Foundations of Chemistry

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 5–59 | Cite as

Why Not One More Imponderable? John William Draper's Tithonic Rays

  • Klaus Hentschel


This paper reconstructs what may have led the American professorof chemistry andnatural philosophy John William Draper to introduce a new kind ofradiation, whichhe dubbed `Tithonic rays'. After presenting his and earlierempirical findings onthe chemical action of light in Section 3, I analyze his pertinentpapers in Section 4with the aim of identifying the various types of argumentshe raised infavor of this new actinic entity (or more precisely, this newnatural kind of raybesides optical, thermal and perhaps also phosphorogenic rays).From a modernperspective, all of these obviously belong within theelectromagnetic spectrum,but not so for many thinkers of the 19th century. I close withremarks about whyDraper's interpretation was abandoned in the second half of the19th century (hehimself recanting only in 1872), and why I think such a naturalhistory ofargumentation (as one might call my approach in Section 4) may beuseful for acomparison-oriented history of science.

arguments for and against independent entities electromagnetic spectrum heat John William Draper optics phosphorescence tithonic rays 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. P. Achinstein, Particles and Waves. Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Science. Oxford University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  2. A.M. Ampère, Idées de M. Ampère sur la chaleur et sur la lumière. Bibliothèque Universelle, Science et Arts 49: 225–235, 1832.Google Scholar
  3. A.M. Ampère, Note sur la chaleur et sur la lumière considérée comme resultant de mouvements vibratoires. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (2nd ser.) 58:432–444, 1835.Google Scholar
  4. Anon., Draper, John William. Proceedings of the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences, Boston 17: 424–429, 1882.Google Scholar
  5. Anon., Recent acquisitions of the manuscript division: John William Draper Family papers. Quarterly Journal of the Library of Congress 31: 255–259, 1974; 32: 178–185, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. G.F. Barker, Memoir of John William Draper. Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 2: 349–388, 1886.Google Scholar
  7. G.F. Barker, Memoir of Henry Draper. Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 3: 81–139, 1895.Google Scholar
  8. E.S. Barr. Historical survey of the early development of the infrared spectral region. American Journal of Physics 28: 42–54, 1960.Google Scholar
  9. A.-E. Becquerel, Note relative aux effets électrochimiques produits sous l'influence de la lumière. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (3rd ser.) 32: 176–194, 1851Google Scholar
  10. A.-E. Becquerel, Observations relatives aux propriétés électrochimiques de l'hydrogène. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (3rd ser.) 37: 385–398, 1853.Google Scholar
  11. A.-E. Becquerel, La lumière – ses causes et ses effets, 2 vols. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1867.Google Scholar
  12. J.-E. Bérard, Mémoire sur les propriétés des différentes espèces de rayons qu'on peut séparer au moyen du prisme de la lumière solaire. (Read 21 December 1812.)Mémoires de physique et de chimie de la société d'Arcueil 3: 5–47, 1817.Google Scholar
  13. C. Berthollet, J. Chaptal and J. Biot. Mémoire relativ aux propriétés physiques et chimiques des divers rayons qui composent la lumière solaire. (Report on Bérard, 1812/17.) Annales de Chimie et de Physique 85: 309–325, 1813.Google Scholar
  14. J.J. Berzelius, Traité de Chimie Minérale, végétale et animale (fr. transl. by A.J.L. Jourdan), esp. vol. 1, pp. 38–58. Paris: Didot Frères, 1829.Google Scholar
  15. F.W. Bessel, On a very curious fact connected with photography, discovered by M. Möser of Königsberg. PhilosophicalMagazine (3rd ser.) 21: 409–411, 1842. Cf. Draper (1842a).Google Scholar
  16. J.B. Biot, (a) Traité de physique expérimentale. Paris, 1816. (b) German transl. by Gustav Theodor Fechner: Lehrbuch der Experimental-Physik oder Erfahrungs-Naturlehre, esp. vol. 5, pp. 271–291. Leipzig, 1829, ‘Chemische Wirkung des Lichts’.Google Scholar
  17. J.B. Biot and M. Melloni, Sur la polarisation des rayons calorifiques par rotation progressive. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 2:194–199, 1836.Google Scholar
  18. U. Boberlin, Photochemische Untersuchungen von R. Bunsen und H. Roscoe im Vergleich mit den Arbeiten J.W. Drapers und W.C. Witters. Die Anfänge der quantitativen Photochemie im 19. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Köster, 1993.Google Scholar
  19. C.W. Böckmann, Versuche über den besonderen Einfluss des Lichtes auf den in Glasarten aufgelösten Phosphor. Journal der Chemie 5: 243–267, 1800.Google Scholar
  20. C.W. Böckmann, Einige Bemerkungen über die wärmende Kraft der Sonnenstrahlen und die Zusammensetzung gefärbter Gläser zu Perspektiven, um die Sonne zu betrachten. Annalen der Physik 10: 359–362, 1802.Google Scholar
  21. J.Z. Buchwald, The Rise of theWave Theory of Light. University of Chicago Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  22. R.W. Bunsen and H.E. Roscoe, Photo-chemical researches. Part I: Measurement of the chemical action of light. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 162: 355–380, 1857a. Part II. Phenomena of photo-chemical induction. Ibid., pp. 381–402 and plates XVII–XXII, 1857b.Google Scholar
  23. W.F. Bynum., E.J. Brown and R. Porter (Eds), Dictionary of the History of Science. Princeton University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  24. H. Cassebaum, Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Leipzig: Teubner, Biographien berühmter Naturwissenschaftler, Techniker und Mathematiker, no. 58, 1982.Google Scholar
  25. X. Chen, Taxonomic changes and the particle-wave debate in early nineteenthcentury Britain. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 26: 251–271, 1995.Google Scholar
  26. P.M. Churchland, Conceptual progress and word/world relations: In search of the essence of natural kinds. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 15: 1–17, 1985.Google Scholar
  27. E.S. Cornell, The radiant heat spectrum from Herschel to Melloni. Annals of Science 3: 119–137, 402–416, 1938.Google Scholar
  28. J.F. Daniell,An Introduction to the Study of Chemical Philosophy.... London: J.W. Parker, (a) 1st edn., 1839. (b) 2nd rev. edn., 1843.Google Scholar
  29. G.H. Daniels, The process of professionalization in American science: The emergent period, 1820–1860. Isis 58: 151–166, 1967.Google Scholar
  30. J. Darius, Beyond Vision. Oxford University Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  31. É.J. Diacon, Décomposition de la lumière provenant de diverses sources. Montpellier: Boehm & Fils, 1867.Google Scholar
  32. H.B. Dixon, The union of chlorine and hydrogen. Journal of the Society of the Chemical Industry 25: 145–149, 1906.Google Scholar
  33. R.G.A. Dolby, The case of physical chemistry, in Perspectives on the Emergence of Scientific Disciplines, pp. 63–73. Mouton: Maison des Sciences de l'homme, 1976.Google Scholar
  34. H. Draper, A Text-Book on Chemistry for the Use of Schools and Colleges. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1866.Google Scholar
  35. H. Draper, Photography, in New American Cyclopedia, vol. 13, pp. 286–291.New York, 1875.Google Scholar
  36. J.W. Draper, Experiments on solar light. Journal of the Franklin Institute 19: 469–479 and pl. XI, 1837a. Ibid., 20: 38–46,114–125, 250–253 and pl. I, 1837b.Google Scholar
  37. J.W. Draper, An account of some experiments made in the South of Virginia, on the Light of the Sun. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 16: 81–84, 1840a.Google Scholar
  38. J.W. Draper, On the electromotive power of heat. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 16: 451–461 and pl. VI, 1840b.Google Scholar
  39. J.W. Draper, Portraits in daguerreotype. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 16: 535, 1840c.Google Scholar
  40. J.W. Draper, On the process of daguerreotype, and its application to taking portraits from the life. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 17: 217–225, 1840d.Google Scholar
  41. J.W. Draper, Remarks on the daguerreotype. American Repertory of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures 1: 401–404, 1840e.Google Scholar
  42. J.W. Draper, On some analogies between the phaenomena of the chemical rays, and those of radiant heat. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 19: 195–210 and pl. I, 1841.Google Scholar
  43. J.W. Draper, On certain spectral appearances and on the discovery of latent light (comm. on Bessel 1842; see also Möser 1843). Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 21: 348–349, 1842a.Google Scholar
  44. J.W. Draper, On a new imponderable substance, and on a class of chemical rays analogous to the rays of dark heat. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 21: 453–461 and pl. I, 1842b.Google Scholar
  45. J.W. Draper, On a change produced by exposure to the beams of the sun in the properties of an elementary substance. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 13 (part 2): 9, 1843a.Google Scholar
  46. J.W. Draper, On the rapid detithonizing power of certain gases and vapours, and on an instantaneous means of producing spectral appearances. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 22: 161–165, 1843b.Google Scholar
  47. J.W. Draper, On a new system of inactive tithonographic spaces in the solar spectrum analogous to the fixed lines of Fraunhofer. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 22: 360–364 and pl. III, 1843c.Google Scholar
  48. J.W. Draper, On the tithonotype, or art of multiplying daguerreotypes. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 22: 364–368, 1843d.Google Scholar
  49. J.W. Draper, On the decomposition of carbonic acid gas and the alkaline carbonates, by the light of the sun. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 23: 161–176, 1843e.Google Scholar
  50. J.W. Draper, Description of the Tithonometer, an instrument for measuring the chemical force of the indigo-tithonic rays. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 23: 401–415, 1843f.Google Scholar
  51. J.W. Draper, OnMr. Hunt's book, entitled ‘Researches on Light’ (comm. on Hunt 1844a; see also Hunt's reply 1844d). PhilosophicalMagazine (3rd ser.) 25: 49–51, 1844a.Google Scholar
  52. J.W. Draper, On tithonized chlorine. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 25: 1–10, 1844b.Google Scholar
  53. J.W. Draper, Further considerations on the existence of a fourth imponderable. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 25: 103–116, 1844c.Google Scholar
  54. J.W. Draper, Note on the decomposition of Carbonic acid by the leaves of plants under the influence of yellow light. PhilosophicalMagazine (3rd ser.) 25: 169–173, 1844d.Google Scholar
  55. J.W. Draper, A Treatise on the Forces Which Produce the Organization of Plants. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1st edn., 1844/2nd edn., 1845.Google Scholar
  56. J.W. Draper, On the interference spectrum and the absorption of the tithonic rays. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 26: 465–478, 1845.Google Scholar
  57. J.W. Draper, Textbook on Chemistry for the Use of Schools and Colleges (40 eds. until revision by H. Draper 1866). New York: Harper & Brothers, 1846.Google Scholar
  58. J.W. Draper, On the production of light by chemical action. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 32: 100–114, 1848.Google Scholar
  59. J.W. Draper,On the phosphorescence of bodies. PhilosophicalMagazine (4th ser.) 1: 81–100, 1851a.Google Scholar
  60. J.W. Draper, On the chemical action of light. Philosophical Magazine (4th ser.) 1: 368–393, 1851b.Google Scholar
  61. J.W. Draper, On the diffraction spectrum – remarks on M. Eisenlohr's recent experiments. Philosophical Magazine (4th ser.) 13: 153–156, 1857a.Google Scholar
  62. J.W. Draper, On the measurement of the chemical action of light. Philosophical Magazine (4th ser.) 14: 161–164, 1857b.Google Scholar
  63. J.W. Draper, On the influence of light upon chlorine, and some remarks upon Alchemy. Philosophical Magazine (4th ser.) 14: 321–323, 1857c.Google Scholar
  64. J.W. Draper, On the motions of camphor towards the light, and on variations in the fixed lines of the solar spectrum. PhilosophicalMagazine (4th ser.) 25: 342–344, 1863.Google Scholar
  65. J.W. Draper, Researches in actino-chemistry. Philosophical Magazine (4th ser.) 44: 104–117, 422–443, 1872.Google Scholar
  66. J.W. Draper, Early contributions to spectrum photography and photo-chemistry. Nature 10: 243–244, 1874.Google Scholar
  67. J.W. Draper, Chemistry and Physics in America. American Journal of Science (3rd ser.) 13: 61–67, 1877a.Google Scholar
  68. J.W. Draper, ‘Things that are invisible’ and ‘The diffraction spectrum’. Harpers New Monthly Magazine 55: 102–111, 417–428, 1877b.Google Scholar
  69. J.W. Draper, Scientific Memoirs, Being Experimental Contributions to a Knowledge of Radiant Heat. London: Sampson Low et al., 1878 (reprinted New York: Arno Press, 1973).Google Scholar
  70. J.W. Draper, On a new form of spectrometer, and on the distribution of the intensity of light in the spectrum. Philosophical Magazine (5th ser.) 8: 75–80, 1879.Google Scholar
  71. J.W. Draper, On the phosphorograph of a solar spectrum, and on the limits in its infra-red spectrum. Philosophical Magazine (5th ser.) 11: 157–169, 1881a. Proceedings of the American Academy of the Arts and Sciences, Boston 16: 223–234, 1881b.Google Scholar
  72. T. W-M. Draper, The Drapers in America, being a History and Genealogy of Those of that Name and Connection. New York: Polhemus, 1892.Google Scholar
  73. P. Duhem, Ziel und Struktur physikalischer Theorien. German transl. by Friedrich Adler (French orig. 1906). Leipzig: Barth, 1908.Google Scholar
  74. E.H., Draper, John William. Dictionary of American Biography 5: 438–441, 1930.Google Scholar
  75. J.M. Eder (Ed), Quellenschriften der Photographie. Knapp: Halle, 1913.Google Scholar
  76. J.M. Eder (Ed), History of Photography (orig. publ. in German, 1905). New York: Columbia University Press, 1945 (reprinted Dover, 1972).Google Scholar
  77. H.C. Englefield, Experiments on the separation of light and heat by refraction (crit. of W. Herschel 1800, 1801). A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts 3: 125–130, 1802.Google Scholar
  78. P.A. Favre and J.T. Silbermann, Recherches sur les quantités de chaleur dégagées dans les actions chimiques et moléculaires. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (3rd ser.) 37: 406–508 and pl. III, 1853.Google Scholar
  79. A.H-L. Fizeau, Longueurs d'ondes des rayons calorifiques. Procès-verbeaux dela Société philomatique, p. 108, 11 December 1847a. L'Institut, pp. 394–396, 1847b. (c) reprinted in Annales de Chimie et de Physique (5th ser.) 15: 394–396, 1878.Google Scholar
  80. A.H. Fizeau and L. Foucault, Sur le phénomène des interférences entre deux rayons de lumière dans le cas de grandes différences de marche. (a) 1st communication in Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 21: 1155–1157, 1845. (b) 2nd communication in ibid., 22: 422, 1846. (c) Full text in Annales de Chimie et de Physique (3rd ser.) 26: 138–148, 1849; 30: 146–159, 1850.Google Scholar
  81. A.H. Fizeau and L. Foucault, Recherches sur les interférences calorifiques. (a) Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences, 25: 447–485, 1847. (b) Full text in Annales de Chimie et de Physique (5th ser.) 15: 363–394, 1878.Google Scholar
  82. A.H. Fizeau and L. Foucault, Rapport sur deux mémoires de MM. Fizeau et Foucault relatifs à l'observation des interférences dans le cas de grandes différences de marche entre deux rayons interférents, et à plusieurs applications de les procédés d'observations (report on Fizeau and Foucault (1849) by J. Babinet). Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 26: 680–682, 1848.Google Scholar
  83. D. Fleming, John William Draper and the Religion of Science. Philadelphia, 1950 (reprinted New York: Octagon Books, 1972).Google Scholar
  84. D. Fleming, Draper, JohnWilliam. Dictionary of Scientific Biography 4: 181–183, 1971.Google Scholar
  85. J.D. Forbes, On the refraction and polarization of heat. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 13(1): 131–168, 1835.Google Scholar
  86. J.D. Forbes, Researches on heat (second series) Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 13(2): 446–471; (3rd. ser.) 14(1): 176–207 and pls. XII–XIV; (4th ser.) 15(1): 1–26, 1836.Google Scholar
  87. R. Fox, Laplacian physics, in Companion to the History of Science, pp. 278–294. London: Routledge, 1990.Google Scholar
  88. A.H. Frazier, Joseph Saxton and his contributions to the medal ruling and photographic art. Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology 32, 1975.Google Scholar
  89. J.L. Gay-Lussac and L.J. Thénard, Considérations sur la matière dont la lumière agit dans les phénomènes chimiques. (a) In Recherches physico-chimiques faites sur la pile éléctrique.... Paris: Deterville, pp. 1809ff.; 2: 186–205, 1811. (b) Betrachtungen über die Art wie das Licht bei chemischen Erscheinungen wirkt.German transl. with comm. by Schweigger. Journal für Chemie und Physik 5: 219–244, 1812. B. Görs, Chemischer Atomismus. Anwendung, Veränderung, Alternativen im deutschsprachigem Raum in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Berlin: ERS-Verlag, 1999.Google Scholar
  90. G. Grasshoff, R. Casties and K. Nickelsen, Zur Theorie des Experiments. Untersuchungen am Beispiel der Entdeckung des Harnstoffzyklus. Bern, 2000.Google Scholar
  91. G. Grasshoff and M. May, Causal regularities, in W. Spohn (Ed.), Current Issues in Causality, in press, 2000.Google Scholar
  92. J-P. Guiot, Zur Entdeckung der ultravioletten Strahlen durch Johann Wilhelm Ritter. Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences 35: 346–356, 1985.Google Scholar
  93. I. Hacking, Natural kinds, in R.B. Barrett and R.F. Gibson (Eds), Perspectives on Quine, pp. 129–143. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990.Google Scholar
  94. W.A. Hammond, An obituary notice of John W. Draper. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association 20: 227–228, 1882.Google Scholar
  95. E.N. Harvey, A History of Luminescence from the Earliest Times until 1900. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1957.Google Scholar
  96. J.B. Hearnshaw, The Measurement of Starlight: Two Centuries of Astronomical Photometry. Cambridge University Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  97. J.L. Heilbron, Weighing imponderables and other quantitative science around 1800. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 24(1 suppl.), 1993.Google Scholar
  98. J. Henry, On phosphorogenic emanations. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association 3: 38–44, 1843.Google Scholar
  99. K. Hentschel, Interpretationen und Fehlinterpretationen der speziellen und allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie durch Zeitgenossen Albert Einsteins. Basel: Birkhäuser, 1990.Google Scholar
  100. K. Hentschel, Mapping the Spectrum. Techniques of Representation in Research and Teaching, forthcoming. Oxford University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  101. A. Hermann, Theoretische Physik in Deutschland. Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 1: 163–172, 1978.Google Scholar
  102. J.F.W. Herschel, New researches on the solar spectrum and in photography. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 16: 239, 1840a.Google Scholar
  103. J.F.W. Herschel, On the chemical action of the rays of the solar spectrum on preparations of silver and other substances, both metallic and non-metallic. Abstract. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 16: 331–336; full text, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, pp. 1–60 and pls. I–II, 1840b.Google Scholar
  104. J.F.W. Herschel, On the action of the rays of the solar spectrum on the daguerreotype plate. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 22: 120–132, 1843.Google Scholar
  105. W. Herschel, Investigation of the powers of the prismatic colours to heat and illuminate objects; with remarks, that prove the different refrangibility of radiant heat. To which is added an inquiry into the method of viewing the sun advantageously with large telescopes of large apertures and high magnifying powers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 90: 255–283; II: pp. 284–292; III: pp. 293–326 and pls. XII–XVI, 1800a.Google Scholar
  106. W. Herschel, Experiments on the solar, and on the terrestrial rays that occasion heat; with a comparative view of the laws to which light and heat, or rather the rays which occasion them, are subject, in order to determine whether they are the same or different. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 90(part II): 437–538 and pls. XX–XXVI, 1800b (reprinted in Herschel 2: 70–146, 1912).Google Scholar
  107. W. Herschel, Observations tending to investigate the nature of the sun, in order to find the causes of symptoms of its variable emission of light and heat; with remarks on the use that may possibly be drawn from solar observations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 91: 265–318 and pls. XVIII–XIX, 1801a (reprinted in Herschel 2: 147–179, 1912).Google Scholar
  108. W. Herschel, Additional observations tending to investigate the symptoms of the variable emission of the light and heat of the sun; with trials to set aside darkening glasses, by transmitting the solar rays through liquids; and a few remarks to remove objections that might be made against some of the arguments contained in the former paper. Philosophical Transactions of the RoyalSociety of London 91: 354–362 and pl. XXVIII, 1801b (reprinted in Herschel 2: 181–186, 1912).Google Scholar
  109. W. Herschel, in J.L.E. Dreyer (Ed.), The Scientific Papers of SirWilliam Herschel, 2 vols. London: Royal Society and Royal Astronomical Society, 1912.Google Scholar
  110. E.N. Hiebert, Discipline identification in chemistry and physics. Science in Context 9(2): 93–119, 1996.Google Scholar
  111. M. Hilbert, Herschel's investigation of the nature of radiant heat: The limitations of experiment. Annals of Science 56: 357–378, 1999.Google Scholar
  112. P. Hoyningen-Huene, Reconstructing Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  113. R. Hunt,On thermography, or the art of copying engravings... and on the recent discovery of Moser, relative to the formation of images in the dark. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 21: 462–468, 1842 (see also Möser, 1843).Google Scholar
  114. R. Hunt,On the spectral images of Mr. Moser; a reply to his animadversions, &c. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 23: 414–426, 1843.Google Scholar
  115. R. Hunt,Researches on Light and Its Chemical Relations, Embracing a Consideration of All the Photographic Process. (a) London: Longman, Green & Co., 1st edn., 1844. (b) 2nd edn., 1854 (see also Draper, 1844a).Google Scholar
  116. R. Hunt,Actino-chemistry.Chambers's Edinburgh Journal (newser.) 2: 403–406, 1844c.Google Scholar
  117. R. Hunt,Reply to Prof. Draper's letter on a work entitled ‘Researches on Light’. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 25: 119–122, 1844d.Google Scholar
  118. W.L. Hyde,John William Draper 1811–1882 – photographic scientist. Applied Optics 15: 1726–1730, 1976.Google Scholar
  119. R.V. Jenkins,Images and Enterprise. Technology and the American Photographic Industry 1839–1925. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  120. C. Jungnickel and R. McCormmach, Intellectual Mastery of Nature. Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, 2 vols. University of Chicago Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  121. H. Kayser,Handbuch der Spectroscopie, vol. 1. Leipzig: Hirzel, 1900.Google Scholar
  122. D. Kevles,The Physicists. The History of a Scientific Community in Modern America. New York: Knopf, 1977.Google Scholar
  123. A. Kleinert,Die Entdeckung der unsichtbaren Strahlen des Sonnenspektrums. Gesnerus 41: 291–298, 1984.Google Scholar
  124. F. Krafft,Von den Physiken zur Physik in Deutschland. Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 1: 123–162, 1978.Google Scholar
  125. F. Krafft,Zum Selbstverständnis der Physik im Wandel der Zeit. Vorlesungen zum historischen Erfahrungsraum physikalischer Erkenntnis. Weinheim: Physik-Verlag, 1982.Google Scholar
  126. T.S. Kuhn,The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  127. W. Lepenies,Das Ende der Naturgeschichte: Wandel kultureller Selbstverständlichkeiten in denWissenschaften des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts.Munich: Hanser, 1976.Google Scholar
  128. D.J. Lovell,Herschel's dilemma in the interpretation of thermal radiation. Isis 59: 46–60, 1968.Google Scholar
  129. R.J. McRae,The Origin of the Conception of the Continuous Spectrum of Heat and Light, Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1969.Google Scholar
  130. A. Masson and J. Jamin,Mémoire sur la transmissibilité de la chaleur. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 31: 14–18, 1850 (see also comm. by Melloni, 1850).Google Scholar
  131. M. Melloni, Mémoire sur la transmission libre de la chaleur rayonnante. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (2nd ser.) 53: 5–73, 1833a. In Engl. transl.: R. Taylor (Ed.), Memoir on the free transmission of radiant heat through different solid and liquid bodies. Scientific Memoirs 1: 1–38, 1833b.Google Scholar
  132. M. Melloni, Nouvelles recherches sur la transmission immédiate de la chaleur rayonnante par différents corps solides et liquides. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (2nd ser.) 55: 337–397, 1834.Google Scholar
  133. M. Melloni, Sur la réflexion de la chaleur rayonnante. Annales de Chimie et de Physique 60:402–409, 1835a. In Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 1: 300–304, 1835b.Google Scholar
  134. M. Melloni,Observations et expériences relatives à la théorie de l'identité des agens qui produissent la lumière et la chaleur rayonnante. Annales de Chimie et de Physique 60: 418–426, 1835c. In Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 1: 503–509, 1835d.Google Scholar
  135. M. Melloni,Sur l'identité des diverses radiations lumineuses, calorifiques et chimiques. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 15: 454–460, 1842.Google Scholar
  136. M. Melloni,Recherches sur les températures des divers rayons lumineux qui composent le spectre solaire. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 18: 39–48, 1844.Google Scholar
  137. M. Melloni.Observations relatives à la note de MM. Masson et Jamin sur les actions calorifiques et lumineuses des radiations prismatiques. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 31: 470–478, 1850.Google Scholar
  138. J.S. Mill,A System of Logic Ratiocinative and Inductive, Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence, and Methods of Scientific Investigation, 1st edn. London: J.W. Parker, 1843.Google Scholar
  139. W.A. Miller,Elements of Chemistry: Theoretical and Practical. Part I: Chemical Physics. London: JohnW. Parker, (a) 1st edn., 1855; (b) 2nd edn., 1860; (c) 3rd edn., 1863/64; (d) 4th edn., 1867.Google Scholar
  140. L. Möser,On the so-called calorotypes, with animadversions on the papers ofMr. Hunt and Prof. Draper lately published in the Philosophical Magazine. PhilosophicalMagazine (3rd ser.) 23: 356–360, 1843 (comm. on Hunt, 1842;Draper, 1842a; see also Hunt, 1843).Google Scholar
  141. J.H.J. Müller,Bestimmung der Wellenlänge einiger hellen Spectrallinien. Annalen der Physik 118(1): 641–644, 1863a. Engl. transl. in Philosophical Magazine (4th ser.) 26: 259–262 1863b.Google Scholar
  142. B. Newhall,The Daguerreotype in America. New York Graphic Society, 1968.Google Scholar
  143. A. Pearson.Robert Hunt, F.R.S. (1807–1887). Penzance: Federation of Old Cornwall Societies, 1976.Google Scholar
  144. P. Pollack,The Picture History of Photography. New York: Abrams, 1969.Google Scholar
  145. B. Powell,Report on the recent progress of discovery relative to radiant heat. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 10: 1–36, 1840.Google Scholar
  146. B. Powell,On the analogies of light and heat. (Evening lecture of April 23, 1852.) Proceedings of the Royal Institution 1: 172–178, 1854.Google Scholar
  147. Prater and R. Hunt,Experiments and observations on Moser's discovery. Philosophical Magazine (3rd ser.) 23: 225–231, 1843.Google Scholar
  148. F. Hervé de la Provostaye and Q.-P. Desains, Mémoire sur le rayonnement de la chaleur. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (3rd ser.) 22: 358–431 and pl. II, 1848.Google Scholar
  149. F.H. de la Provostaye and Q.-P. Desains, Mémoire sur la polarisation de la chaleur. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (3rd ser.) 27: 109–133, 1849.Google Scholar
  150. F.H. de la Provostaye and Q.-P. Desains, Mémoire sur la polarisation de la chaleur par réfraction simple. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (3rd ser.) 30: 159–178, 1850a. Abstract in Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires de l'Académie des Sciences 31:19–22, 1850b.Google Scholar
  151. F.H. de la Provostaye and Q.-P. Desains, Sur le pouvoir rotatoire qu'exercent sur la chaleur l'essence de térébenthine et les dissolutions sucrées. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (3rd ser.) 30: 267–286, 1850c.Google Scholar
  152. T.R. Pynchon,The Chemical Forces Heat – Light – Electricity,...An Introduction to Chemical Physics. Hartford: O.D. Case, 1870.Google Scholar
  153. N. Reingold (Ed.), Science in Nineteenth Century America. A Documentary History. New York: Hill & Wang, 1964.Google Scholar
  154. J.W. Ritter, Auffindung nicht-sichtbarer Sonnenstrahlen an der Seite des Violett. Annalen der Physik 7: 527, 1801.Google Scholar
  155. J.W. Ritter, Versuche über das Sonnenlicht. (a) Annalen der Physik 12: 109–115, 1803. (b) Engl. transl.: Experiments on light. A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts 8: 214–216, 1804.Google Scholar
  156. J.W. Ritter, Bemerkungen zu Herschel's neueren Untersuchungen über das Licht. (Read at the Jenaer NaturforschendenGesellschaft in spring of 1801.) Physischchemische Abhandlungen in chronologischer Reihenfolge 2: 81–107, 1806 (Leipzig: Reclam).Google Scholar
  157. H.E. Roscoe, Light. Dictionary of Chemistry and the Allied Branches of Other Sciences 3: 589–695, 1865.Google Scholar
  158. C.W. Scheele, Chemische Abhandlung von der Luft und dem Feuer. Leipzig: Engelmann, esp. pp. 42–61, 1777 (reprintedOstwalds Klassiker no. 58, Leipzig, 1894).Google Scholar
  159. T.J. Seebeck, Ueber die ungleiche Erregung derWärme im prismatischen Sonnenbilde. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin 1818/19: 305–350, 1819.Google Scholar
  160. W.A. Smeaton, Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786). Endeavour. Review of the Progress of Science 10: 28–30, 1986.Google Scholar
  161. M. Somerville, On the action of the rays of the spectrum on vegetable juices. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 111–120 and pl.III, 1846.Google Scholar
  162. F. Steinle, 'Looking for a simple case': Faraday and electromagnetic rotation. History of Science 33: 179–202, 1995.Google Scholar
  163. R. Taft, Photography and the American Scene, A Social History 1839–1889. New York: MacMillan, 1938 (reprinted Dover, 1964).Google Scholar
  164. D. Trombino, Dr. J.W. Draper. Journal of the British Astronomical Association 90: 565–571, 1980.Google Scholar
  165. J. Tyndall, Lectures on Light, Delivered in the United States in 1872–73. New York: Appleton, 1873.Google Scholar
  166. W. Welling, Photography in America: The formative years 1839–1900. New York: Crowell, 1978.Google Scholar
  167. W. Whewell, History of the Inductive Sciences, from the Earliest to the Present Times, 3 vols. London: J.W. Parker, 1837.Google Scholar
  168. W. Whewell, Novum Organon Renovatum. London: Parker, 1858.Google Scholar
  169. W.H. Wollaston, On certain chemical effects of light. A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts 8: 293–297, 1804.Google Scholar
  170. O. Zekert, Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Sein Leben und seine Werke. Apotheker, Chemiker, Entdecker. Groβe Naturforscher, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsanstalt, vol. 27, Stuttgart, 1963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Hentschel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for History of ScienceUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany

Personalised recommendations