scholar
  13. Hooper RE andSiva-Jothy MT (1996) Last male sperm precedence in a damselfly demonstrated byRAPDprofiling. Molecular Ecology. 5: 449-452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar S,Tamura K,Jakobsen I andNei M (2000) MEGA: Molecular, Evolutionary Genetics Analysis, version 2. www.megasoftware.netGoogle Scholar
  15. Les DH,Mehrhoff LJ,Cleland MA andGabel JD (1997) Hydrilla verticillata (Hydrocharitaceae) in Connecticut. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 35: 10-14Google Scholar
  16. Madeira PT,Van TK,Steward KK andSchnell RJ (1997) Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of the phenetic relationships among world-wide accessions of Hydrilla verticillata. Aquatic Botany 59: 217-236Google Scholar
  17. Opler PA andBawa KS (1978). Sex ratios in the tropical forest trees. Evolution 32: 812-821Google Scholar
  18. Puterka GJ,Black IV WC,Steiner WM andBurton RL (1993). Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among world wide collections of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), inferred from allozyme and RAPD-PCR markers. Heredity 70: 604-618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Piquot Y,Saumitou-Laprade P,Petit D,Vernet P andEpplen JT (1996) Genotypic diversity revealed by allozymes and oligonucleotide DNA fingerprinting in French populations of the aquatic macrophyte Sparganium erectum. Molecular Ecology 5: 251-258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ryan FJ andHolmberg DL (1994) Keeping track of Hydrilla Aquatics 16(2): 14-20Google Scholar
  21. Ryan FJ,Coley CR andKay SH (1995). Coexistence of monoecious and dioecious hydrilla in Lake Gaston, North Carolina and Virginia. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 33: 8-12Google Scholar
  22. Santos JK (1923) Differentiation among chromosomes in Elodea. Botanical Gazette 75: 42-59Google Scholar
  23. Sobral Bruno WS andHoneycutt RJ (1993) High output genetic mapping of polyploids using PCR-generated markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 86: 105-112Google Scholar
  24. Stiller JW andDenton AL (1995) One hundred years of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in Willapa Bay, Washington: random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of an invasive population. Molecular Ecology 4: 355-363Google Scholar
  25. Sneath PHA andSokal RR (1973) Numerical Taxonomy: The Principles and Practice of Numerical Classification. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  26. Warrington PD (1994). Identification Keys to the Aquatic Plants of British Columbia. RIC Publication, Ministry of Environment Lands, and Parks, British Columbia, 139 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Weising K,Nybom H,Wolff K andMeyer W (1995) DNA Fingerprinting in Plants and Fungi. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 322 ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Williams JGK,Hanafey MK,Rafalski JA andTingey SV (1993) Genetic analysis using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Methods in Enzymology 218: 704-740PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA; Author for correspondence (e-mail
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences and Resources Department, and Center for Lakes and ReservoirsPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations