International Ophthalmology

, Volume 23, Issue 4–6, pp 183–189 | Cite as

Basic principles of laser Doppler flowmetry and application to the ocular circulation

  • Charles E. Riva
Doppler effect optical mixing spectroscopy flowmetry ocular circulation blood flow regulation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Benedek GB. Optical mixing spectroscopy with applications to problems in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. In the jubilee volume in honor of Alfred Kastler, Polarization, Matter and Radiation, Paris, 1969, Presses Universitaires de France, p. 49.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bonner RF, Nossal R: Principles of laser-Doppler flowmetry. In: Shepherd AP, Öberg PA (eds) Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine: Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry. Vol. 107. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990; 73–92. Chamot S, Movaffaghy AM, Petrig BL, Rica CE. Blood flow in the human iris measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Microvasc Res 1999; 57: 153–161.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chamot S, Movaffaghy M, Petrig BL, Riva CE. Iris blood flow response to acute decreases in ocular perfusion pressure: a laser doppler flowmetry study in humans. Exp Eye Res. In press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geijer C, Bill A. Effects of raised intraocular pressure on retinal, prelaminar, laminar and retrolaminar optic nerve blood flow in monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1979; 118: 1030–1036.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Geiser MH, Diermann U, Riva CE. Compact laser Doppler choroidal flowmeter. J Biomed Optics 1999; 4: 459–464.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grunwald JE, Hariprasad SM, DuPont J. Effect of aging on foveolar choroidal circulation. Arch Ophthalmol 1998a; 116: 150–154.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grunwald JE, Hariprasad SM, DuPont J, et al. Foveolar choroidal blood flow in age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998b; 39: 385–390.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harris A, Anderson DR, Pillunat L, et al. laser Doppler flowmetry measurement of changes in human optic nerve head blood flow in response to blood gas perturbations. J Glaucoma 1996; 5: 258–265.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koelle J, Riva CE, Petrig BL, Cranstoun SD. Depth of sampling in the optic nerve head using laser Doppler flowmetry. Lasers Med Sci 1993; 8: 49–54.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lietz, Hendrikson P, Flammer J, Orgül S, Haefliger IO. Effect of carbogen, oxygen and intraocular pressure on Heidelberg retina flowmeter parameter “Flow” measured at the papilla. Ophtalmologica 1998; 212: 149–152.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lovasik JV, Kergoat H, Riva CE, Petrig BL. Choroidal blood flow in man after increased systemic perfusion pressure induced by dynamic exercise. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. In press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Michelson G, Groh M, Grundler A. Regulation of ocular blood flow during increases of arterial blood pressure. Br J Ophthalmol 1994; 78: 461–465.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Michelson G and Schmauss B. Two dimensional mapping of the perfusion of the retina and optic nerve head. Br J Ophthalmol 1995; 79: 1126–1132.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Movaffaghy A, Chamot SR, Petrig BL, Riva CE. Blood Flow in the Human Optic Nerve Head during isometric exercise. Exp Eye Res 1998; 67: 561–568.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Petrig BL, Riva CE. Optic nerve head laser Doppler flowmetry: Principles and computer analysis. In Ocular Blood Flow. Glaucoma-Meeting 1995, Kaiser HJ, Flammer J, Hendrickson P (eds) (Karger Basel), 1996, pp. 120–127.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Petrig BL, Riva CE, Lorenz B, Movaffaghy A, Harbarth UP, Dreher AW. Confocal laser Doppler system for measurement of blood velocity in retinal vessels and flow in the optic nerve through the undilated pupil. Lasers and Light 1998; 8: 137–142.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Petrig BL, Riva CE, Hayreh SS. Laser Doppler flowmetry and optic nerve head blood flow. Am J Ophthalmol 1999; 127: 43–425.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Petrig BL, Chamot S, Riva CE, Sickenberg M, Ballini JP, Van den Bergh H. Subfoveal blood flow in choroidal neovascularization compared to normal fovea as measured by Topss-based laser Doppler flowmeter. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40: S561.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pillunat EL, Anderson DR., Knighton RW, Joos KM, Feuer WJ. Autoregulation of human optic nerve head circulation in response to increased intraocular pressure. Exp Eye Res 1997; 64: 737–744.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Quigley HA, Hohmann RM, Addicks EM. Quantitative study of optic nerve head capillaries in experimental disk pallor. A. J Ophthalmol 1982; 93: 689–699.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Riva CE, Ross B, Benedek GB. Laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1972; 11: 936–944.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Riva CE, Grunwald JE, Sinclair SH. Laser Doppler measurement of relative blood velocity in the human optic nerve head. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1982; 22: 241–248.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Riva CE, Shonat RD, Petrig BL, Pournaras CJ, Barnes GB. Noninvasive measurement of the optic nerve head circulation. Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma. Lambrou GN, Greve EL, eds, Kugler and Ghedini Publications, Berkley, 1989a; 129–134. Riva CE., Petrig BL, Grunwald JE. Retinal blood flow. In Laser-Doppler Blood FlowmetryGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shepherd AP and Öberg PA (eds), Volume 107 of Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, Chapter 19, pp. 349–383, 1989b.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Riva CE, Harino S, Petrig BL, Shonat RD. Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic nerve. Exp Eye Res 1992; 55: 499–506.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Riva CE, Cranstoun SD, Grunwald JE, Petrig BL. Choroidal blood flow in the foveal region of the human ocular fundus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994; 35: 4273–4281.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Riva CE, Mendel MJ, Petrig BL. Flicker-induced optic nerve blood flow change. In: Kaiser HJ, Flammer J, Hendrickson P (eds) Ocular Blood Flow. Glaucoma-Meeting 1995. Basel: Karger. 1996: 128–137.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Riva CE, Hero M, Titze P, Petrig BL. Autoregulation of human optic nerve head blood blow in response to acute changes in ocular perfusion pressure. Graefe's Arch Clin Exp Ophtalmol 1997a; 235: 618–626.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Riva CE, Titze P, Hero M, Petrig B.L. Effect of acute decreases of perfusion pressure on choroidal blood flow in humans. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997b; 38: 1752–1760.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Riva CE, Titz, P, Hero M, Petrig BL, Movaffaghy A. Choroidal blood flow during isometric exercises. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997c; 38: 2338–2343.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sebag J, Feke GT, Delori FC, Weiter JJ. Anterior optic nerve blood flow in experimental atrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1985; 26: 1415–1422.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sebag J, Delori, FC, Feke GT, Goger DG, Fitch K, Tagawa H, Deupree D, Weiter JJ, McMeel JW. Anterior optic nerve blood flow decreases in clinical neurogenic Optic atrophy. Opthalmology 1986; 93: 858–865.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shepherd AP, Öberg PA, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1990, Boston.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Skarphedinsson JO, Harding HS, Thore UP. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in rats. Comparison between the hydrogen clearance method and laser Doppler flowmetry. Acta Physiol Scan 1988; 134: 133–142.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zinser, G. Scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Current Concepts on Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma. Pillunat LE, Harris A, Anderson DR, Greve EL (eds). Kugler Publications, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1999, pp. 197–204.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles E. Riva
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Research in Ophthalmology, Sion Faculty of MedicineUniversity of LausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations