Social Psychology of Education

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 201–224 | Cite as

Stereotypes of Achievement Striving Among Early Adolescents

Abstract

We conducted two studies to examine the influence of achievement-related cultural stereotypes among early adolescents. In Study 1 male and female African–American junior high school students (N = 62) read hypothetical descriptions of students who displayed high or low levels of achievement striving and school engagement. Their task was to select one photograph that they believed matched each hypothetical description from a set of photos of unknown junior high school students of diverse ethnicities and both genders. We replicated our procedures in Study 2 with a more ethnically diverse sample of African–American, Latino, and Anglo junior high school students (N = 197). Results indicated that all adolescents most frequently selected photos of ethnic minority males for scenarios of academic disengagement, consistent with cultural stereotypes of these young men. Photos of females across all ethnicities were selected most frequently for scenarios of achievement strivings. Findings are discussed in terms of the need for greater support for minority males in school settings and the potential impact of school programs on the attitudes and behaviors of students.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abi-Nader, Jeannette (1990). 'A house for my mother': motivating Hispanic high school students. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 21, 41–58.Google Scholar
  2. Aboud, Francis (1988). Children and prejudice. New York: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  3. Aboud, Francis & Doyle, Anna (1995). The development of in group pride in Black Canadians.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 243–254.Google Scholar
  4. Aboud, Francis & Skeery, Shelagh (1983). Self and ethnic concepts in relation to ethnic constancy.Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 15, 14–26.Google Scholar
  5. Allport, Gordon (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  6. Augoustinos, Martha & Rosewarne, Dana (2001). Stereotype knowledge and prejudice in children.British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 143–156.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, Claud & Cromwell, Rue (1977). ‘Black is beautiful’ and the color preferences of Afro-American youth. The Journal of Negro Education, 46, 76–88.Google Scholar
  8. Averhart, Cara & Bigler, Rebecca (1997). Shades of meaning: Skin tone, racial attitudes, and constructive memory in African-American children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 67, 363–388.Google Scholar
  9. Bigler, Rebecca & Liben, Lynn (1993). A cognitive-developmental approach to racial stereotyping and reconstructive memory in Euro-American children. Child Development, 64, 1507–1518.Google Scholar
  10. Black-Gutman, Dasia & Hickson, Fay (1996). The relationship between racial attitudes and social-cognitive development in children: an Australian study. Developmental Psychology, 32, 448–456.Google Scholar
  11. Blosser, Betsy (1988). Ethnic differences in children's media use. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 32, 453–470.Google Scholar
  12. Bogle, Donald (1994). Toms, coons, mulattoes, mammies, and bucks: An interpretive history of Blacks in American films (3rd edn). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  13. Brand, Elaine, Ruiz, Rene, & Padilla, Amado (1974). Ethnic identification and preference A review.Psychological Bulletin, 81, 860–890.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, Rupert (1995). Prejudice: Its social psychology. Oxford, England: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, Kenneth (1965). Dark ghetto: Dilemmas of social power. NewYork: Harper &Row.Google Scholar
  16. Clark, Reginald. (1983). Family life and school achievement: Why poor Black children succeed or fail. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  17. Clark, Kenneth & Clark, Mamie (1939). The development of consciousness of self and the emergence of racial identity in Negro preschool children. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 591–599.Google Scholar
  18. Clark, Kenneth & Clark, Mamie (1940). Skin color as a factor in racial identification of Negro preschool children. Journal of Social Psychology, 11, 159–169.Google Scholar
  19. Clark, Kenneth & Clark, Mamie (1947). Racial identification and preference in Negro children. In T. Newcomb & E. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social psychology. New York: Henry Holt, pp. 602–611.Google Scholar
  20. Cowan, Gloria, Martinez, Livier, & Mendiola, Stephanie (1997). Predictors of attitudes toward illegal Latino immigrants. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 403–415.Google Scholar
  21. Croizet, Jean-Claude, Desert, Michel, Dutrevis, Marion, & Leyens, Jacque-Phillipe (2001). Stereo-type threat, social class, gender, and academic under-achievement: When our reputation catches up to us and takes over. Social Psychology of Education, 4, 295–310.Google Scholar
  22. Devine, Patricia & Elliott, Andrew (1995). Are racial stereotypes really fading? The Princeton trilogy revisited. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1139–1150.Google Scholar
  23. Doyle, Anna & Aboud, Francis (1995). A longitudinal study of White children's racial prejudice as a social-cognitive development. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 41, 209–228.Google Scholar
  24. Doyle, Anna, Beaudet, Jocelyne, & Aboud, Francis (1988). Developmental patterns in the flexibility of children's ethnic attitudes. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 19, 3–18.Google Scholar
  25. Dweck, Carol (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040–1048.Google Scholar
  26. Eckert, Penelope (1989). Jocks and burnouts: Social categories and identity in the high school. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  27. Fine, Michelle (1991). Framing dropouts: Notes on the politics of an urban high school. Albany,NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  28. Ford, Donna (1993). Black students' achievement orientation as a function of perceived family achievement orientation and demographic variables. Journal of Negro Educationx, 62, 47–66.Google Scholar
  29. Fordham, Signithia & Ogbu, John (1986). Black students' school success: Coping with the 'burden of 'acting White''. Urban Review, 18, 176–206.Google Scholar
  30. Goodman, Leo & Kruskal, William (1954). Measures of association for cross classification. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49, 732–764.Google Scholar
  31. Goto, Stanford (1997). Nerds, normal people, and homeboys: Accommodation and resistance among Chinese-American students. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 28, 70–84.Google Scholar
  32. Graham, Sandra (1994). Motivation in African-Americans. Review of Educational Research, 64, 55–118.Google Scholar
  33. Graham, Sandra, Taylor, April, & Hudley, Cynthia (1998). Exploring achievement values among ethnic minority early adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 606–620.Google Scholar
  34. Griffin, Christine (2001). Imagining new narratives of youth: Youth research, the 'new Europe' and global youth culture. Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, 8, 147–166.Google Scholar
  35. Hamilton, David & Trolier, Tina (1986). Stereotypes and stereotyping: An overview of the cognitive approach. In John Dividio & Samuel Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 127–163.Google Scholar
  36. Hawley, Willis & Jackson, Anthony (1995). Toward a commondestiny: Improving race and ethnic relations in America. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  37. Hudley, Cynthia (1995). Assessing the impact of separate schooling for African-American male adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 15, 38–57.Google Scholar
  38. Hudley, Cynthia (1997a). Supporting achievement beliefs among ethnic minority adolescents: Two case examples. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7, 133–152.Google Scholar
  39. Hudley, Cynthia (1997b). Teacher practices and student motivation in a middle school program for African-American males. Urban Education, 32, 304–319.Google Scholar
  40. Irvine, Jacqueline (1990). Black students and school failure: Policies, practices, and prescriptions. New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Jones-Wilson, Faustine (1990). The state of African-American education. In Kofi Lomotey (Ed.), Going to school: the African-American experience. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 31–51.Google Scholar
  42. Judd, Charles, Park, Bernadette, Ryan, Carey, Braur, Markus, & Kraus, Susan (1995). Stereotypes and ethnocentrism: Diverging interethnic perceptions of African-American and White American youth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 460–481.Google Scholar
  43. Kao, Grace (2000). Group images and possible selves among adolescents: Linking stereotypes to expectations by race and ethnicity. Sociological Forum, 15, 407–430.Google Scholar
  44. Kawakami, Kerry, Dovidio, John, Moll, Jasper, Hermsen, Sander, & Russin, Abby (2000). Just say no (to stereotyping): Effects of training in the negation of stereotypic associations on stereotype activation. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 78, 871–888.Google Scholar
  45. Knoke, David & Burke, Peter (1980). Log-linear models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. Kromhout, Mariska & Vedder, Paul (1996). Cultural inversion in Afro-Caribbean children. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 27, 568–586.Google Scholar
  47. Krueger, Joachim (1996). Personal beliefs and cultural stereotypes about racial characteristics.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 536–548.Google Scholar
  48. Landrine, Hope (1999). Race X class stereotypes of women. In Letitia Peplau, Sherry DeBro, & Rosemary Veniegas (Eds.), Gender, culture, and ethnicity: Current research about men and women. Mountain View, Ca.: Mayfield; pp. 38–47.Google Scholar
  49. Lippmann, Walter (1922). Public opinion. New York: MacMillan Press.Google Scholar
  50. Major, Brenda, Spencer, Steven, Schmader, Toni, Wolfe, Connie, & Crocker, Jennifer (1998).Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: the role of psychological disengagement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34–50.Google Scholar
  51. National Center for Education Statistics (1997). Digest of education statistics. Washington DC: US Department of Education.Google Scholar
  52. Niemann, Yolanda, Jennings, Leilani, Rozelle, Richard, Baxter, James, & Sullivan, Elizabeth (1994). Use of free responses and cluster analysis to determine stereotypes of eight groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 379–390.Google Scholar
  53. Niemann, Yolanda, O'Conner, Elizabeth, & McClorie, Randall (1998). Intergroup stereotypes of working class Blacks and Whites: Implications for stereotype threat. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 22, 103–107.Google Scholar
  54. Niemann, Yolanda, Pollack, Kathryn, Rogers, Stephanie, & O'Conner, Elizabeth (1998). Effects of physical context on stereotyping of Mexican-American males. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20, 349–362.Google Scholar
  55. Oakes, Jeanne (1985). Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Ocampo, Kathryn (1991). Ethnic identity and school achievement in Mexican-American youths. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13, 234–235.Google Scholar
  57. Ogbu, John (1978). Minority education and caste: The American system in cross-cultural perspective. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Ogbu, John (1992). Understanding cultural diversity and learning. Educational Researcher, 21, 5–14.Google Scholar
  59. Ogbu, John (1993). Differences in cultural frame of reference. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 16, 483–506.Google Scholar
  60. Peshkin, Alan (1991). The color of strangers the color of friends: The play of ethnicity in school and community. Chicago: University of Chicago press.Google Scholar
  61. Porter, Cornelia (1991). Social reasons for skin tone preferences of Black school-age children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 149–154.Google Scholar
  62. Ramsey, Patricia (1987). Young children's thinking about ethnic differences. In Jean Phinney & Mary Rotherzam (Eds.), Children's ethnic socialization. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  63. Ramsey, Patricia & Myers, Leslie (1990). Salience of race in young children's cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to social environments. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 11, 49–67.Google Scholar
  64. Reynolds, Arthur (1989). A structural model of first-grade outcomes for an urban, low socioeconomic status, minority population. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 594–603.Google Scholar
  65. Root, Maria (1996). The multiracial experience: racial borders as the new frontier. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Rutland, Adam (1999). The development of national prejudice, in-group favouritism and self-stereotypes in British children. British Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 55–70.Google Scholar
  67. Schmader, Toni, Major, Brenda, & Gramzow, Richard (2001). Coping with ethnic stereotypes in the academic domain: Perceived injustice and psychological disengagement. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 93–111.Google Scholar
  68. Sherman, Steven, Hamilton, David, & Lewis, Amy (1999). Perceived entitativity and the social identity value of group memberships. In Dominic Abrams & Michael Hogg (Eds.), Social identity and social cognition. Malden, MA: Blackwell; pp. 80–110.Google Scholar
  69. Sizemore, Barbara (1990). The Madison Elementary School: A turnaround case. In K. Lomotey (Ed.), Going to school: The African-American experience. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 155–180.Google Scholar
  70. Stangor, Charles & Schaller, Mark (1996). Stereotypes as individual and collective representations. In Neil Macrae, C., Charles Stangor, & Miles Hewstone (Eds.), Stereotypes and stereotyping. New York: Guilford, pp. 3–37.Google Scholar
  71. Steele, Claude (1992, April). Race and the schooling of Black Americans. The Atlantic Monthly, 269(4), 68–78.Google Scholar
  72. Steele, Claude (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613–629.Google Scholar
  73. Stroebe, Wolfgang & Insko, Chester (1989). Stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination: Changing conceptions in theory and research. In Daniel Bar-Tal, Carl Graumann, Arie Kruglanski, & Wolfgang Stroebe (Eds.), Stereotyping and prejudice: Changing conceptions. NewYork: Springer-Verlag, pp. 3–34.Google Scholar
  74. Tajfel, Henri (1981). Social stereotypes and social groups. In John Turner & Howard Giles (Eds.), Intergroup behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 144–167.Google Scholar
  75. Tajfel, Henri & Turner, John (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Steven Worchel & William Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, pp. 7–24.Google Scholar
  76. Tatum, Beverly (1997). Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? NewYork: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  77. Thomas, Velma (1997). Lest we forget: The passage from Africa to slavery and emancipation. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  78. University of California, Outreach Task Force (1997). New directions for outreach. Oakland: University of California.Google Scholar
  79. United States Census Bureau (1996). Educational attainment in the United States. Washington DC: Dept. of Commerce; Series P-20.Google Scholar
  80. Weitz, Rose & Gordon, Leonard (1993). Images of Black women among Anglo college students. Sex Roles, 28, 19–34.Google Scholar
  81. Williams, John & Morland, Kenneth, J. (1976). Race, color, and the young child. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  82. Wolfe, Connie & Spencer, Steven (1996). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their overt and subtle influence in the classroom. American Behavioral Scientist, 40, 176–185.Google Scholar
  83. Yuill, Nicola (1993). Understanding of personality and dispositions. In Mark Bennett (Ed.), The development of social cognition: the child as psychologist. New York: Guilford, pp. 87–110.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rossier School of EducationUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Graduate School of EducationUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations